Military Review

China attracts migrants. Who, from where and why goes to the Celestial?

30
A population leader, China is becoming an increasingly attractive target for foreign migrants. If before the Chinese were traveling in search of a better life in the USA and Russia, to the countries of Southeast Asia and Latin America, now people from other countries travel to China. And this is quite understandable: the Chinese economy is one of the strongest in the world, and China has great potential in the sphere of education, science and culture. With all the uneven distribution of the population in China itself, the large cities of the PRC, located in the east of the country, are facing not only the influx of immigrants from the backward inland areas of the country, but also the growth in the number of foreigners.


It is very difficult to become a citizen of China - for this you have to make a big contribution to the development of the economy, science or culture of China. And it makes no sense to get a Chinese passport for those who want to maintain maximum freedom of movement. It’s more difficult for a Chinese citizen to leave China than a foreigner to enter China. At the same time, China has created quite good conditions for attracting foreigners, be it students and scientists, or businessmen and skilled workers. However, now on the streets of Chinese cities there are enough marginal migrants familiar to European eyes who are busy with unskilled labor or do not work at all, but are interrupted by some dubious earnings.

In the first half of the twentieth century, our compatriots were one of the largest groups of foreign migrants who moved to China. About stories Russian emigration in China there is a large amount of literature - and scientific, and fiction, and journalistic. The centers of Russian emigration were Harbin and Shanghai. In China, various Russian cultural and educational societies, political organizations, and even Cossack organizations with a military hierarchy operated. By 1930, in China there were 125 thousand Russians, thousands of 110 of whom lived in Manchuria. But by 1953, the Russian population in China had shrunk to 23 thousand people. Most of the Russian émigrés left for the United States, Australia, Canada, and the countries of Latin America. In 1954-1961 The centralized repatriation of the Russian population of Manchuria to the Soviet Union was organized. About 20 thousand Russians returned home from Harbin and the nearest regions only. The census conducted in 1982 showed that 2933 Russians remained at that time in the PRC.

China attracts migrants. Who, from where and why goes to the Celestial?


In recent years, there has been a new surge in Russian emigration to China. First of all, students, businessmen and qualified specialists go to China. Despite the fact that in China it is almost impossible to obtain Chinese citizenship, the country has very cheap housing by Russian standards. The same can be said about food, about many household services to the population. It attracts Russians, especially residents of the Far East. Among them there are many pensioners, for whom it is strange to live in China, oddly, cheaper than at home. Pensioners are also attracted by the possibility of obtaining qualified medical care in China, which also costs less than in commercial clinics in Russia. Her one category is the Russian spouses of Chinese citizens. As a rule, these are women who have married Chinese citizens.

In addition, the developing Chinese economy is experiencing the need for qualified specialists of various profiles, and they are ready to pay well - often significantly more than they could receive at home. Of course, we are talking about real experts - programmers, engineers, teachers. The main thing that is required is knowledge of English and, preferably, the basics of Chinese for household communication. It is not by chance that Chinese language courses are being opened in many cities of Russia, and specialists with its knowledge are widely in demand in many firms.
Interestingly, absorbing qualified personnel, China does not stop supplying its own migrants to Russia - as a rule, these are people without education and qualifications working in the field of trade, agriculture or hard physical labor. Interestingly, in China, they are unclaimed due to lack of qualifications, but in Russia they can get a decent job, and if we talk about merchants, they can even get rich.

Another large group of migrants from the former Soviet Union are immigrants from the republics of Central Asia. To begin with, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Kazakhs and Tajiks live in China, so it is to some extent even easier for people from the republics of Central Asia to adapt to life in China. Another thing is that it is primarily about the representatives of the educated part of the population of the Central Asian republics, the “elite children” and businessmen. Unskilled workers in China have enough of their own, and therefore there is no need for visiting janitors and construction laborers. But this does not mean that Central Asians of the most different sex and age do not go to the PRC. Many of them have long been accustomed to work as “shuttles”, transporting cheap goods from China to the markets of the Central Asian republics. A large number of visitors from neighboring Mongolia, as well as from North Korea, also arrive in China.



The development of China’s economic and political ties with African countries, which began in the 1960-1970-s, led to the emergence of diasporas from the African states in the PRC. Today, no one will be surprised by Africans on the streets of Shanghai or Guangzhou, as well as the Chinese - engineers or workers at industrial sites in the countries of the African continent. China has gained access to the most valuable natural resources in many African countries, and in return has provided African governments and companies with impressive loans and written off debts to the poorest African countries. Today, Chinese builders and specialists in various industries are going to work in Africa, and citizens of African states are entering China en masse.

Initially, immigrants from African countries were represented in China, first of all, by students who received education in Chinese universities. Then businessmen reached out, and then people without specific occupations. Most Africans are temporarily in China - there are many “shuttle traders” among them who come to buy goods and go back to Africa. For African entrepreneurs, China is an incredible storehouse of cheap goods that can be taken home and sold there at an exorbitant price.

The most "African" city of China - Guangzhou, since it is located in the south of the country, where the climate is much milder than in the north. The African diaspora in Guangzhou has at least 300 thousand people, and every year the number of the diaspora is further increased by 30% - due to newly arrived migrants. The areas of compact residence of Africans in Guangzhou are called “Chocolate City”, while Africans themselves feel quite at ease in this South China trading city. Sometimes they even lose their sense of reality and start behaving in China not at all as a guest. So, in June, 2012 in Guangzhou, Africans organized riots. The reason for this was the death at the police station of a detainee from Nigeria. Naturally, such bold behavior of migrant youth did not at all contribute to strengthening the confidence of the Chinese to visitors from Africa. Many indigenous people belong to African migrants with a certain degree of caution, and this attitude is reinforced by numerous rumors about the increased criminalization of the African diasporas.

Although there are many students and entrepreneurs engaged in honest business among visiting Africans, the impression about the mores of the diaspora is formed when you look at its most visible part - and this is usually street vendors and idlers, striking their eyes by their noisy behavior. Among Africans in Guangzhou there are many illegal migrants who have long overdue documents, but for fear of the police, they prefer not to change them. Illegal migrants join the ranks of marginal and semi-criminal layers, among them there are many prostitutes and drug traffickers, which also cannot be welcomed by the local population. At the same time, many guests from Africa emphasize that they have never experienced negative attitudes from the Chinese. Chinese people are generally very friendly towards foreigners - but as long as foreigners do not cross certain boundaries and do not begin to strain the Chinese with their behavior.



Africans are perceived by the Chinese along the lines of their own Chinese migrants from the villages - as out-of-date and poorly educated people, moreover, they are not aspiring to learn Chinese. Let's be fair - most of the “Chinese Africans” are to blame for their position. Relative success, primarily as entrepreneurs, was achieved only by no more than 10-15% of the African diaspora. The rest of the Africans are engaged in unskilled labor, working, as a rule, on their own countrymen. They live in isolation, forming African enclaves. Visitors do not like to communicate with Chinese outside of business contacts, although there are also Afro-Chinese marriages. The reluctance to integrate into the host society leads to numerous conflict situations between visitors and local residents, to accidents while fleeing from the police.

The groups of migrants from South and Southeast Asia — Indians, Bangladeshis, Vietnamese, Thai, and Cambodians — are numerous in China. But if people from Southeast Asia are close in mentality and not very striking, then Indians and Bangladeshis attract attention, as do African migrants. Immigrants from India and Bangladesh come to China to work in factories and in agriculture. If earlier the Chinese themselves were considered to be cheap labor, workers and peasants, it turned out that the Indians and Bangladeshis were generally ready to work practically for free — if they were fed. Now even low-income Chinese peasant families in the southern provinces hire workers from among the Indian and Bangladeshi migrants, which is to say about the enterprises, which are also very pleased with the free labor from South Asia.

People from the Arab East are not happy to come to China - with the onset of the destabilization of the political situation in the countries of North Africa and Mesopotamia, even Egyptian, Libyan, Syrian and Iraqi migrants who chose to call themselves "refugees" got to the Middle Kingdom. Unlike immigrants from South Asian countries, Arab migrants are not going to work for pennies in factories or in agriculture, but prefer to engage in trade. Some of them, especially young people, are looking for work in a semi-criminal area, which is about the same as in Europe - drug trafficking, the organization of dens for prostitution. Although, of course, there are among the visitors from the Middle Eastern countries and specialists who simply had to leave their countries, fleeing from wars and riots.

China takes migrants from Arab countries especially seriously. The fact is that in China the problem of Uygur separatism is very acute. The Uighurs, a large Turkic people practicing Sunni Islam, inhabit Eastern Turkestan, now called the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Supporters of the national independence of East Turkestan appeal to the centuries-old traditions of Uyghur statehood, cultural and religious differences of Uygurs and other Muslims of the XUAR from the rest of the Chinese population. In turn, the religious-fundamentalist foundations and organizations from Turkey and Arab countries consider the Uigur population of China as fertile ground for propagating their ideas. Therefore, the Chinese authorities are concerned that, under the guise of students or merchants, emissaries of radical organizations from the Middle East may enter the country.



As in Europe, in China from time to time the police make raids on the places of work and residence of illegal migrants. Only the Chinese police are much tougher than their European counterparts. On average, Chinese law enforcement agencies deport up to 200 thousands of people from the country a year. There is a practice of material remuneration for the Chinese, who inform the police about the whereabouts of illegal migrants. In addition, Chinese authorities are strengthening border controls at the borders with North Korea and Vietnam, from where a large number of illegal migrants also penetrate. But tough measures do not become a significant obstacle to illegal immigrants - their number also increases every year.

At the same time, we should not forget that, fighting against illegal immigration, the Chinese authorities welcome foreigners - investors and qualified specialists who make a significant contribution to the development of the Chinese economy. The policy of restricting the birth rate, which has been implemented in China for many decades, combined with an increase in the standard of living of the population and life expectancy, has led to the aging of the country's population. This problem especially affects the educated strata of the population, who are the main supplier of labor resources for high-tech industries. Therefore, attracting highly qualified foreign specialists is becoming fully justified for China.
Author:
Photos used:
http://www.wbur.org/, experience.tripster.ru, http://www.chinasmack.com/,
30 comments
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 18 July 2016 05: 54
    +1
    Well, one "melting pot" is about to explode, do you need to start the second one?
    1. razmik72
      razmik72 18 July 2016 07: 04
      +3
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Well, one "melting pot" is about to explode, do you need to start the second one?

      A friend of mine moved to China and works there as a teacher of the Chinese language at the university. He confirms the words of the author of the article that consumer goods are very cheap in China, durable goods, etc. My friend also worked in the USA and says that in China for a lower salary you can live better than in the United States. With the author of the article, my friend’s stories do not coincide on only a few points, most likely not that they do not coincide, and the author did not have the goal of fully disclosing all the facets of life in China. My friend says that the police in China is very willing to take bribes, and in general, the culture of taking and giving bribes in China is highly developed, despite harsh repressive measures. In addition, most Chinese are explicit nationalists and are much worse off with blacks than in the United States.
      But in general, the country is good, you can live in it, since a friend so praises China.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 18 July 2016 17: 32
      0
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Well, one "melting pot" is about to explode, do you need to start the second one?

      And I would think in the place of the Chinese, looking at the experience of the United States, but they need it. In the short term (+), and in the distant repetition of the US experience. It’s a pity the Chinese are so smart, smart, but crazy ....
  2. zyablik.olga
    zyablik.olga 18 July 2016 06: 15
    +5
    Quote author:
    strangely enough, living in China is cheaper than at home. Pensioners are also attracted by the possibility of obtaining qualified medical care in China, which also costs less than in commercial clinics in Russia.
    There is nothing strange about this; in a very difficult climate, living in the Russian Far East is very expensive, mostly due to the tariff and tax policies pursued by our leadership. So in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, a liter of 95th gasoline has already exceeded 40 rubles, and kW / hour costs the population 2,9 rubles. Products and services are also more expensive than in the center of Russia, and high "northern" salaries are a thing of the past long ago. For this reason, there is a significant outflow of the population. Since 1991, the number of inhabitants in Komsomolsk has decreased from 330 to 250 thousand people. The population in the city could be even smaller, but many residents from the completely depopulated BAM villages moved to Komsomolsk where there is at least some kind of work.
    1. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem 18 July 2016 07: 07
      -8
      Russia is big .. But Putin is alone. He would have at least 10-15 years to manage .. and your side would have developed.
      1. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 18 July 2016 14: 00
        +6
        Quote: Razvedka_Boem
        Russia is big .. But Putin is alone. He would have at least 10-15 years to manage .. and your side would have developed.


        Another 10-15 years of such a management regime as in Russia - trampling in one place and the country will lag behind even more.

        You come back to Russia from China and you understand that our economy stands still - we have no new production facilities, no modern housing construction with adequate prices, no roads, no high-speed rail ... :(
        You travel across Russia and don’t understand how with such an abundance of land you can live so poorly ?!

        How can business be organized to such an extent that our people do not want (for the most part) to work on the land.
        We have so much land in the country, and Chinese greenhouses work on it, crushing our land with their intensive fertilizers!

        Although we have two things - which China will never have - our girls are the most beautiful and our nature is the most beautiful!
        1. Razvedka_Boem
          Razvedka_Boem 18 July 2016 14: 22
          -3
          The king is made by the retinue. Local officials, especially in the Far East, argue how? - Moscow is far away, but I'm here .. and it started.
          Putin is now more focused on foreign policy, and his team is small, two hands are enough to count and still remain.
          From the side it’s sometimes more visible how lucky you are with GDP.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 18 July 2016 08: 01
      +4
      Quote: zyablik.olga
      There is nothing strange about this, with a very difficult climate, living in the Russian Far East is very expensive.

      And I support and confirm. In Blagoveshchensk, electricity is even more expensive; 3.37 per kWh. This is despite the fact that two hydroelectric power stations, one hydroelectric power station and another hydroelectric power station are under construction. But in China, the wires are already buzzing from the load. Gasoline seems to be the same. rented and bought in Hay-He. Opposite Blagoveshchensk. Well, constant flights between the Russian Federation and the PRC in summer in motor ships, in winter in buses, and in the off-season hovercraft.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 19 July 2016 06: 41
        +1
        Quote: Amurets
        And I support and confirm. In Blagoveshchensk, electricity is even more expensive; 3.37 kW / kW / hour. This is despite the fact that two hydroelectric power stations, one hydroelectric power station and another hydroelectric power station are under construction in the region.

        Hi Nikolay! Olga probably made a mistake or wrote the price of the night tariff. In Komsomolsk, kW / hour costs 3, 83 rubles, but otherwise everything is true.
    3. Lyubopyatov
      Lyubopyatov 18 July 2016 16: 07
      +1
      One hand promises a hectare of land (neither this or that) moving to the Far East, the other hand makes it impossible to live there. Is that all with which head is being decided?
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 18 July 2016 08: 03
    +5
    Quote: Razvedka_Boem
    Russia is big .. But Putin is alone. He would have at least 10-15 years to manage .. and your side would have developed.

    Putin visits the Far East, more often than in Sochi, but apart from the Vostochny cosmodrome, no progress is visible anywhere.
    1. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem 18 July 2016 14: 24
      -2
      Presidential decrees can simply be sabotaged locally. To solve the problem radically, drastic measures are needed. Are you ready for this?
      The creation of the National Guard, subordinate only to the president, is one of these stages of preparation for cardinal actions.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 19 July 2016 06: 44
        +1
        Quote: Razvedka_Boem
        Presidential decrees can simply be sabotaged locally. To solve the problem radically, drastic measures are needed. Are you ready for this?

        Well of course 15 years sabotaged fool During this time, you can 10 times thoroughly understand the situation in the country and bring to justice negligent local officials. Only Putin need it?
        1. Razvedka_Boem
          Razvedka_Boem 19 July 2016 07: 02
          0
          It is necessary, and more than you might think. Since the whole picture is visible from its place, and not as to us, particularly. And again, repeat - Russia is big, but he is alone. Physically, he inter-do everything and do everything for everyone. Also, the population of Russia itself is for the most part inert. Mostly scolded, but they themselves do not really want to do something. And Moscow is generally another state. Several times I was there on business trips .. Half of the locals are aliens ..)
          1. Bongo
            Bongo 19 July 2016 07: 19
            +2
            Quote: Razvedka_Boem
            It is necessary, and more than you might think.

            It is funny when a citizen of another state undertakes to discuss this. Do not you think that I living in the Far East should know better whether he needs it or not? No. Most of the population does not live here, but survives! sad And what should I do, protecting the interests of the state all my conscious life and paying taxes, so that our country would develop like the PRC? Tales about the fact that "he is alone and physically he cannot do everything and do everything for everyone" are no longer rolled out for the majority. negative
            1. Razvedka_Boem
              Razvedka_Boem 19 July 2016 16: 33
              0
              Why is it funny? You do not know who I am. Perhaps I work in the analytical department, having access to materials that are not in the media and our reports are laid down on the table by the highest managers. Or maybe not.
              You have a situation where you cannot see the forest behind the trees. I am for a strong Russia. I grew up on "Moscow is the capital of our Motherland". And my remarks, these are just notes of a person who is not indifferent to what is happening with you.
              Py.Sy. When watching international competitions, any, I always cheer for ours .., picking up on it, the whole former USSR.
              1. Bongo
                Bongo 20 July 2016 01: 32
                +1
                Quote: Razvedka_Boem
                Why is it funny? You do not know who I am. Perhaps I work in the analytical department, having access to materials that are not in the media and our reports are laid down on the table by the highest managers.

                I am absolutely indifferent to who you work in your own Uzbekistan, as well as to you what I have been doing for the last 25 years. And why did you decide that I am poorly informed and do not "see the forest behind the trees"? I see that nothing has been done for 15 years, and by and large no one is fighting a high-ranking thief.
  4. Was mammoth
    Was mammoth 18 July 2016 08: 28
    +4
    "Interestingly, absorbing qualified personnel, China does not stop supplying its own migrants to Russia - as a rule, these are people without education and qualifications working in the field of trade, agriculture or hard physical labor. Interestingly, in China, they are unclaimed due to lack of qualifications, but in Russia they can get a decent job, and if we talk about merchants, they can even get rich. "
    We can add that recently there was news about the transfer of chemical plants to the territory of Russia. Well, and harmful production, you know where to transfer it.
    I suppose that the attitude of the Chinese towards Russia as a successful person towards a strong neighbor who squanders what his ancestors have acquired, and even once he chopped off a couple of hundred parts from him.
  5. Tsoy
    Tsoy 18 July 2016 09: 13
    0
    Quote: There was a mammoth
    Interestingly, absorbing qualified personnel, China does not stop supplying its own migrants to Russia


    So their kakbe 2 billion ... They can populate the entire continent and still someone will stay at home.
    1. Lyubopyatov
      Lyubopyatov 18 July 2016 16: 11
      0
      There won't even be a billion of them. It is necessary to study the historical statistics to be convinced of this. The myth of a billion Chinese is a scarecrow for other states, for Russia and America. Recently I read calculations on this topic, it seems, in the Political Review.
      1. Tsoy
        Tsoy 18 July 2016 17: 20
        +1
        1 379 146 215
        Population
        706 719 977
        Male population (51.2%)
        672 426 238
        Female population (48.8%)
        9 357 877
        Born this year
        43 547
        Born today
        5 371 976
        Died this year
        24 999
        Died today
        22 477
        Migrated this year
        105
        Migrated today
        4 008 378
        Population growth this year
        18 653
        Population growth today



        Information from the National Bureau of Statistics of China. Myth?
    2. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 19 July 2016 02: 22
      0
      There are about 1 billion 400 million. I agree, this is also a gigantic figure. But it’s still not 2 billion. It’s the same as saying about the Russians that we are 200 million, although in reality we are about 150 million.
  6. dojjdik
    dojjdik 18 July 2016 09: 14
    0
    Tiananmen Square is where everything was done right; and here, when Yelkin rushed between the American embassy and the government house where he was before the KGB, where the coward had gone, the CIA agents staged a military coup in the center of Moscow from stupid youth and their henchmen called loudly the revolution and we are still out of it we cannot go out; so the Chinese should carry their tankers in their arms
    1. razmik72
      razmik72 18 July 2016 09: 56
      -1
      Quote: dojjdik
      Tiananmen Square is where everything was done right; and here, when Yelkin rushed between the American embassy and the government house where he was before the KGB, where the coward had gone, the CIA agents staged a military coup in the center of Moscow from stupid youth and their henchmen called loudly the revolution and we are still out of it we cannot go out; so the Chinese should carry their tankers in their arms

      The forum users have long known about your aspirations to solve all complex issues with tank tracks. smile .
  7. Fqacelive
    Fqacelive 18 July 2016 10: 51
    0
    I don’t agree about the culture ..
  8. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 18 July 2016 14: 23
    +3
    I love the fact that they are completing their endeavors in China
    They said - in 2 years there will be Shanghai Beijing high-speed rail - and for sure, in two years already traveled by railway - 300 km per hour.
    The minister responsible for the construction of the HSR in China got caught on kickbacks, as many as 16 thousand dollars (note a million) - kickbacks in the form of paid rest were planted.
    The mayor of Shanghai got bribes for the distribution of land for development - they shot him ... We have Luzhka calmly living), the case of the PROKURORS - safely collapsed - the defendants are free (Ignatenko will be released soon), Madame Taburetkin’s lover is free. In general, the equality of the law - but for some it is more equal ...
  9. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 18 July 2016 14: 24
    +2
    In general, doing business in China is much easier. Yes, they also love bribes, but it is not necessary to give them, you just get land, connection, road, tax benefits - but a little longer. In Russia, you’ll get all this horseradish.

    And as an engineer, I like the abundance of mechanical production in China and when assembling a machine (machine, tractor, special equipment) you can choose from 7-8 manufacturers of engines, 10-12 manufacturers of hydraulics, axles, gearboxes, other components and assemble an assembly with the necessary properties, quality and at the price and as a rule - the quality will be better than the Russian one, the price is one and a half times lower (even with the current rate), and there will be a lot of configuration options and it will all be fast.
    And in our country, the giants that have survived from the USSR are almost monopolists. Engine manufacturers - about two three ... and that's it. They are interested in deliveries by carriage standards and no one wants to contact small batches of orders, which completely kills any possibility of building new prototypes of equipment. Manufacturers of spare parts and components are so scarce - that is ridiculous to talk about.
    In general, we have flexible, reconfigurable mechanical production in the PRC and outdated, poorly reconfigurable production — the successor of the USSR, almost unchanged, with the exception of a narrow number of defense plants.
  10. Greenwood
    Greenwood 18 July 2016 16: 30
    +1
    I always come from China as bewitched. I am amazed at the pace of construction of their cities, the speed with which they erect another skyscraper, suspension bridge, junction or high-speed railway line. And all this is built without undue noise, without PR for the whole world, cheaply and quickly.
    The other day I came from Japan, there is generally a different world with its parallel reality. I would say this world already lives in the near future, to which we saw and saw. And all this, without oil, gas and other natural resources.
    And frankly, after such trips, it’s very painful to watch native groomed streets, broken pit-on-pit roads, endless patching that lasts until the first rain, unfinished roads for years, endless traffic jams, and also permanent bureaucracy and corruption, loans under 20-30% (in Japan, the norm is 1-1,5%), rudeness and lack of culture in society, etc. etc. What is wrong with us, why, having so many resources, we live in such crap?!?!
    1. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem 18 July 2016 17: 48
      0
      There is no short answer to your question and never will be. And the long one just doesn’t fit here) If you really care, then on the Internet there are quite serious forums that will help you find the answer. Who seeks will always find.