Military Review

Awakening airplane EC-121 Warning Star

63
Awakening airplane EC-121 Warning Star


The first AWACS aircraft in the United States were created during the Second World War. An acute need for such machines appeared after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. US admirals wanted to receive information about the approaching enemy aircraft with a margin of time sufficient to lift fighters into the air. In addition, radar patrol aircraft could control the actions of their own aviation away from the aircraft carrier.

The first American “flying radar” TBM-3W with the APS-20 radar was built on the basis of the Avenger torpedo bomber. The HTVM-3W prototype took off for the first time in August 1944, and the U.S. Navy, faced with kamikaze attacks in the battles for Okinawa, ordered the immediate conversion of 40 TVM-3 and TVM-3E aircraft to the TVM-3W radar patrol aircraft. However, these machines did not have time for war, the first operational unit with combat-ready TVM-3W appeared in the squad fleet only at the beginning of 1946.

Operation TVM-3W on the decks of aircraft carriers and coastal airfields allowed to accumulate the necessary experience and formulate requirements for the “flying radar” of the next generation. An understanding came to the US military that along with a compact carrier-based aircraft, a coast-based vehicle with a greater range and time in the air was also needed. In addition, the use of a more spacious four-engine platform made it possible to improve working conditions, increase the number of crew members and radar power.

In the 1945 year, the X-NUMX bomber B-24G, after installing the APS-17 radar, was operated by the US Air Force under the designation PB-20W. They did not have time to take part in the war, as well as TVM-1W, but they continued service until 3, until they were replaced by airborne radar patrols WV-1955.

In 1951, three B-29 bombers were converted into Air Force WB-29 airplanes for the Air Force, and the APS-20А improved radar was installed on these vehicles. Unlike the Evenger, long-range bombers had a significantly longer patrol time. But the possibilities of an already aging locator with a range of 50 detection miles were no longer satisfied with the military.

When creating the next aircraft of the radar patrol, American experts turned their attention to the Lockheed C-69 Constellation ("Constellation"). This four-engine military transport vehicle, since 1944, has been used by the US military for long-haul transport. In general, the aircraft proved to be good, during the war they managed to build 22 units, but after the end of hostilities, large-scale orders from the military department, which Lockheed’s management was counting on, did not follow.


Lockheed C-69 Constellation


In the post-war time, a passenger airliner L-69 was created on the basis of the C-049 military transport, but it was difficult for it to compete with the Douglas DC-6. Airlines bought the Douglas aircraft much more readily, besides, an excess of aircraft was observed in the US civilian transport segment immediately after the war, as there were many demobilized low-cost cars in the market that are in very good condition. In this regard, in general, a very good airliner L-049 was little in demand.

Some airlines purchased the “Constellation” for long-haul routes, so Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) from 5 February 1946 used the upgraded Lockheed L-749 Constellation with an increased fuel supply and enhanced chassis for transatlantic flights. In 1948, the military transport C-121А appeared, distinguished by a reinforced floor and a large aft cargo door. In 1947, the United States Air Force, the United States Air Force (USAF) signed a contract with Lockheed for ten transport aircraft. In 1950, six C-121A were converted for the transportation of VIPs and renamed VC-121A, three of which were used for foreign official visits by President Dwight Eisenhower.


VC-121A Dwight Eisenhower


It was on the basis of C-121A that the United States Navy (USN) decided to build coastal-based AWACS aircraft under the designation PO-1W (later WV-1). The first flight of the RO-1W took place on 9 on June 1949 of the year. Radome radomes on this aircraft were placed in the lower and upper fuselage.


PO-1W at Barbers Point airport in 1952


The first aircraft of the radar and PO-1W surveillance, in fact, were flying laboratories, and there were few of them built. At the two PO-1W, equipment was tested and the procedure for maintaining duty in the air was tested. It soon became clear that the composition of the radar equipment and its placement is not optimal. After renaming to WV-1, the aircraft were transferred to the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), where they were used until the 1959 year.

At the end of the 40s, Lockheed’s specialists attempted to increase the aircraft’s payload and fuel efficiency by lengthening the fuselage. But at that moment there were no suitable engines for them. In 1953, the Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation was lengthened by 18 feet (5,5 m). The new modification used Wright R-3350 stepped turbo piston engines. The Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone family of engines was one of the most powerful serial piston engines, representing an air-cooled twin turbocharged 18-cylinder star. Originally, these engines were used on B-29 bombers.

On serial military transport aircraft installed four engines Wright R-3350-75 2500 horsepower. each. The Super Constellation passenger aircraft served as the basis for the C-121C BTS, and based on this variant, the AEW PO-1953W was created in 2. The initial order involved building 10 machines.


The third built instance of PO-2W during a test flight


In contrast to the PO-1W, the extended PO-2W with the new engines were already fully valuable airspace control planes. When designing them, the drawbacks of the previous model were taken into account. On the PO-2W mounted advanced radar APS-20 and radar APS-45.

The advanced radar APS-20E with peak power up to 2 MW operated at the frequency 2880 MHz, it detected large surface targets at a distance of up to 300 km. The detection range of the B-29 bomber flying at an altitude of 7000 meters at the APS-20E station was 150 km, and the F-86 fighter - 115 km. The detection range of the APS-45 station operating at 9375 MHz in the lower hemisphere was 200 km. The crew of the PO-2W initially consisted of 18 people, six of them officers (two pilots, two navigators, two senior shift officers) and an 12 private man (two flight engineers, one radio operator, two shift commanders of operators, five radar operators, two radar equipment). In later versions with extended equipment, the crew size was 26 people.


Workplace operator radar APS-45


In 1954, PO-2W was renamed WV-2. Aircraft arrived at the disposal of the Navy and from 1956 to 1965. used in the "Barrier forces." By the beginning of the mass entry of radar patrol aircraft into the US Navy, the admirals' views on their use had changed. Instead of covering aircraft carrier groups, the main task was to ensure the air defense of the continental US. AWACS airplanes became part of the so-called “Atlantic barrier” created in 1956, and 1958 became part of the “Pacific Barrier”. However, the WV-2 were not the only means of controlling the air situation along the western and eastern coasts of the United States. Coastal radar stations, radar patrol ships (converted Liberty transport ships and destroyers), as well as ZPG-2W and ZPG-3W balloons were linked to a single alert network. The main purpose of the "Barrier Forces", located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States, was to control the airspace with a view to early warning of the approaching Soviet bomber. “Barrier forces” were complementary to the DEW-line radar stations located in Alaska, Canada and Greenland.

The first airplanes of the ARLO entered two squadrons at Patuxent River, and another squadron was deployed in Canada in the Newfoundland and Barbers Point areas. After the US Navy tested the WV-2 for six months and eliminated the "childhood sores", an order was placed for another 132 DRLO aircraft. The following options are more advanced avionics. The outdated morally and physically designed APS-20 radar, which was designed during World War II, was replaced by a modern AN / APS-95 station operating in the 406-450 MHz frequency band. The AN / APS-95 station could see surface and air targets at a distance of up to 400 km.

Even at the design stage, the designers paid great attention to the usability and living conditions of the crew and operators of radio-electronic systems, as well as ensuring the protection of personnel from microwave radiation. The patrol time was usually 12 hours at altitudes from 4000 to 7000 meters, but sometimes the flight duration reached 20 hours. Due to the fact that the duration of the flight often exceeded 12 hours, there was a fridge on board with a supply of food, a kitchen and places to rest.

For the Navy, Lockheed offered the XW2V-1 long-range radar patrol aircraft with Allison T56 turboprop engines based on the Lockheed L-1249 Super Constellation airliner. He was supposed to have greater flight speed and carry radars of a new generation, in addition, the plane was supposed to equip missiles "air-to-air". That is, besides the DRLO functions, the new machine could be used as a locking interceptor. However, this project did not interest the military, and not a single prototype was ever built.



“Flying radars” patrolling on the Atlantic coast flew to the Azores, and Greenland, Iceland and the British Isles were also in their area of ​​responsibility. The aircraft made an intermediate landing at the Keflavik airbase in Iceland. In the Pacific, taking off from Barbers Point, the WV-2 sometimes flew to Hawaii and made an intermediate landing at Midway airfield. For a complete radar coverage, five aircraft of the radar patrol had to be on the patrol route. At the same time, they worked closely with the ships of the US Navy. To ensure round-the-clock duty in the air, taking into account possible technical problems, it was necessary to have nine cars.

In 1962, the WV-2 received the designation EC-121C Warning Star, and already in 1965, the operations of “Barrier forces” were discontinued. First of all, this was due to the fact that the main threat to the territory of the United States was presented not by Soviet long-range bombers, but by ICBMs that could not be detected in time by DRLO planes. Approximately half of the first series of EC-121C aircraft. owned by the Navy, was sent to the storage base "Davis Montand" or they were converted for other purposes. 13 naval aircraft AWACS WV-2 converted into aircraft reconnaissance WV-2Q. They were used in the squadrons PTR VQ-1 (Pacific Fleet) and VQ-2 (Atlantic).

Several aircraft as a result of the replacement of the electronic filling changed their specialization. Eight WV-3 (WC-121N) were used for weather reconnaissance and typhoon tracking. For this purpose, the full-range radars of the AWACS aircraft were upgraded, which made it possible to stay outside the storm wind zone and observe the whirlwind from a safe distance. However, the service of hurricane catchers was quite dangerous. 1 August 1964, the Hurricane Clio heavily battered board No.137891. The plane deformed the fuselage of the aircraft, cut off the end fuel tanks, and destroyed most of the on-board electronics. Nevertheless, the crew managed to safely land the non-recoverable car.

The remaining machines have undergone refurbishment and modernization, and were used to monitor the airspace of Cuba, the USSR, the People's Republic of China and the DPRK. The aircraft were based on Atsugi air bases in Japan, Rota in Spain, Jacksonville in Florida, Roosevelt Rhodes, in Puerto Rico and Agana on Guam.


NC-121C


The aircraft, designated NC-121С, received a set of equipment for the production of radio-electronic interference. This machine was used mainly as a “training desk” in the training of specialists in the field of electronic warfare. In addition, the NC-121C exercises often imitated Soviet EW airplanes, from which they interfered with American ground, sea and aircraft radar. The aircraft under the number 141292 served in the 33 th tactical squadron of the Navy (VAQ-33) stationed at the air base "Key West" to 1982 year, after which he was sent to the "graveyard of bones" in "David Montand."


WV-2E


In 1957, a flying laboratory WV-2E was built with radar AN / APS-82, which had a rotating antenna in a disk-shaped fairing. Thanks to this solution, the possibilities for detecting air targets against the background of the earth have increased. But the aircraft "Varning Star" with a rotating antenna was built in a single copy. An advanced circular radar station capable of detecting targets against the background of the earth showed no high reliability and required fine-tuning. In addition, a serious lack of aircraft with relatively low-power piston engines was a small practical ceiling (the higher the radar is located, the greater the range it can cover).

Somewhat later than in the fleet, the EU-121 was adopted in the US Air Force. In this case, features of operation and disadvantages of early models were taken into account. The first in the Air Force became 10 RC-121C, originally intended for the fleet. On these machines, the outdated APS-20 radar was immediately replaced by AN / APS-95. In the EU-121C air force, they brought together specially formed 551-e and 552-e wings of the ARLO and controls deployed at Otis airbases (pc. Mass.) And Mac Killan (pc. California). But the EU-121C century in the Air Force was short-lived, after the appearance of more advanced modifications of the Warning Starov, they were all rushed to transfer them to the reserve and convert them into TC-121C training planes, which were intended to train the DRLO aircraft operators.


EC-121D


Soon EC-121D became the main one for the Air Force; this model differed from the earlier modifications with improved equipment for the operators cabin and increased fuel reserves. Total Air Force 1952-1954 received 72 new RC-121D. Another 73-th copy of this modification was obtained by refitting one of the military transport C-121C.


LTH EC-121D


The introduction of the SAGE fighter-interceptor automatic guidance system in the USA and Canada required the modernization of the EC-121D aircraft equipment so that they could interact with this system. In 1962, the retrofit of DRLO aircraft began with automatic data transmission equipment to ground control points of the air defense system. The antenna of the repeater was mounted in a small fairing at the top of the fuselage. In total, such transmitters received an 42 aircraft. Machines with automated radar information repeaters are designated EC-121Н and EC-121J. These aircraft differed among themselves in the composition of the avionics of operators' workplaces. The regular number of crew members on later EU-121 modifications reached 26 people.

The introduction of the SAGE fighter-interceptor automatic guidance system in the USA and Canada required the modernization of the EC-121D aircraft equipment so that they could interact with this system. In 1962, the retrofit of DRLO aircraft began with automatic data transmission equipment to ground control points of the air defense system. The antenna of the repeater was mounted in a small fairing at the top of the fuselage. In total, such transmitters received an 42 aircraft. Machines with automated radar information repeaters are designated EC-121Н and EC-121J. These aircraft differed among themselves in the composition of the avionics of operators' workplaces. The regular number of crew members on later EU-121 modifications reached 26 people.



The most perfect, but not numerous, modification of the “Warning Starov” in the Air Force was the EU-121Q. On this plane the radar AN / APS-45 were replaced by the radar AN / APS-103. The new radar allowed to stably see targets against the background of the earth's surface. Four EU-121Q aircraft became part of the 966 Airborne Wing and control wing at McCoy (Florida). At the very end of 60-x, the seven EC-121H and 15 EC-121D received a new friend-and-other equipment and improved means of displaying radar information. This variant was designated EC-121T. In 1973, part of the EC-121T was equipped with radio intelligence and jamming stations AN / ALQ-124.

In the 60-70, the currently neglected EU-121 Warning Star was one of the symbols of the Cold War, along with the B-52 Stratofortress bomber, the P-3 Orion base patrol, or the F-4 Phantom II fighter. The first hot spot for the EU-121 was Cuba. The southern tip of the state of Florida was, what is called, “one step” away from the Cuban coast. A fighter flying at a speed of sound could cover a distance of 100 km in approximately 5 minutes. After the modern “flying radars” delivered by the USSR from modern Soviet combat aircraft appeared in Cuba, they began to control the “Isles of Freedom” airspace. In addition to tracking EU-121 airplanes taking off from Cuban airfields, they escorted and provided information support to high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft U-2 regularly flying over the island. Particularly close attention to Cuba was the beginning of the "Caribbean crisis." After the parties agreed, and the missiles from the island were withdrawn, tensions in this region significantly decreased, however, the EU-121 patrol flights around Cuba continued until the decommissioning of these aircraft.

As with many other American aircraft, the war in Southeast Asia was the EU-121 combat debut. In 1965, the Committee of the Chiefs of Staff of the United States Armed Forces decided to send three EC-121Ds from the 552 air wing to the combat zone. However, the aircraft did not head to South Vietnam, but to Taiwan, at the beginning of 1967, the Ubon became the home base in Thailand. In 1965, the activity of the airplanes of the DRV was small, the main task of the crews of the “Warning Star” was the control of air traffic in the airspace of South Vietnam, as well as the navigation support of the airplanes involved in the attacks on the DRV. However, as early as 1967, the DRLO aircraft began to coordinate the actions of American aviation in the conduct of air battles with North Vietnamese MiGs.

In the middle of 1970, due to flight safety problems and the destructive influence of the tropical climate on avionics, EC-121D aircraft were withdrawn from Thailand. But the commanders of the aviation units directly involved in the hostilities, left without the support of airborne patrols, persistently demanded their return. By the time the MiG-21 Air Force DRV already represented a serious threat to American aircraft. DRLO aircraft returned to Korat air base in Thailand in November 1970 of the year. These were the seven modernized EC-121T 552 th wing of the AEW and EW. Varning Stary carried out combat missions up to 15 August 1973, operating, including from the Thai airbase Ubon. Thanks to the timely information received from the DRLO planes, it was possible to thwart several attacks of the Serovietnam MiGs. In addition, the EC-121T radars repeatedly recorded launches of the C-75 air defense missile system against American bomber aircraft located in the airspace of the DRV. This made it possible to carry out evasive maneuvers in a timely manner, use countermeasures and determine the location of the air defense system positions.

The EU-121 in Southeast Asia on 13921 departures flew 98699 hours without sustaining combat losses, although several attempts were made to break through to them the air forces of the DRV. Usually, while on duty, the EC-121 covered the “Phantoms” link. With the information support of Warning Star, a half dozen MiGs were shot down in air battles, about 135000 strike aircraft were carried out and more than 80 search and rescue and special operations were conducted.

Speaking about DRLO airplanes, it is worth mentioning about other vehicles from the “Constellation” family. Five EU-121Cs were converted by the EU-121R Batcat, these reconnaissance planes flying over South Vietnam, received information over the air from a network of reconnaissance acoustic and seismic sensors scattered from the air. Analyzing the information obtained from the EU-121R reconnaissance aircraft, the American command decided to strike at various parts of the jungle, thus trying to prevent the guerrilla from covert movement. The value of ground reconnaissance was particularly high at night, when it was difficult to conduct a visual aerial reconnaissance mission.

EC-121R Batcat


The EC-121R Batcat aircraft were camouflaged to make it difficult to detect against the ground. In Vietnam, lost two such aircraft. One crashed while landing 6 September 1969 of the year. Another 25 was lost on April 1969, it is believed that he crashed during a thunderstorm.

The electronic intelligence aircraft received the designation EC-121M. Several of these machines also operated from air bases located in Thailand. In addition to determining the coordinates of the radar and the characteristics of high-frequency radiation, radio-electronic intelligence officers were able to intercept messages transmitted from VHF radio stations and radio relay links. From July 1970 to January 1971, five EW EC-121S EW aircraft from the 193 Squadron of Electronic Warfare operated in Southeast Asia. In addition to jamming, the radio-electronic equipment of these aircraft made it possible to fix the work of on-board radio sources of Soviet-made fighter aircraft.

Service aircraft DRLO, EW and electronic reconnaissance of the family "Constellation" lasted in the US for almost 30 years. EC-121 was serially built from 1953 to 1958 year. At the end of 50, the new RC-121D cost the American treasury more than $ 2 million. According to American data, the 232 of the aircraft was transferred to the Air Force and Naval Forces during this time, but, apparently, this number includes not only the radar patrol aircraft, but also other special modifications. At the same time, most of the built aircraft were repeatedly subjected to re-equipment and modernization, mainly related to the "electronic stuffing". Computer-controlled automated systems were introduced into its structure. The transition from electrovacuum devices to solid-state electronics made it possible to reduce the weight of the equipment and its energy consumption.

EU-121 aircraft of all modifications were used extensively on the front lines of the Cold War. In 60-70, these vehicles often made provocative flights, keeping the Soviet air defense system in suspense. Often, to expel them from the Soviet airspace had to fly into the air fighters. Over the years, the service of the US Navy in flight accidents has lost 20 EC-121, while 113 crew members died. The Air Force, in turn, lost 5 aircraft, 50 people died in disasters.



But not all of the “Warning Olds” were lost for “natural reasons,” it is reliably known about one aircraft shot down, although there could be more. 15 April 1969 of the reconnaissance EC-121M with the tactical number "PR-21" from the squadron of airborne electronic reconnaissance VQ-1 US Navy in 07: 00 local time took off from Atsugi air base in Japan. The plane headed for the north-west of the Sea of ​​Japan, the crew intended to fly along the air border with the Soviet Union and the DPRK. After completing the mission, EC-121M was supposed to land at Osan airbase in South Korea. In the past, this and other similar aircraft have already performed about 200 reconnaissance flights along this route. The flight was carried out in the interests of the Seventh Fleet intelligence services, the United Asia-Pacific Command and the US National Security Agency. Onboard was a 31 man. In addition to pilots, navigators, flight engineers, management officers, radar operators and technicians serving electronic equipment, the crew included linguists who knew Russian and Korean. The crew commander had instructions not to approach closer than 50 nautical miles (90 km) to the North Korean coast.

After takeoff, the aircraft maintained contact and radar contact with Hakata and Yokota air bases in Japan. At the same time, American radio interception stations in Japan and South Korea controlled the radio networks of the Soviet and North Korean air defense forces. In 10.15, signals from the DPRK were intercepted indicating that a US reconnaissance aircraft was detected, but since the EU-121M was going outside of North Korea’s airspace, this activity was considered not dangerous. Radars in South Korea recorded several MiG-17 and MiG-21s taking off in the Wonsan area, but soon lost sight of them. Near 14: 00 local time, communication with the EU-121M has been lost. After 10 minutes, two F-106 Delta Dart interceptors went up from the airfield in South Korea to monitor, but they could not detect the Warning Star radar from the screens.



A few hours later, a search and rescue operation began, search HC-90 Hercules and KC-167A Stratotanker were sent to the alleged site of a fall of approximately 130 nautical miles (135 km) from the North Korean port of Tengdeena. From the Japanese port "Sasebo" in search of the left two American destroyers.

The first results were obtained the next day, approximately at 09: 30 in the morning. The American anti-submarine aircraft P-3B Orion found two Soviet destroyers, 56 Ave and 61 Ave., in the area and made radio contact with them. From the Soviet ships reported the detection of wreckage. The American destroyer "Henry W. Tucker" arrived at the crash site and received wreckage from the destroyer "Inspirational" on board the destroyer, after which the ships of the Pacific Fleet left the search area. Americans among the wreckage could detect the bodies of two crew members of the missing EU-121M. Soon, due to the nature of the damage to some fragments of the found debris, the Americans concluded that their reconnaissance aircraft was shot down by a K-13 missile. Apparently, the EU-121M was attacked by the North Korean MiG-21.

Soon, official representatives of the DPRK said that the American "spy plane" was shot down after it invaded the DPRK airspace. A special piquancy to this incident comes from the fact that the attack on “Warning Star” occurred on 15 on April 1969 of the year - on the day of the celebration of 57 on Kim Il Sung’s birthday. It may also be recalled that shortly before this 23 in January of 1968, an incident occurred with the American reconnaissance vessel Pueblo. After the shelling of the DPRK warships, the Pueblo was escorted to the North Korean port of Wonsan. The United States had to apologize publicly and admit the invasion of North Korean territorial waters in exchange for the promise of the DPRK authorities to release the captured American sailors. After the whole world learned that the American plane was shot down by a North Korean fighter, there were no serious consequences for the DPRK. After receiving information about the destruction of the EU-121M, the US leadership initially ordered to send a squadron of ships to the shores of North Korea. The largest ships of the squadron would be the nuclear aircraft carrier Enterprise, the aircraft carriers Ticonderoga, Ranger, Hornet and the battleship New Jersey. Hundreds of bomber and tactical squadron aircraft were additionally transferred to South Korea. But in the end, the Nixon administration chose not to exacerbate the situation against the background of the extremely militant rhetoric of the DPRK leadership.


EC-121D at the United States National Air Force Museum


At the end of the 70, the EU-121 began to be replaced in squadrons of the radar patrol with AWACS E-3A AWACS aircraft based on the passenger Boeing 707-300B. After the EU-121 airplanes were put into stock, until the end of the 80-x they were based on the storage of the aviation equipment "Davis Montand" in Arizona, after which they were divided into metal. Currently, American museums exhibit 11 of surviving EU-121 of various modifications.

Based on:
//www.dean-boys.com/ec-121.htm
//www.historynet.com/ec-121-warning-star.htm
//fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/ec-121.htm
//www.airwar.ru/enc/spy/ec121.html
//kimepoha.do.am/publ/7-1-0-47
//www.alternatewars.com/BBOW/Radar/APS_Series.htm
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  1. Simpsonian
    Simpsonian 15 July 2016 06: 16
    +1
    "Do not aggravate" - constantly, together with the Japanese, they themselves detain North Korean ships, fire and sink
    1. Bongo
      15 July 2016 06: 32
      +4
      Quote: Simpsonian
      "Do not aggravate" - constantly, together with the Japanese, they themselves detain North Korean ships, fire and sink

      Excuse me, from this place, please, in more detail, when was the "North Korean ship" last sunk?
      1. Simpsonian
        Simpsonian 15 July 2016 06: 50
        +1
        I don’t know the last one, you can look at these
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-kH3Y74UCs
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4TCqcWkDM0
        1. Bongo
          15 July 2016 07: 00
          +5
          Quote: Simpsonian
          I don’t know the last one, you can look at these
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-kH3Y74UCs
          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4TCqcWkDM0

          And what kind of vessels are they? Do you know from the name where and when it happened? For that matter, our border service has repeatedly bombarded and drowned Russian fishing vessels engaged in poaching. In general, in the waters adjacent to the Republic of Korea and the DPRK there is actually an ongoing war. And the DPRK in its attacks and shellings is clearly the leader.
          1. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 15 July 2016 07: 25
            +1
            Russian and Russian, why not Chinese like Argentina? hit your own so that strangers are afraid?

            one vessel was reportedly carrying drugs and practiced bombing, the other - espionage.
            all in neutral waters

            the media are clearly the leaders in the lie
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 15 July 2016 10: 34
              +3
              Quote: Simpsonian
              Russian and Russian, why not Chinese like Argentina? hit your own so that strangers are afraid?

              Our Chinese also drowned. In 2009 PSKR "Primorye" with fire from AK-230 sank the dry cargo ship "New Star" (5178 t DVT).

              And the Albatross-101 shown in the photo was sunk due to the fact that it finally got the border guards by illegal fishing and attempts to escape detention. As a result, when the aforementioned trawler was once again found by a fish patrol vessel hunting for crabs in the territorial waters and once again tried to get away from the patrol and border guards, ignoring all their warnings and demands, the An-72P patrolman opened fire to kill. GSh-23 and S-5 left no chance for the trawler.
          2. Amurets
            Amurets 15 July 2016 08: 55
            +6
            Quote: Bongo
            In general, in the waters adjacent to the Republic of Korea and the DPRK there is actually an ongoing war. And the DPRK in its attacks and shellings is clearly the leader.

            Sergei, I don’t understand what the dispute is about? The DPRK is always borzels beyond measure. You gave two examples, and how many examples were given by men who went to the Republic of Korea for "BUSH LEGS" in the 90s. And the last hello with our yacht is indicative. These are claims not to you, but to your opponent. We know what our neighbors are. And the article is good. I just forgot about this car.
            http://joinfo.ua/inworld/1168208_Kak-proishodil-zahvat-rossiyskoy-yahti-Severnoy

            .html
            1. Simpsonian
              Simpsonian 17 July 2016 04: 48
              0
              If you have any complaints, then quote me.
              Did the yacht seem to be released in a day? How much North Korea sank Russian ships?

              One North Korean ship was hit with laser-guided F-111 bombs on YouTube, because it was allegedly "carrying drugs", the ship was loaded into dust, the entire crew was killed.
              No one was going to prove anything
              The second ship, they say, was "spy" but was sunk while trying to detain it in neutral waters (the entire crew was killed). Who cares about spyware or not?
              So under "spyware" you can set fire to and drown any Soviet or Russian crabs anywhere.

              Were the legs Korean or American?
              In South Korea, they communicated with the South Koreans, and not with the North.
              1. Bongo
                17 July 2016 04: 52
                +4
                Quote: Simpsonian
                One North Korean vessel following a YouTube link was hit with F-111 laser-guided bombs

                Dear, when was it? How many years ago was the F-111 retired? what
                Quote: Simpsonian
                If you some claims then quote me.

                Man is not rude to you No. Kindly communicate with those who are much older than you on You.
                1. Simpsonian
                  Simpsonian 17 July 2016 05: 10
                  -1
                  Was it or not? In Australia recently. Signatures about where it was and when it is under the video.

                  Since 1992 (as it is now unaware), under the agreement with Yeltsin on the "Open Sea", any Russian ship can be stopped and checked (and detained) in neutral waters by an American ship.
                  1. Bongo
                    17 July 2016 05: 19
                    +4
                    Quote: Simpsonian
                    Was it or not? In Australia recently.

                    Once again, you demonstrate ignorance of the subject, combined with obstinacy. "Recently" is when, and what does Australia have to do with it?
                    Quote: Simpsonian
                    Signatures about where it was and when it is under the video.

                    But this is already incorrect, you suggest google negative
                    Quote: Simpsonian
                    Since 1992 (as it is now unaware), under the agreement with Yeltsin on the "Open Sea", any Russian ship can be stopped and checked (and detained) in neutral waters by an American ship.

                    Really ... laughing
                    1. Simpsonian
                      Simpsonian 17 July 2016 05: 31
                      -1
                      Despite the fact that this is an Australian F-111, when it was, see the link.
                      But about "really" already in Google, and initially the patrols were joint and so that most of the former. Allies of the USSR got used to this arbitrariness in inspection pariahs in the very heat of sending Russian sailors, or they were joint with the American.
            2. Simpsonian
              Simpsonian 17 July 2016 05: 02
              -1
              Quote: Amurets
              ? The DPRK has always been out of control. You gave two examples,

              Quote: Amurets
              And the DPRK in its attacks and shellings is clearly the leader.

              Quote: Amurets
              . We then know what our neighbors are.

              I gave two opposite examples, lovers of the North Koreans whoop ... who you (probably) knew nothing about.
              1. Bongo
                17 July 2016 05: 11
                +4
                On you, Nikolai turned to me, and not to you. DPRK really leads in attacks and shelling. At the same time, I sincerely regret the deaths of North Koreans and citizens of other states.
                Quote: Amurets
                We then know what our neighbors are

                Nikolai, like me, repeatedly had the opportunity to talk with the citizens of the DPRK and he really knows what our neighbors are like. Have you talked to North Koreans?
                Quote: Simpsonian
                I gave two opposite examples, lovers of the North Koreans whoop ... who you (probably) knew nothing about.

                Well, of course, I will not argue with you, I admit that I do not know anything! yes So tell me when the North Korean ship was bombed with F-111 bombs?
                1. Simpsonian
                  Simpsonian 17 July 2016 05: 18
                  -1
                  Where did such statistics come from and how is this consistent with complete ignorance of North Korean losses until the day before yesterday?
                  Even with the south.
                  The accompanying text for the video is where and when.
                  1. Bongo
                    17 July 2016 05: 21
                    +4
                    Quote: Simpsonian
                    Where did such statistics come from and how is this consistent with complete ignorance of North Korean losses until the day before yesterday?
                    Even with the south.
                    The accompanying text for the video is where and when.

                    Are you personally able to provide such statistics based on reliable sources? Not? What is the conversation about then?
                    1. Simpsonian
                      Simpsonian 17 July 2016 05: 35
                      -1
                      Personally, I didn’t say that,

                      Quote: Amurets
                      ? DPRK has always been boring in excess.

                      Quote: Bongo
                      And the DPRK in its attacks and shellings is clearly the leader.

                      Quote: Amurets
                      . We then know what our neighbors are.

                      so why not really bring both of you?
                      1. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 07: 54
                        +5
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        so why not really bring both of you?

                        Those. you are not capable of it? But why be surprised, I remember very well the unsubstantiated statements about the "portable" ATGM "Whirlwind" and "Underground air defense systems" in Gibraltar. lol
                      2. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 08: 00
                        -3
                        Whose statements must be statistics ...
                        It is quite portable in the jungle, with an air defense system not to me, but of course they are there.
                      3. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 08: 03
                        +4
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        Whose statements must be statistics ...

                        So you claimed ...
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        It is quite portable in the jungle, with an air defense system not to me, but of course they are there.

                        There is nothing to comment on ... fool
                      4. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 08: 09
                        -1
                        What exactly? It?


                        Quote: Amurets
                        ? DPRK has always been boring in excess.

                        Quote: Bongo
                        And the DPRK in its attacks and shellings is clearly the leader.

                        Quote: Amurets
                        . We then know what our neighbors are.

                      5. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 08: 12
                        +3
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        What exactly? It?

                        It:
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        constantly along with the Japanese themselves detain North Korean ships, shell and drown
                      6. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 08: 22
                        0
                        It was this:
                        Quote: Bongo
                        Bongo RU July 15, 2016 06:32 ↑

                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        "Do not aggravate" - constantly, together with the Japanese, they themselves detain North Korean ships, fire and sink

                        Sorry, from this place please in more detail, when was the last time a "North Korean ship" sunk?

                        Reply
                        quote
                        Report Site Violation

                        0
                        Avatar Major
                        Simpsonian (1) LV July 15, 2016 06:50 ↑

                        I don’t know the last one, you can look at these
                        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-kH3Y74UCs
                        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4TCqcWkDM0


                        Now please confirm statistics on it:


                        Quote: Amurets
                        ? DPRK has always been boring in excess.

                        Quote: Bongo
                        And the DPRK in its attacks and shellings is clearly the leader.

                        Quote: Amurets
                        . We then know what our neighbors are.
                      7. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 08: 28
                        +5
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        Now please do it

                        Who needs YouTube videos on which it is not clear what was captured? request Are you able to indicate when the North Korean ships and their name were recently sunk? Of course not, it's easy to check ...
                      8. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 08: 42
                        -2
                        Well, refute these youtube rods, if they can.

                        And bring the confirming "it"statistics.
                      9. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 08: 45
                        +3
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        Well, refute these youtube rods, if they can.

                        What is the point of refuting what happened 10 years ago, especially since you cannot even give the name of the vessels.
                      10. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 08: 50
                        -2
                        It was much less than 10 years ago, like in 2008 and 2013

                        What is the point in writing articles about what happened in 1969?
                      11. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 08: 56
                        +4
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        It was much less than 10 years ago, like in 2008 and 2013

                        F-111 in 2008? No.
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        What is the point in writing articles about what happened in 1969?

                        The article describes the history and life path of a particular type of aircraft, it is strange that you did not understand this request
                        If I ever undertake to describe the history of the armed confrontation of the DPRK, the USA and the Republic of Korea in my publication this will not be:
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        seemingly in 2008 and 2013
                      12. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 09: 05
                        -2
                        What was asked then:
                        Quote: Bongo
                        from this place, please, in more detail, when was the "North Korean ship" last sunk?

                        We got the answer, looked it up and then wrote it:
                        Quote: Bongo

                        Quote: Amurets
                        ? DPRK has always been boring in excess.

                        Quote: Bongo
                        And the DPRK in its attacks and shellings is clearly the leader.

                        Quote: Amurets
                        . We then know what our neighbors are.


                        Why was it necessary to write about "not aggravate" and about others types and numbers of ships and aircraft?

                        What has North Korea done to all of you?
                        Ilm had seen enough of the TV and decided to jump with everyone?
                      13. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 09: 17
                        +4
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        We got the answer, looked it up and then wrote it:

                        There were a lot of letters, but unfortunately I didn’t get a clear answer. There were links to it’s not clear where and by whom the videos were made. Neither the date of the sinking of the ship, nor where it happened nor its name you could not give. No.
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        Why was it necessary to write about "not aggravate" and about other types and quantities of ships and aircraft?

                        Are you talking about what the publication says? This story cannot be erased from it, especially since the article says it is easy to verify in a variety of publicly available sources. I, unlike some, are not fond of fantasies ... wink
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        What has North Korea done to all of you?

                        I don’t have anything ... I have a neutral attitude both to the DPRK and the Republic of Korea ... and I respect the Koreans very much for their hard work. Among my friends there are Russified Koreans - all of them are quite sane people.
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        Ilm had seen enough of the TV and decided to jump with everyone?

                        But it’s you in vain ... TV I sometimes watch the news in the morning before duty ... and that’s it. And about jumping ... you do not remind me how many times you were banned over the past year and how many names have you changed?
                      14. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 09: 22
                        -2
                        Quote: Bongo
                        There were a lot of letters

                        What has North Korea done to all of you?

                        Notice how you are all "neutral" to her in chorus!
                        By the way, why not friendly?
                      15. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 09: 33
                        +4
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        Notice how you are all "neutral" to her in chorus!
                        By the way, why not friendly?

                        I won’t say for others ... North Korea has something to respect, but the unpredictability of their leadership is sometimes annoying. Friendly? Do they really want to be friends with us? To use us and our resources is yes. At the beginning of the 90, he talked with North Koreans working in logging in Urgal. On the one hand, these people pitied their poverty and desire to work for a bowl of baland, on the other, Koreans could commit any crime, even the most serious ones, because of the same poverty.
                      16. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 11: 04
                        -1
                        For others, as right here, is also visible.
                      17. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 11: 28
                        -3
                        of course you can respect (though it’s not known why, since no positive has been written), but love, no no.
                      18. Anglorussian
                        Anglorussian 17 July 2016 19: 29
                        +3
                        have seen enough of TV and decided to jump with everyone?
                        And why did you deserted the sun-kissed Kim from the labor army? Immediately in combat post-strike with the hydra of imperialism! And Kim will hit Hennessy VSOP in the meantime ...
                      19. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 18 July 2016 01: 38
                        -1
                        Koreans didn’t accept me - would it suit me?

                        do you pick up chtoli bottles after him?
                      20. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 09: 10
                        -1
                        Wikipedia F-111

                        Retired USAF: F-111F, 1996; EF-111A, 1998
                        RAAF: F-111C, 2010
                      21. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 09: 25
                        +5
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        Wikipedia F-111

                        Retired USAF: F-111F, 1996; EF-111A, 1998
                        RAAF: F-111C, 2010


                        I have to disappoint you, Wikipedia is not the most reliable source of information. However, it is not clear why you stuck an American EW aircraft that did not carry weapons here?
                        The planes of the 82 air wing from the Australian base of Amberley after 2007 of the year, due to poor technical condition, did not fly into the air and were registered as part of the RAAF only nominally. In flight condition at that time there were 3-4 cars, but they were also idle on the ground. The official withdrawal from service of the F-111 in Australia in 2010 only officially formalized this.
                      22. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 09: 33
                        -1
                        In December 2010 on their wires there was a show where they flew a lot and well, unofficially took to the air and later.
                      23. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 09: 40
                        +4
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        In December 2010 on their wires there was a show where they flew a lot and well

                        Do not confuse shows and seeing off with military service ...
                        Quote: Simpsonian
                        unofficially take to the air and later.

                        I'm afraid that you are fantasizing here. They could take off after decommissioning if they were transferred to private owners. But this was not known. F-111s in Australia were decommissioned due to worn-out and extremely expensive maintenance. Did pilots fly at them at their own expense, at their own peril and risk, and in secret from the leadership?
                      24. Bongo
                        17 July 2016 10: 05
                        +4
                        This is what most of the Australian F-2009s represented in 111, there are no other aircraft of this type in the parking lots of Amberley.
                      25. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 11: 04
                        -1
                        The show was part of these solemn farewells.

                        "Most" is not "all."
                      26. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 17 July 2016 11: 18
                        -3
                        About "again" - where else?
                        Aircraft are officially put into operation, it was then put into storage, it was introduced informally, and these and so fly. Due to the delay in supplying the required number of superhornets.
                      27. zyablik.olga
                        zyablik.olga 18 July 2016 06: 31
                        +4
                        Quote: Bongo
                        "Underground air defense systems" in Gibraltar.

                        Underground British anti-aircraft missiles? belay How's that? what

                        How can these monsters run out of the ground?
            3. Simpsonian
              Simpsonian 17 July 2016 06: 26
              -1
              Quote: Amurets
              DPRK has always been out of proportion. Two examples

              There are two others from another area
              KAL902
              KAL007
              both passenger Boeings are not North Korean, no other country has gone to such a greyhound, and even with respect to the USSR

              Poor knowledge of their neighbors ...

              The sect of Shoko Asahara with their sarin (and this is not the only moment, besides there are such against the Russian Federation) attack is the South Korean, the Korean diaspora goes there in Japan, and he himself is half South Korean.
              Search now that juche is bad ...

              The war between North and South began after and against the background of how the "American Ph.D." destroyed more than 200 thousand defenseless Koreans on the island of Jeju with the help of local criminals and "UN forces".
              In Vietnam, the ideologically crafted South Koreans were the most thugs.
              South Korean "miracle" not under sanctions began on the eve of the 1980s, before that the criminalization of South Korean society interfered.

              If some North Koreans treat you badly, then look for the source of the problems in yourself ... re-read your own comments here. Perhaps they treat them badly, look at them badly, they feel this and reciprocate it.
              1. Simpsonian
                Simpsonian 17 July 2016 06: 45
                -2
                In contrast to the North Korean, the South Korean depressive society, with their apparent prosperity, is now a leader (dressing with Greenland) in terms of the number of self-actions per capita - do not expect such good things ...
                1. Simpsonian
                  Simpsonian 17 July 2016 06: 49
                  -1
                  And, yes - why not talk about the destruction of IL-12 Soviet Aeroflot over China by American greyhounds ...
                  1. Simpsonian
                    Simpsonian 17 July 2016 06: 54
                    0
                    US intelligence constantly violated Soviet, Chinese, and North Korean airspace.

                    so who there borzoi, knocks down, drowns and captures it is the United States, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan (Soviet ships).
                    North Korea, if only it fights off and pays the same ...
  2. Leto
    Leto 15 July 2016 07: 33
    +9
    In this photo, the dimensions of the lower antenna AN / APS-95 are better seen


    And inside the fairing:
  3. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 15 July 2016 07: 54
    -2
    As I remember, the Americans themselves gave these aircraft the nickname "Guppies".
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 15 July 2016 10: 37
      +3
      Quote: kugelblitz
      As I remember, the Americans themselves gave these aircraft the nickname "Guppies".

      EMNIP, they gave this nickname to all aircraft with large fairings on the ventral antennas. For example, AD-3W ("Skyrader" -DRLO) also had this nickname.
      1. AUL
        AUL 15 July 2016 17: 45
        +2
        The Guppy is a completely different aircraft, an ultra-widebody transporter. Intended for the transportation of oversized, such as the steps "Saturn-5"
        1. AUL
          AUL 15 July 2016 18: 04
          0
          http://www.airwar.ru/enc/aliner/b377sg.html
  4. rubin6286
    rubin6286 15 July 2016 09: 25
    +3
    The article is interesting. Thanks.
    The plane was good, solid, reliable, economical.
    With each new modification, the combat capabilities of the machine grew. In the “Album of military aircraft, helicopters and missiles of the USA, Great Britain, France and Sweden” (Military Publishing House, Moscow, 1956), the base patrol aircraft WV-2 has the following data:
    Crew ________________ 31 people;
    Max. speed ________ 600km / h;
    Practical ceiling__7600 m;
    Flight range _____ 8000 km;
    Take-off weight _________ 60000 kg;
    Wingspan _________ 37,5 m;
    The length of the aircraft _______ 34,5 m.

    Our aircraft AWACS based on Tu-95 and IL-18 appeared appeared much later.

    In general, in the world of "Super Constellation" - a machine widely known. These aircraft, in the passenger version of the S-121S, were on the airlines of several Western European countries and in the 60s they performed a number of flights to the Soviet Union. As a child, I repeatedly singled them out at Moscow airports Vnukovo and Sheremetyevo. Our neighbor, Uncle Gene, who was flying on Li-2, managed to sit in the Super Constellation cockpit and talk to the pilots. According to him: “The plane is super and their salary is also super. The commander of the ship receives 2000 dollars / month, i.e. our approximately 1800 rubles. We don’t have such earnings even on the Tu-104. ”
  5. alicante11
    alicante11 15 July 2016 12: 07
    0
    The commander of the ship receives 2000dollars / month, i.e. our approximately 1800 rubles. We don’t have such earnings even on the Tu-104. ”


    And how much did the pilots get? Really much less? According to the recollections of the students' parents, from BAM, the locomotive driver received 800-1200p depending on the type of movement (passenger, cargo or shunting).
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 15 July 2016 12: 33
      +5
      Quote: alicante11
      And how much did the pilots get? Really much less? According to the recollections of the students' parents, from BAM, the locomotive driver received 800-1200p depending on the type of movement (passenger, cargo or shunting).

      In what years? I will not say about BAM, but on Zab Zd, this is the section of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the salary of an 1 class driver was in the 800 rubles region, highly qualified mechanics somewhere in the 600-650 rubles region.
      1. Bongo
        15 July 2016 12: 36
        +5
        Quote: Amurets
        In what years? I will not say about BAM, but on Zab Zd, this is the section of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the salary of an 1 class driver was in the 800 rubles region, highly qualified mechanics somewhere in the 600-650 rubles region.

        Nikolay, my first salary in 1987 during the practice on Amurstal was 520 rubles. It was very good money at that time!
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 15 July 2016 13: 42
          +3
          Quote: Bongo

          Nikolay, my first salary in 1987 during the practice on Amurstal was 520 rubles. It was very good money at that time!

          Yes! We started to pay this kind of money since 1983, and at that time such a salary was considered cool. And in what workshop did you start?
          1. Bongo
            15 July 2016 13: 44
            +4
            Quote: Amurets
            Yes! We started to pay this kind of money since 1983, and at that time such a salary was considered cool. And in what workshop did you start?

            In ESCC-2
  6. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 15 July 2016 22: 36
    0
    Beautiful plane!
  7. vietnam7
    vietnam7 16 July 2016 05: 55
    +4
    several years ago, he talked live with a veteran, he served in the Baltic Sea on il4, they installed the locator there first, used it to search for German ships, it turns out to be drilled to some extent, and we started to master it in the same period. then at Drabkin somewhere about this silt 4 the mention skipped.
  8. Old26
    Old26 18 July 2016 08: 32
    +4
    Sergei! Thank you for the article. Very informative, especially historically. And then in the literature, which at one time had the opportunity to read the entire "history" of AWACS aircraft, it was not shown. It was said about the presence of the EU-121 (My first book in this regard is "Arming the armies and fleets of the imperialist states", book of the late 50s with an inscription on the last page of the cover "Not subject to sale").
    Here, in the posts of some comrades, AWACS aircraft based on IL-18 and almost IL-4. To be honest, I heard about such work only in relation to the TU-4. If not difficult, comrades who wrote this - enlighten in more detail
    1. vietnam7
      vietnam7 18 July 2016 18: 05
      +3
      [quote = Old26] If not difficult, comrades who wrote this - enlighten in more detail [/ quot
      Of course, the IL-4 is not a full-fledged AWACS. After reading Sergei’s article, I recalled my conversation with the WWII Veteran. we were invited to the kindergarten to the elder on the eve of Victory Day, after the ceremonial part we continued with tea, there Veteran showed front-line photographs on one I recognized the A-20g Boston, there was a common theme about aviation, although I understood more clearly. A veteran compared Boston and IL-4, and spoke about the use of the Gneiss station on the IL-4. actually after that I read with Drabkin in the memoirs of Kravets Naum Solomonovich about the same application. Finding a minesweeper at a distance of one hundred kilometers in a feather departure is already a good result.
      Here is a clipping from an article from the site corner of the sky (in links, alas, I'm not strong) - "An important novelty introduced on the sea IL-4 was onboard radars. In 1943, the Research Institute of Radio Industry created the Gneiss-2M radar, specially designed for searching The flat transmitting antenna was located in the place of the bow machine gun, the receiving ones, resembling externally ladders, were located on the sides of the fuselage.The operator sat in the place of the radio operator.The tests of the station took place in the fall of 1943 on the Caspian Sea.The radar created a lot of problems for the navigator, because interference from it affected many devices.In May of the following year, tests continued on one of the aircraft of the 5th Guards MTAP (owned by the famous pilot V.I.Minakov) .The first flight from the radar took place on May 20. The antenna system reduced the speed by about 20 km / h and slightly worsened maneuverability.The first night search took place on June 6. But only a few fishing vessels were found off the Romanian coast, which were not worth spending a torpedo on. e subsequent sorties from the radar ended in vain. In the Baltic, the same radars were installed on the A-20, their use was more successful. "
      Thanks to Sergey for the article.