The photo captures the night shelling of residential areas and outskirts of Donetsk on the night of November 6 2014. Almost all types of large-caliber and reactive artillery participated in that massive artillery strike. Today, the situation is again approaching that dreadful line, when on almost every “patch” of the line of demarcation there are heavy battles: under the blows of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Gorlovka, Donetsk, Dokuchaevsk, and Novoazovsky District
As expected in the middle of spring 2016, the summer in the Donbass began to take on the stable critical state observed in Novorossia in 2014 in the end of June, when the first strongest artillery attacks from the West-driven Kiev junta fell on the peaceful cities of the unrecognized republics . All rounds of the Minsk agreements slowly but surely entered an increasingly deaf impasse, ending in tragic consequences for the civilian population of the Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics, as well as for the units of the Armed Forces of the DPR that are near the line of contact. The pre-escalation nature of sluggish fighting in Novorossia became most pronounced in the 20-s of June. The number of artillery shelling from the side of the Armed Forces of Ukraine on the Gorlovsky and Novoazovsk areas with incessant shooting and mortar battles and sniper duels in the Avdeevsky industrial zone and at the Yasinovatsky checkpoint has become more frequent. Then, in Dzerzhinsk and Mariupol, the transfer of dozens of MBT T-64BV, BMP-1 / 2, BM MLRS Grad and Uragan, as well as large-caliber self-propelled artillery systems, Msta-B howitzers and Rapier anti-tank guns began. All of this technology is now distributed on the 2-x sections of the demarcation line for conducting reconnaissance in force and artillery preparation before the impending attack on the northern and southern borders of New Russia. To strengthen the sector "M" (Mariupol) and the sector "C" (Gorlovka), Ukrainian units removed the reserve units from the positions under Volnovakha, Artyomovsky, Kurakhovo and under other tactically important for the APU settlements of Donbass.
The existing armed forces of the Donetsk People’s Republic and the LPR People’s Militia Corps have been full-fledged armies for over a year with the predominant potential of ground forces, short-range military air defense and military intelligence carried out by ground forces and squadrons of unmanned aerial vehicles of position and territorial reconnaissance up to 25-30 km deep. Owing to the relative “freshness” of the LDNR armies, in many units, the armored personnel carriers, armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles and tanks, which leads to the preservation of the lives of many crews at the time of battles with anti-tank and machine-gun calculations of the APU. So, back in 2014, at a military training in the LPR, and then in Donetsk, a BMP-2 flashed, equipped with elements of dynamic protection (EDZ) 4C22 “Contact-5”. The infantry fighting vehicle was simply called "Beha", but, nevertheless, the protection of the vehicle was increased by about 35-40%. About half of the front projection area received protection from heavy machine guns 12,7-14,5 mm machine guns, 30 mm AP 2A42M and even SPG-9. The total number of aircraft of Novorossia’s Armed Forces today is about 700-800 MBT T-64BV / T-72B, 500-600 MLRS BM-21/27/30 (Grad, Hurricane and Smerch), more than 1000 BTR / BMP / BRDM, about 700 artillery systems and self-propelled guns, dozens of Osa-AKM, Strela-10M3 / 4, Tor-M1 air defense systems and hundreds of Strel-1/2 / Igla MANPADS. The number of 82-mm mortars BM-37 and 120-mm 2B11 allows for full-fledged artillery bombardment at once across the entire territory adjacent to the demarcation line occupied by the Ukrainian Armed Forces.
In view of this, the conduct of the general offensive of the Armed Forces of Ukraine on the LDNR will lead to the immediate defeat of the junta's troops already on the 2 line of defense of the republics on the Telman, Starobeshevo and Debaltsevskiy OH and on the 1 of the defense line agglomerations, where the main armored, infantry and artillery "bones" of the Armed Forces of the DPR are located. The failure of the large-scale offensive operation of the Ukrainian army on Novorossia was perfectly demonstrated during the evening-night attempt to break through the front of the DPR in the Debaltsevsky direction in the night from 28 to 29 in June 2016 of the year.
"THE SECOND DEFEAT" UNDER DEBALTSEVO
Having considerably forgotten the events of January-February of 2015, when the Debaltsevskiy boiler was successfully shut down, blocking APU's punishers in the northeastern part of the DPR about 8000, 28 of June 2016 of the year Kiev gave an absolutely mindless order to conduct a tactical offensive operation in the direction of Debalcevo. At 7 in the morning hours, after a long night artillery preparation, the assault units of the 54-th separate mechanized brigade (OMBR) of the Armed Forces of Ukraine advanced from Svetlodarsk in the direction of the settlement. Lozovoe, Logvinovo and Novogrigorevka and Sanzharovka. The attempt to break through involved several hundred members of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the militants of the Right Sector, an organization banned in Russia by a court decision. In view of the surprise, they managed to oust several dozen servicemen of the DPR army from some strongholds at heights located to the north of the above settlements. Thus, the integrity of the defense of the first two lines of defense of the republic was temporarily violated.
Later, a few hours later, the situation changed dramatically. Part of the Pyatnashka Brigade and the Somalia Battalion arrived in support of the small border forces of the DPR Army from Donetsk. Also, the ATGM operators and the DNR tank crews joined in to work against the 54 technology of the OMBR, which ultimately led to the loss of Ukrainian T-8BB from 10 to 64 and more than 200 military. The offensive was quickly stopped, and the Ukrainian militants were ousted from the majority of the occupied heights by a short-term local counteroffensive. The DPR army has once again confirmed the high level of training and efficiency even in the situation of unilateral implementation of the Minsk agreements, which currently do not bring any results.
Numerous military experts and observers, including the former commander of the Gorlovka garrison, Major General I. Bezler, commented on this attack attempt. In his note at that time, Bezler talked about the tactics of continuing the junta’s offensive actions for the next few days. He noted that in the forehead of Logvinovo, Lozovoe, Sanzharovka and Uglegorsk they would not storm the APU, but would try to "chop" the territory of the former "Debaltsevskiy boiler" as a "puff pie" by dividing the mini-agglomeration of the cities "Uglegorsk-Debaltsevo", "Gorlovka-Yenakiyevo" " etc. But Bezler’s predictions did not come true within the time frame he intended. It is not only difficult, but almost impossible, especially to take and simply “cut” the territory that the armed forces are defending, comparable to the modern Italian army, especially in a situation where Ukraine is the aggressor.
All the bets of Kiev regarding the coming offensive are made on a completely different, weakest section of the front of the Donetsk People's Republic, as well as on the unprecedented military-technical support of Washington, which, according to the plan of the command of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, should follow after the provocations made daily at the contact line. About these provocations are almost not reported by the media, but the residents of such front-line cities like Avdiivka, Volnovakha and Mariupol are very well informed. Moreover, it is in Mariupol that such provocations are much easier to distinguish from the typical exchange of “courtesies” (as the artillery battle is called in Novorossia) between the VSN and the APU, since there are no distracting noisy hotbeds of hostilities similar to the Yasinovatsky checkpoint in Mariupol. And now directly about provocations.
NIGHT SHOTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MARIUPOL: UNCONCILABLE BUSHES OR ORIGINAL PROVOCATION?
From the end of June, information on the resumption of the work of Ukrainian artillery from positions in the villages of Sartan, Talakivka, Lebedinsky, Gnutovo and Shyrokino began to come in from the residents of Mariupol. Every day, virtually all types of large-caliber artillery, including reactive, are heard in the work outside the city. The calculations of Gradov, in order to avoid a negative reaction of the OSCE observers, fire only at night and with single or triple shots, which is audible and sometimes can be seen from the upper floors of the Mariupol high-rise buildings. Artillery shells and volleys of NURSs “Gradov” usually arrive in the border villages of the DPR of Cominternovo, Sakhanka and Zaichenko, which is confirmed by reports of the Ministry of Defense of the DPR and residents of the villages. But with the mortar calculations of the APU, the situation is much more interesting.
Considering the level of drunkenness in the impoverished Ukrainian Armed Forces, of course, one cannot exclude the fact of errors made by compass and suggestive, but here, apparently, the situation is completely different. Every evening, 120-mm mortars begin to fire from positions under Sartana, and after 2 — 3 seconds after each shot, a booming rupture of a mine is heard in the city. Initially it was assumed that the gap was the mortar "otvetka" of the Armed Forces of the DPR to the shelling from the Ukrainian side, but in reality it was the fall of the Ukrainian mines right on the outskirts of Mariupol. In other words, the APU conduct self-shelling, or shelling of empty territories. Residents of 9-storey houses of the “Vostochny” LMR see flashes of breaks and mark the time until the sound of a blast wave, 3 seconds pass Mines "fall" only 1 km from residential areas in the fields. To the position of the BCH in Kominternovo from here about 7 km. The Ukrainian army is engaged in pure provocation, giving its own shelling of the outskirts of the city for artillery strikes by militias, which in reality are not. And the next day, the city TV channels MTV, Sigma, TV-7 and the pro-Ukrainian Internet resource 0629 brazenly lie, accusing the “terrorists” from the DPR of firing into the “long-suffering” units of the Ukrainian army.
Provocative mortar self-shelling by Ukrainian troops of their own empty positions near Mariupol on the night of July 4. In the video, almost nothing is visible, but based on the author's comments and the sound of the gap, the sequence of actions of Ukrainian punishers is clear.
The situation has long passed all permissible boundaries, and, according to the suggestion of the Ministry of Defense of the DPR, could result in a major military provocation, prompting Kiev to launch the “mechanism” of a new large-scale escalation of hostilities in the New Azov direction. The last provocation, forever preserved in the memory of Mariupol residents, occurred on January 24 2015, when 4 positions in the western, northern and eastern suburbs of Mariupol opened fire on the Eastern district of the city from several BM-21 “Grad” and 82-mm automatic mortar shells 2B9 "Cornflower", which led to the death of more than 100 people. Such self-shelling and provocations of the Armed Forces of Ukraine create artificial tension in sector “M” to intensify the hostilities in the coming weeks.
Events evolve in a completely predictable way. At a meeting of US Secretary of State John Kerry with the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine), the notorious Western Ukrainian nationalist Andriy Parbiy, they discussed the issue of the supply of lethal weapons to the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Kerry proceeded from the needs of Ukraine, which should be evaluated by the States in the near future. And this statement was made against the background of the conflict in the Donbas, which is intensifying at the suggestion of Kiev. In fact, this is a positive response and the "green light" to the transfer to the Ukrainian side of such weaponswhich will certainly be used against the civilian population of LDNR and BCH. All this is happening against the background of the NATO summit in Warsaw, where they once again confirmed the threefold reinforcement of the United Allied Forces with the predominant rapid reaction forces on the border with Belarus and Russia in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States. The number of additional mixed contingent will exceed 40 thous. He will be present in the region on a rotational basis, including the armored units of the US Army, part of which will be sent to Bulgaria and Romania. The placement of the thousandth American contingent in Poland is justified by strengthening the protection of the “Suvalki corridor” against the breakthrough of our NE from the Kaliningrad region to Europe, however, this is done solely for the purpose of defending American air bases and elements of the Aegis Ashhor missile system near Redzikovo. The step, at first glance, is not entirely reasonable, because the entire stationary military infrastructure, in the event of a regional conflict with the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, will be destroyed by the Iskanders and Calibers within a few hours of a military operation. But, apparently, our overseas and European "friends" do not exclude a level of military conflict in which our Ground Forces will have to move into the border areas of Eastern Europe to "pacify very troubled neighbors."
Another “mysterious” line is the strengthening of the infrastructure of the US Embassy in Moscow, which began in the fall of 2015. According to eyewitnesses, its buildings very quickly turned into real strongholds from which you can monitor for several blocks in different directions from Novinsky 19 Boulevard / 23. To protect the approaches to the buildings, an 6-meter chain-link fence was erected on concrete blocks reinforced with steel cables. Everything is actively preparing for street riots. But, as for me, I think the Americans have not fully understood that our nation’s “cookies Nuland” will not be in demand, and in the case of the planned provocations of the riot police by the riot police, they have long since worked on various tactical tricks to counter this “orange plague” .
The strengthening of the US embassy in the capital is the main indicator of the future deterioration of military-political relations with the West, official details of which we observe during the NATO Warsaw Summit, the Ukraine-NATO talks and consultations at the level of deputy heads of state and foreign affairs agencies. And what about the informal "signals"? What to prepare for today?
AMERICAN "KOMPBATYATY" ON DONBASS - ALARM SIGN
In this sense, the next package of military-technical assistance to Kiev, which arrived in the “Square” at the beginning of the previous week, became very significant. Boeing 747-400F, owned by Atlas Air, arrived at Kiev Borispol International Airport 2 on July 2016. At this time, the American airborne delivered to Ukraine not “worn” army unloading systems, but more serious products - counter battery AN / TPQ-36 “Firefinder” (4 units) and AN / TPQ-48A LCMR (10 units) artillery reconnaissance radars. As is known, X / NUMX AN / TPQ-2 radar entered service with the APU in the middle of November 36, and in 2015 and 14, Kiev received from the USA X / NUMX AN / TPQ-15A radar, one of which was lost in an accident and the other two - in the war against the sun of New Russia. Thus, the total number of counter-battery radars for the Armed Forces of Ukraine is: 20 AN / TPQ-48 and 6 AN / TPQ-36A. The number is very decent, especially considering the characteristics of these stations and the length of the borders of the republics controlled by the army of Novorossia, as well as the depth of the rear zone of the DPR armies on the Telman and Novoazovsk directions.
Let's start with AN / TPQ-36 (V) 10 "Firefinder". This radar is built around an 64-element phased array antenna with high energy potential. The detection range of 152-mm artillery shells is 15 km, mortar shells of caliber 120 mm - up to 18 km, rocket missiles of Grad-type MLRS - to 24 km. The PAR aperture review sector is +/– 45 degrees (90 degrees), from which you can calculate the coverage of the scanned airspace (on the front): for Grad NURSs it is 34 km, for artillery and mortar shells - 28 and 32 km, respectively . These figures refer only to one transported Firefinder station, which means that the entire 3-x AN / TPQ-36 will be enough to calculate the firing positions of the BN gunners throughout the entire Southern Front of the DPR (from Mariupol to Dokuchaevsk). The station poses an extremely serious threat to the cannon and rocket artillery of the militia on the Telmanovsky Isthmus section, since it can “view” the positions of the ACS, howitzers and the MLRS to almost the entire depth of this most important tactical corridor connecting the main forces of the DPR and the main on the Mariupol direction 9- Separate Mariupol-Khingan special regiment of marines. The width of this tactical isthmus is no more than 35 km.
The AN / TPQ-36 (V) 10 counter-battery radar can detect and track airborne artillery, missile and mortar shells on the 99 aisle. The peak power of the Firefinder is 23 kW, and the X-band of the work is broken down into 32 operating frequencies
Other areas where the use of “Firefinders” is most likely are the front lines of Avdiivka, Svetlodarsk and Novotroitskoye. Here, the Armed Forces of Ukraine may try to “soften” the defense of the DPR army in the rear borders of Donetsk-Makeevsky, Enakiyevsky and Starobeshevsky directions with the help of high-precision counter-battery combat provided by the AN / TPQ-36 radar, and then try to resort to the tactics of cutting in the language of military experts. pirogue". Special attention should be paid to the Firefinders of the DPR Defense Ministry, since with 100% probability it can be argued that during the escalation that “exploded” in the near future, the militiamen could deliver a whole array of tactical problems threatening to lose the defensive line of artillery positions from the subsequent seizure of the Kiev junta of some front-line cities, etc. The use of these "counter batteries" will occur mainly in attempts of large offensive operations of the Armed Forces of Ukraine in the Donbas.
AN / TPQ-48A
As for the compact tactical counter-battery radar AN / TPQ-48A LCMR, they are very likely to be involved in local positional counter-battery confrontations, as well as in reconnaissance of artillery positions of the Armed Forces LDNR around large settlements controlled by Ukrainian forces. Their moderate energy characteristics do not allow to participate in large artillery battles on large areas (detection range of 120-mm mines - 10 km, 82-mm - 8 km), but they are excellent for detecting coordinates of mortar calculations involved in offensive operations on large cities controlled by Kiev. For example, Ukrainian AN / TPQ-48A disguised on the eastern outskirts of Mariupol will be able to detect the positions of VSN mortars operating from the Gnutovo, Lebedinskoe and Vodyanoe settlements. These complexes are capable of detecting Gradov’s positions, but only when launched from long distances (from 10 to 14 km), since the complex has limitations on direction finding of high-speed low-altitude projectiles.
It is much easier to work with AN / TPQ-48A in urban areas of a powerful fortified area than with demanding AN / TPQ-36: the station’s antenna post weight is about 225 kg, diameter and height of the cylindrical body 1 x 0,9 m, due to which, neglecting the infrastructure of the city, An antenna post can be quickly raised to the roof of any structure with the power of an entire 3-5 person. The antenna post itself can be installed both on a solid tripod, and on any quickly prepared metal structure that satisfies the required area of view of the calculation. The module can be placed on the basis of any off-road vehicle.
The radar part of the AP AN / TPQ-48A is very advanced. Its main advantage is an all-view ring phased antenna array operating in the L-band decimeter wave at a frequency of 1-2 GHz (wavelength 30 — 15 cm). Without a rotary actuator, the station can continuously monitor the air situation for the presence of mortar, artillery and rockets in a circular mode at 360 degrees. Equipped with tactical tablets and laptops with the appropriate software, military units can connect to the station via the local network as consumers of tactical information.
Possessing an AN / TPQ-27A 48 Radar, the APU can form a tactically competent network for illuminating the position of the BCH around all major cities on the contact line, and any conversations about the lack of experience of the junta in using these complexes are erroneous, as a person familiar with modern computerized devices, mastering the skills of using such a system will not be a big problem.
In July, 2015, the American business newspaper The Wall Street Journal, published newswhere, in addition to 3 AN / TPQ-36, the X-NUMX counter-battery AN / TPQ-2 “Firefinder” radar was featured in the list of American military aid for Kiev. Then nothing was said about “37-x”, but it is quite possible that the radar stations are either planned to be delivered in the next tranches or have already been transferred to the Ukrainian side. Unlike AN / TPQ-37, these counter-radar radars have an even greater range of detecting artillery and mortar positions, and may well influence the balance of power between NATO and the Russian Federation on the Ukrainian-Russian border, since AN / TPQ-36 is a more complex system and it is absolutely clear that the American instructors will supervise the Ukrainian operators. This was already observed during the fighting in South Ossetia and Abkhazia in 37, when the calculation of the Buk-M2008 air defense system of the Georgian army consisted mainly of Ukrainians.
The AN / TPQ-37 radar operates already in the S-band of decimeter waves, and also has an even higher peak power of HEADLIGHTS, represented by 359 elements. The area of aperture is much larger than that of AN / TPQ-36. The range of calculating the coordinates of the mortar and artillery positions at this radar reaches already 50 km, which may allow VSUnikam to detect the artillery of the Armed Forces of the DPR, leading fire from remote rear areas of the republic. For example, from Avdeevka, AN / TPQ-37 can issue target designation for counter-battery fire on militia positions located near Ilovaysk. At the same time, the Ukrainian Armed Forces can use all sorts of tactical tricks: open provocative fire on the Ilovaisky direction from Novotroitsky (south of Donetsk), wait for the return fire, calculate the exact coordinates of the artillery of the Armed Forces of the DPR and strike at them from Uragans and Smerchii from a completely unexpected direction. Such capabilities provide powerful counter-battery radar type AN / TPQ-36 / 37 "Firefinder". The hunt for these dangerous units should be the primary task for the army of Novorossia, because with the new escalation, with the loss of each unit of self-propelled guns or LDNR howitzers, the defenses and restraining forces of the junta factor of the artillery "fist" of the republics will decrease, and the number of shelling of houses, kindergartens, schools, hospitals and shops of the republics of Ukrainian punitive-gunners-directly proportional to increase.
METHODS OF DETECTION AND SUPPRESSION OF POSITIONS OF COUNTERBATTERIES RADARS OF AMERICAN MANUFACTURE IN MAT. AGAINST "LCMR" - "WHISTLE", AGAINST "FIREFINDER" - "DRON"
For conducting effective electronic intelligence on airborne and ground-based radio-emitting targets, specialized DER systems are used, for example: “Valeria”, MKTK REI PP “Tigr-M”, RB-531B “Infauna”, RP-377LA “Lorandit”, etc. The complexes operate in the frequency range of direction finding and analysis of radiation sources from 100 kHz to 48 GHz and are able to work on almost any radio station and the radar of the enemy. The Armed Forces of the Lugansk and Donetsk People's Republics do not possess such complex means, and therefore they can only rely on their own development and modern radio-electronic element base purchased through the Ventorg's network, which allows them to assemble their own tactical DER.
The method of detecting counter-battery radars of American production requires the BCH to have accurate information about their frequency ranges and modes of operation. With a portable short-range AN / TPQ-48A, everything is much simpler than with heavy medium-range AN / TPQ-36 (V) 10. They operate in decimeter L-band at frequencies from 1000 to 2000 MHz. This range fits perfectly into the frequency coverage of inexpensive Chinese SDR receivers based on the R820T and E4000 chipsets (priced from 15 to 25 dollars), which can be ordered from any online store or purchased at an electronics store. These chipsets operate at 24 — 2200 MHz frequencies executed in the form of small “DVB-T2 - dongles” (popularly called “whistles”) connected to a PC or tablet using a USB interface. The appropriate drivers and software for frequency scanning and analysis (SDRSharp, SDRSharper) are then poured onto the computer, which can easily scan this range for TPQ-48A.
The popularity of these devices among radio amateurs is so great that special filters have already been developed, programs for decoding communication radio channels protected by a scrambler, and even a special application running on the air traffic control channel ADS-B (automatic dependent surveillance-broadcasting), which can be used to monitor traffic transponders included directly from home PC.
To detect and figure out the approximate direction from which the AN / TPQ-48A operates, an SDR device will need to be connected with a directional antenna with a good gain. On the frequency diagram in SDRSharp, when you hover the antenna mirror at the location of the enemy's radar, the signal peak will increase several times. In addition, one of the AN / TPQ-48A lost by the Ukrainian army was taken as a trophy in the liquidation of the Debaltsevskiy boiler, and therefore the militia had a lot of time to get acquainted with the product and the principles of its operation.
To determine the coordinates of the AN / TPQ-36 radar, much more advanced compact sensors with a frequency range up to 12 GHz will be required, mounted on X-8 “Skywalker” UAVs, since it is impossible to find out the location of the Firefinder located outside the radio horizon line from the ground. Armed intelligence units of the Armed Forces of the DPR Skywalker is more than one and a half years.
The X-8 Skywalker unmanned aerial vehicle is another marvel of Chinese industry. The cruising flight speed of 80 km / h with a payload of 3,5 - 4 kg (compact REAR complex or a digital camera with the possibility of video) can be maintained for about 1,5 hours, providing a range of 50 - 60 km. The wingspan of the glider is a 2,12 m
Destroying the smuggling radar of the Armed Forces of Ukraine will be much more difficult than the detection of their coordinates. High-precision missile and artillery weapons of the armed forces of Novorossia do not have, and therefore can only be counted on the existing anti-tank systems, the relative safety of the operators of which can be guaranteed only under the cover of machine-gun crews and snipers at the moment of a major combat operation. According to AN / TPQ-48A, deployed in the urban infrastructure, you cannot open cannon artillery fire, it is fraught with huge losses among the civilian population, but you can hit the high-precision 120-mm controlled mine of the KM-8 type “Edge”, but it is unknown until now , whether these "smart" ammunition, with 9-kilometer range of flight from the gunners of the Armed Forces of New Russia.
As the last year showed, numerous “Minsky”, “Norman formats” and Warsaw summits did not help pacify Kiev’s militant ambitions supported by the alliance, which is confirmed not only by the development of another escalation of battles in the Donbass, but by the transformation of the Russian-Ukrainian border in the Kherson region into an assemblage of air fighters , the Crimean Tatars, mercenaries from the IG, Turkey and other terrorist groups, equipped with a very solid arsenal of Soviet weapons from the warehouses of the "independent".
Before the elections in the United States, it will not be so easy to fully predict the situation, but the conclusion is one: the whole territory of Donbass and the south of Ukraine is expected to be big changes that cannot happen peacefully, and the development of concepts to combat NATO-supplied weapons and intelligence systems in Ukraine an important advance in the tough reporting of our list of interests to the “taut ears and flat minds” of the Western Masonic elite.