Military Review

Unknown War. Who still need to bow for "Katyusha"?

109



The events described will soon celebrate their 75 anniversary. 14 July 1941, under the small town of Orsha, was first used weapon, which became a nightmare for the Nazis and their allies and a symbol of success for the Soviet soldiers. This, of course, is a rocket guard mortar, nicknamed "Katyusha".

The very appearance of this weapon has so far been covered with a kind of a veil of secrecy. But the years go by, the documents are removed from the vulture "secretly", and more and more facts become available.

Next to "Katyusha" always stood the name of its main developer, Hero of Socialist Labor Andrei Grigorievich Kostikov.

Unknown War. Who still need to bow for "Katyusha"?


Kostikov's biography could be an example for many. Still, only in a Soviet country, a descendant of such a base could become not just a Hero, but a legend!

Kostikov was born in 1899 of the year in the village of Kazatin, Berdichevsky district, Kiev province.

Father - a native of the peasants, he did not have a certain profession and worked all his life as a laborer, janitor, porter, moving from town to town. Mother was engaged in housekeeping.

Having graduated from the 4 class of the Bystrovskaya rural school, from the 1913 year, Kostikov studied in Moscow, in the technical office of engineer Mezheritsky, as a plumber. Then, in 1914 — 1919, he worked as an assistant mechanic, and then as a mechanic at factories in Moscow, Petrograd, and Kiev.

In 1918, he joined the Red Army. He took part in hostilities against the Ukrainian rebels, in the Soviet-Polish war. He was wounded in the leg. Some historians, however, write about a short investigation on charges of self-gunners. In August, 1920 was captured by the Poles, in April, 1921 of the year escaped and continued to serve in the Red Army again.

In 1922 — 1926 studied at the 3 of the Kiev Military Engineering School, after which he served in Nizhny Novgorod.

In 1930-1933 he studied at the VVIA named after N. E. Zhukovsky " aviation engines and missile specialties ”, where he became seriously interested in rocket technology. He was sent as an engineer to the Reactive Institute (RNII, NII-3), to the ballistic missile department.

The high point came 19 February 1940, when Institute staff A. Kostikov, I. Guay and the representative of the Main Artillery Directorate of the Red Army V. V. Aborenkov received an author's certificate for the invention of the “mechanized installation for firing missiles of various calibers” for number 3338.

This invention became the basis for the development of "Katyusha". 17 June 1941 of the year Kostikov demonstrated to the members of the Politburo, the government of the country and the leaderships of the USSR NPOs the work of the installation, based on a car.

The day before the start of the war, 21 June 1941, JV Stalin made a decision to launch the mass production of M-13 rockets and the BM-13 launcher (UZO) and to start forming the respective military units.

28 July 1941, the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet issued two decrees on awarding the creators of "Katyusha". The first decree "for outstanding achievements in the invention and design of one of the types of weapons that raise the combat power of the Red Army" Kostikov was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor (No. 13). 12 engineers, designers and technicians, including the Order of Lenin, co-authors Kostikov of the invention I. Guay and V. Aborenkov were awarded orders and medals by the second decree.

Everything seemed to be natural and simple. A simple Soviet worker, gifted with nature, created a weapon that played one of the most important roles in that war. And deserves to stand on a par with the same nuggets of the Russian land as Grabin, Degtyarev, Kalashnikov.

But no. Really wind stories often blows garbage from the graves of undeservedly forgotten people.

Today we can say with confidence that the only merit and skill Kostikov was the ability to write denunciations. This he really was able to do. But the work was much worse.

There is no other way to explain the complete absence of any significant inventions and developments in Kostikov’s career. Moreover, in 1944, he was arrested. But not by denunciation of "espionage" in favor of Germany or the USA. Kostikov was arrested, accusing him of forgery and deception of the government along with sabotage. Work on the developed Kostikov jet aircraft project "302" was ordered to stop.

However, not planted and not shot. They let out a year later, at the end of February 1945, of course, by firing from their position. But they were allowed to work in one of the institutes (NII-24) for the improvement of missiles in the position of the head of the bureau No. 5.

And on April 19 1944, when Kostikov was already under investigation, the military prosecutor’s commission issued a verdict that Kostikov, Guay and Aborenkov could not be considered authors of the M-8 and M-13 jets and RS-82 and PC- missiles 132.

However, the case was not transferred to the court. Whether there were intercessors, or forgiven. Not finding “hostile intentions” in the line-up, the case was stopped and Kostikov was dismissed. And even allowed to continue to work, even if not in the post of head of the scientific research institute.

Such cruel times were ...

Meanwhile, Kostikova could well have been accused of murder. But since in those times many people were killed like this, then ... Then we will simply move on to the next hero of our story. This author "Katyusha".

Meet Georgiy Erihovich Langemak.



Personality, in many ways controversial and complex. His life path is not as straightforward as Kostikov’s.

The father and mother of Langemak are Swiss. Erich Frantsevich is of German origin, Maria Konstantinovna is of French origin. But all his life, in all the twists and turns, Georgy Langemak wrote only “Russian” in the questionnaires.

Education is great (it's easy with parents). Gymnasium, St. Petersburg University, Admiralty School of Ensigns in St. Petersburg, officer artillery school in Revel (Tallinn). Served, fought with the Germans in the Baltic.

There is evidence that during the turmoil of the Civil War he served in the units of Hetman Skoropadsky and Petlyura.
In June 1919 he joined the Red Army and, as an officer fleet, was appointed battery commander of the 4th artillery division of the Kronstadt fortress, and then commandant of Fort Totleben of the 4th artillery division.

During the Kronstadt uprising, George Langemak did not support the rebels and was arrested and sentenced to death. He was detained on March 2 - April 18 of 1921, and was released only after the uprising was crushed. Did not have time to shoot. And the contents in the punishment cell of the fort saved Langemaku’s life, for Tukhachevsky and the rebels did not stand on ceremony.

In 1922, he was expelled from the ranks of the CPSU (b) ... for being married in a church.

In 1923, Langemak entered the Red Army Military Technical Academy (Leningrad) and graduated from it in 1928. While studying together with other students of the Academy under the guidance of S.A. Serikov, a teacher of the Academy, he carried out the orders of the Laboratory of N.I. Tikhomirov (Hero of Socialist Labor, posthumously, 1991 g). Subsequently, Tikhomirov’s laboratory engaged in rockets on smokeless powder was renamed GDL - Gas Dynamics Laboratory.

After graduating from the academy, he was assigned to the post of chief of artillery of the Black Sea Fleet, but at the request of N. I. Tikhomirov to the Commander of the Leningrad Military District A. I. Korku, he was left to work in the Gas-Dynamic Laboratory.

In the Gas-Dynamic Laboratory, George Langemak was engaged in the development of rockets PC-82 mm and PC-132 mm. After the death of N. I. Tikhomirov in 1930, Boris Petropavlovsky was appointed head of the Gas Dynamics Laboratory, and Langemak was appointed head of the powder rockets sector. And he continued the development started by Tikhomirov.

At the end of the 1933 of the year, the world's first Jet Research Institute (RNII), also known as the NII-3, was created in Moscow on the basis of the Gas-Dynamic Laboratory and MosGIRD (Jet Propulsion Study Group).

The director of the institute was appointed the head of the gas-dynamic laboratory, I. T. Kleymyonov, his deputy was the head of the GIRD, S. P. Korolev, who was replaced by G. E. Langemak in April 1934.

During his work at the Institute, Langemak practically completed the fine-tuning of the PC-82 and PC-132 rockets, which later became the basis of the Katyusha mortar. In 1933, official ground testing was carried out at the Gas-Dynamic Laboratory from the ground, seagoing vessels and 9 aircraft of various types of missiles on smokeless powder designed by S. S. Petropavlovsky, G. E. Langemak and V. A. Artemiev. 4 of them were adopted.

In total, 82 type rockets of 82, 132 and 240 mm were developed.

During this period, Langemak corresponded with K.E. Tsiolkovsky, reflecting on the non-military use of rockets, on the possibility of their use in astronautics. By the way, the term “cosmonautics” itself introduced Langemak.

In 1937, as the “brainchild” of Tukhachevsky, the Jet Research Institute underwent a “purge”. The leadership of the institute was arrested. 2 November 1937 of Langemak was arrested (order No. A 810) by the Moscow NKVD authorities as a German spy based on data previously available in the NKVD (investigative file of the FSB archive No. Р3284 (14654)). The indictment, dated 31 December 1937, is based on a single interrogation protocol, the second copy of which is dated 15 December 1937 (the first copy does not have a date), based on materials provided by the institute, with the active participation of A. G. Kostikov, who took the place of Langemak after his arrest.

Together with Langemak, I. T. Kleymyonov, S. P. Korolev, V. P. Glushko were arrested.

11 January 1938 at a closed court session of the exit session of the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court, chaired by V. V. Ulrich and two members of the court, I. T. Golyakov and A. G. Suslin, examined the case of Georgy Erihovich Langemak.

For "sabotage in the field of preventing new types of weapons" and participation in the "anti-Soviet terrorist organization," the crimes under Art. Art. 58-7, 58-8 and 58-11 of the RSFSR Criminal Code, George Erikhovich Langemak was sentenced to death with confiscation of all his personal property. On the same day the sentence was carried out.

The day before, 10, January 1938, was sentenced and shot the director of the institute, Ivan Terent'evich Kleimenov.

But developed by the team "Katyusha" was still built and trashed enemies. The triumph of truth came later.

19 November 1955 The Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR, chaired by Colonel Justice Lebedkov and members, Lieutenant Colonels Justice Romanov and Shalaginov, determined: grounds n. 11 Art. 1938 Criminal Procedure Code of the RSFSR, in criminal proceedings, should be terminated due to the absence of corpus delicti in its actions ... ”

G. E. Langemak and his colleagues were fully rehabilitated.

Unfortunately, the Military Collegium did not officially secure the status of the Katyusha authors.

Only in 1991, by the Decree of the President of the USSR M. S. Gorbachev from 21, June 1991 was posthumously awarded the title Heroes of Socialist Labor for the work on the creation of a rocket mortar:

Ivan Terent'evich Kleimenov (shot in 1938)


Georgy Erihovich Langemak (shot in 1938)


Vasily Nikolaevich Luzhin (convicted in 1940 g, released in 1948, died suddenly in 1955)


Boris Sergeevich Petropavlovsky (died suddenly in 1933)


Boris Mizilovich Slonimer (died in 1980)


Nikolai Ivanovich Tikhomirov (died in 1930).


Two more participants in the case, Sergey Pavlovich Korolev and Valentin Petrovich Glushko, although they received their deadlines, but, fortunately, they spent most of their time in the so-called “sharashkas” and subsequently took their place in the history of space exploration. But that's another story.

By the way, in December 1935, the book “Missiles: Their Design and Application” edited by G. E. Langemak and V. P. Glushko was published. The book was banned in 1938 year and withdrawn from the funds.



“After death, a lot of garbage will be put on my grave. But the wind of history will dispel it ”(J. V. Stalin).

Unfortunately, recognition and honor are not always given to those who deserve it. It happened with Langemak and his colleagues at work. Memory and cleaning up this historic garbage is all we can. The memory, the knowledge of what these people have done for us, but a deep bow to them for their work.

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  1. V.ic
    V.ic 12 July 2016 06: 38
    +2
    Deserved means ... The award found heroes ...
    1. Vend
      Vend 12 July 2016 09: 58
      +4
      A very good article. There is only a question, what documents did you rely on? And where can I read them?
      1. Reserve officer
        Reserve officer 12 July 2016 13: 00
        +12
        Quote: Wend
        A very good article. There is only a question, what documents did you rely on? And where can I read them?


        Anatoly, in the article, indeed, everything is true.
        I worked at NIITP (former RNII, now - "Center" Keldysh "), where in the late 80s and early 90s, expert commissions removed the stamp from many documents on the history of the creation of rocket artillery. This was done on the initiative of the leadership of the institute, since Then a lot of articles appeared in which all the merit for the creation of this weapon was assigned exclusively to the Compressor plant.
        Go to the site of the "Kedldysh Center", in the "History" section. There are many interesting things to read.
        1. An64
          An64 12 July 2016 16: 20
          +2
          Go to the site of the "Kedldysh Center", in the "History" section. There are many interesting things to read

          Right there, it is said that the inventor of the "Katyusha" Kostikov
        2. shasherin_pavel
          shasherin_pavel 12 July 2016 22: 46
          +2
          Of course, I understand that the careerists have done a lot of harm with their denunciations, but I want to ask how rocket engineering survived if all the most important participants were eliminated? So Shakhurin, a mortar designer, created his own lobby, and with his denunciations he destroyed the mortar design bureau and we had no mortars. He destroyed the creator of the automatic 1935 mm grenade launcher in 30. We did not have an automatic grenade launcher in the war and were not in more than one army in the world. And here all the main ones were eliminated, and rocket weapons only got better and improved throughout the war. To be honest, the most important thing here should be the creator of the technology for the production of slow-burning propellant bombs, the basis of rocket projectiles. German troops captured a huge number of Katyushas, ​​and there are photographs of installations with a full complement of shells viewed by the Wehrmacht soldiers. There is no problem to create a chemical component of gunpowder, but the technology cannot be recognized. So they fought in the Wehrmacht with their "donkeys" with a range of mines of 2.5 km. The Americans have created 30mm aircraft missiles. Although Stalin, having learned that the Germans had an 82-mm projectile, ordered to transfer the design of the projectile to the British and Americans in 1942. Just not the technology for the production of checkers. But it was the Americans who produced gunpowder for the RSs for the Red Army. But not checkers. They produced gunpowder, but not rocket shells. So who, then, is the main creator of all rockets?
          1. Stas57
            Stas57 13 July 2016 09: 20
            +1
            Quote: shasherin_pavel
            Here Shakhurin, the mortar designer, created his own lobby, and with his denunciations he destroyed the mortar design bureau and we didn’t have a mortar. Destroyed in 1935 the creator of the automatic 30-mm grenade launcher. We didn’t have an automatic grenade launcher in the war, and there wasn’t more than one army in the world.

            there was no lobby, the mortar cost 5 times cheaper, it could be made by any employee in the workshop of the Federal Law, did not require expensive shells
            that's all the lobby
      2. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 12 July 2016 16: 02
        +6
        Quote: Wend
        A very good article. There is only a question, what documents did you rely on?

        Quote: Wend
        Anatoly, in the article, indeed, everything is true.

        Dear colleague Anatoly, in the article, everything related to the creation of rockets is described correctly (here I completely agree with my distinguished colleague Alexei). A good book about G.E. Langemak was published several years ago. It is also available electronically on the network. There the history of the creation of "Katyusha" is described.
        However, as far as the legal side of the matter is concerned, this is a set of shabby phrases and passwords from Wikipedia, which do not quite correspond to real facts, both in terms of the time of the events and the charges.
        Langemak and Kleimenov were arrested on November 2.11.1937, 11.01.1938. Sentence - XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX
        Glushko V.P. arrested in March 1938, and August 1939 condemned by the Special Conference of the NKVD of the USSR. (The maximum penalty that the Special Meeting could endure is 8 years in prison)
        Korolel S.P. arrested on June 27, 1938, 27.09.1938/1940/XNUMX sentenced to imprisonment. In March XNUMX, he was partially rehabilitated (the charge of counter-revolutionary activity was dropped, but articles for economic crimes were retained, and the term was reduced). Korolev was arrested on the basis of testimonies (or denunciations) of Kleimenov, Langemak, Glushko.
        Quote: Wend
        Today we can say with confidence that the only merit and skill of Kostikov was the ability to write denunciations. He really knew how to do it ...
        Meanwhile, Kostikov could well be charged with murder.

        And here, dear author Roman Skomorokhov, you need to be careful. Kostikov was no different in career behavior from Kleimenov, Langemak, Glushko. In RNII denunciations were in those days quite common. There was a struggle between the Leningrad clan and the Moscow clan (with varying success).
        1. MrK
          MrK 12 July 2016 16: 53
          +3
          I agree with my colleague Gamdlislyam.
          Of course, I did not live at that time. But I read the book by Alexander Kurlandchik on Proza.ru. And here is what he writes there. Citing.
          “... In 1928, at the initiative of Tukhachevsky, a gas-dynamic laboratory dealing with rockets was created. At the head of it were "brilliant designers" Kleimenov and Langemak. Over the years, the laboratory has turned into a huge enterprise; the state has nowhere to finance it more generously. They are still called in American Wikipedia the creators of the BM-13 guards mortar - the legendary Katyusha. All this is far from the truth.
          Time flows, flows, years run, run. Funding is nowhere better. And what? A - not a damn thing! No, everything seems to be going on like clockwork - work is in full swing, field tests are constantly being conducted, and numerous “promising samples” are being endlessly refined. Full visibility of the case. But this is not the case! Because countless tests, refinements and improvements have not brought a step closer to the result - at least one single model that can finally be adopted.
          And in such a way - nine long years! This comedy lasts nine years! With sin, fighters were able to arm the missiles in half - but there is little sense in these missiles (again, their time has not come yet), the accuracy of the hits is scanty, a bunch of other shortcomings. But missiles for the ground forces, the main theater of operations, as there were not, are not.
          The BM-13 jet mortar was developed by designers A.G. Kostikov, V.V. Aborenkov, I.I. Gvay, thereby offending the tsarist and Soviet general I.P. Grave, the author of the idea [Рождение "Катюши" http://bratishka.ru/archiv/2005/2/2005_2_6.php].
          In February of 1939, tests of a car-mounted launcher are completed. For a number of serious reasons, it is not suitable for production. Voroshilov issues another illiterate order — and in just six months, not only was he developed, but a new model was adopted for field tests. This is BM 13, better known to us as Katyusha. But precious time is lost.
          About how Soviet military-technical thought rushed forward after the army freed itself from Tukhachevsky and his gang, you can write a thick book, but by the way, several, though not very thick, but sensible and showing the true face of the Red Gladiator have already appeared. ”
          1. guzik007
            guzik007 13 July 2016 07: 42
            0
            Voroshilov issues another illiterate order — and in just six months, not only was he developed, but a new model was adopted for field tests.
            --------------------------------------------------------------------
            Did you forget to put in quotation marks "illiterate order"? otherwise rubbish turns out.
            And according to other sources, it was Voroshilov, who took the post of commander after Tukhachevsky, who managed to isolate the Katyusha in the heap of "inventions" and accelerated the revision and introduction into the troops. Agree, this does not fit with the image of an "illiterate soldier"
        2. Revolver
          Revolver 13 July 2016 16: 03
          0
          Quote: Gamdlislyam
          Korolev was arrested on the basis of testimonies (or denunciations) of Kleimenov, Langemak, Glushko.
          If you interrogate with skill, then anyone will give evidence which they point to and whom they point to. They knew how to interrogate in the NKVD.yes
          It is curious how many of those present here will withstand a session of thermorectal cryptanalysis. belay and do not split? I must confess right away - I personally can’t stand it.No.
  2. Fitter65
    Fitter65 12 July 2016 06: 39
    +3
    A lot of copies were broken on this topic at one time, but a reminder of it will not hurt.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 July 2016 07: 30
      +8
      Quote: Fitter65
      A lot of copies were broken on this topic at one time, but a reminder of it will not hurt.

      Quote: V.ic
      Deserved means ... The award found heroes ...

      From what I read about "Katyusha" a lot of dark and cloudy. Unfortunately, I did not have materials on testing and fine-tuning of missiles. It was precisely fine-tuning the accuracy that took a lot of time. Tikhonravov created a powder composition for missiles from pyroxylin powder on a non-volatile solvent from which they were pressed fuel checkers. Now I can not document it, but from memory I can cite the fact that from the staff of the GDL they demanded accuracy, accuracy and range of missiles as from an artillery shell. For this, tubular guides and rails with T-shaped slots were used, but success came only when they began to put the tail with dimensions that go beyond the dimensions of the rocket. Prior to this, work was carried out with the tail that did not go beyond the dimensions of the rocket body. Work on missiles with tangential outflow of gases, and the rotation of missiles in flight were postponed, if you say prohibited due to drop in the range of missiles. During the Second World War, according to the memoirs of Novikov and Shakhurin, cordite for engines had to be purchased in lii.
      1. self-propelled
        self-propelled 12 July 2016 11: 20
        +2
        in the primacy of the use of MLRS many questions (as still not clarified). but with regards to the tactics of using such systems in large quantities - the Union was the first.
  3. Simpsonian
    Simpsonian 12 July 2016 06: 41
    -2
    The main merit of the one who made the fuel, to push it into the pipe or weld the launch rails a lot of mind is not necessary.
    http://berkovich-zametki.com/2011/Zametki/Nomer6/Fomenko1.php
    first of all, Tikhomirov and Grave, about whom there is not a word here, whom the "bad" Stalin saved from a bullet.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 July 2016 07: 45
      +4
      Quote: Simpsonian
      The main merit of the one who made the fuel, to push it into the pipe or weld the launch rails a lot of mind is not necessary.
      http://berkovich-zametki.com/2011/Zametki/Nomer6/Fomenko1.php
      first of all, Tikhomirov and Grave, about whom there is not a word here, whom the "bad" Stalin saved from a bullet.

      Grave and Tikhomirov did fuel and the simplest rockets back in 1916, but they were not used as combat ones because of low flight accuracy, but they were widely used as lighting in fortresses.http: //helpiks.org/1-132247.html
      But in the link, thank you, the names of Pomortsev and Grave are mentioned.
      1. Simpsonian
        Simpsonian 12 July 2016 10: 58
        0
        different missiles have different fuel
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 12 July 2016 12: 56
          +3
          Quote: Simpsonian
          different missiles have different fuel
          And the shape of the fuel checker, too, and the modes of increase and stabilization of combustion, too. Tikhomirov and Grave first created fuel from smokeless powders, on a non-volatile solvent with high combustion stability.
          1. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 12 July 2016 16: 28
            +1
            Then why do I put a minus for the first comment in the 7M ghouls branch? bully
            1. shasherin_pavel
              shasherin_pavel 12 July 2016 23: 02
              +2
              So seven do not agree with you! Do not pay attention to the cons ... I would still count them, so long ago I would drown in the toilet.
              1. Simpsonian
                Simpsonian 13 July 2016 03: 00
                -1
                "Amurets" wrote the same thing, we agree with him
    2. MrK
      MrK 12 July 2016 16: 56
      +1
      Quote: Simpsonian
      first of all, Tikhomirov and Grave, about whom there is not a word here, whom the "bad" Stalin saved from a bullet.


      But what about without the Stalin shooter. The author will not be in a trend
  4. veteran66
    veteran66 12 July 2016 06: 55
    -16%
    "Father - a native of peasants, did not have a certain profession and all his life worked as a laborer, janitor, porter, moving from city to city. Mother was engaged in housekeeping." - oranges will not be born from aspen.
    1. Simpsonian
      Simpsonian 12 July 2016 07: 30
      +1
      oranges usually tend to turn into ...
      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 13 July 2016 16: 19
        +1
        It turns out that working in "sharashki" saved the lives of many designers. For under protection it is not possible to use denunciation weapons.

        Tricky move, Comrade Beria. You are a wise man, you were. Where would such pick up yes send to power.
        1. Simpsonian
          Simpsonian 13 July 2016 22: 06
          0
          and in ZATO it’s more difficult to kill enemy agents
          1. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 13 July 2016 22: 06
            0
            in sharazhki only every 10th was a convict
    2. V.ic
      V.ic 12 July 2016 07: 42
      +15
      Quote: veteran66
      from aspen oranges will not be born.


      Nikolay Nekrasov
      "Schoolboy"

      "- Well, go, for God's sake!
      Sky, spruce and sand -
      A sad road ...
      - Hey, sit down to me, my friend!

      Feet barefoot, dirty body,
      And barely covered chest ...
      Do not be ashamed! what's the deal?
      This is a many glorious path.

      I see a book in my bag.
      So you go to study ...
      I know: dad on the little son
      He kept the last penny.

      I know: the old clerk
      I gave a quarter
      What a traveling merchant
      Presented for seagulls.

      Or maybe you're a yard
      Of those released? .. Well then!
      The case is also not new -
      Do not be timid, you will not be lost!

      You’ll soon find out at school
      Like an archangel man
      On their own and God's will
      Became intelligent and great
      .

      Not without good souls in the world -
      Someone will take to Moscow
      Will you be at the university -
      A dream will come true!

      There is already a wide field:
      Know to work, but do not be scared ...
      That's why you deeply
      I love, dear Russia!

      Nature is not mediocre
      That land has not died yet
      What deduces from the people
      Know so many glories,

      So many kind, noble,
      Strong soul-loving
      In the midst of dumb, cold
      And self-inflated
      !"
      1. Oslyabya
        Oslyabya 12 July 2016 16: 07
        0
        Fine!
      2. veteran66
        veteran66 12 July 2016 18: 52
        -3
        Quote: V.ic
        So many kind, noble,
        Strong soul-loving
        In the midst of dumb, cold
        And pompous themselves! "

        Good poetry, though a little off topic, I have already explained to some about the peasants and their heterogeneity. There were those who struggled 24 hours a day to educate their children, but, unfortunately, there weren't many of them. Most would rather buy an extra scale than a textbook for their son. So what about "dumb, cold" is more to you, if you do not understand this.
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 13 July 2016 06: 36
          0
          Quote: veteran66
          about "stupid, cold" it is more to you, if you do not understand it.

          Do you want to spray with drool? Do not strain! Not that case ... Accumulate anger and speak out on business, and not just to throw a turd on duty. bully
        2. Svidetel 45
          Svidetel 45 14 July 2016 23: 23
          +1
          And who is "pompous" about? Maybe about YOU?
    3. Military Builder
      Military Builder 12 July 2016 08: 23
      +11
      from aspen oranges will not be born


      very born, the main thing is to get the vaccine right, the same Mikhailo Lomonosov
      1. Mother CheeseEarth
        Mother CheeseEarth 12 July 2016 14: 35
        -6
        Quote: War Builder
        the same Mikhailo Lomonosov

        And actually, Lomonosov was from a wealthy family pomora and had noble roots.
        1. shasherin_pavel
          shasherin_pavel 12 July 2016 23: 24
          +2
          Quote: Mother CheeseEarth
          Pomor and had noble roots.

          If he had noble roots, then obviously he was not the son of Pomors. All the same, as if a pacer was born from a bull.
          1. MrK
            MrK 14 July 2016 14: 53
            +1
            Quote: shasherin_pavel
            And actually Lomonosov was from a family of prosperous Pomors and had noble roots.


            No, Yong was from the Pomeranian counts and was born in boots.
            True, Peter drowned in bast shoes, his boots were apparently drunk.
      2. veteran66
        veteran66 12 July 2016 18: 44
        +1
        Eck you got a kick, gentlemen minusators. The fact is that this is a popular wisdom, like "An apple from an apple tree ...", but for those who, apparently, are not "orange" and put a minus out of stupidity or in pursuit of a plus sign, I will explain - the key word here is not peasant (the peasants were just the main driving force of the Russian economy, many of them became large merchants and manufacturers by their labor and people's ingenuity), the main thing: "he did not have a certain profession," that is, he was a lumpen. And Mikhail Lomonosov's pedigree is not so simple.
      3. shasherin_pavel
        shasherin_pavel 12 July 2016 23: 21
        -3
        Look at history in a simplified way. Of course, according to Soviet agitation, it is necessary to show everyone that it is possible to create a minister from a cook ... But go deeper into history ... It's no secret that commoners could never get an education higher than a parish one. There is such a feature in our history, when kings and emperors chose their favorites of beauties, and when they became pregnant, they married a simpler nobleman, but left him a one-time compensation of five thousand, and a monthly pension for the maintenance of a bastard. So the traveler Przhevalsky was born about Alexander II. And it was not a secret for the new husband of the artistic nobleman Perezhivalsky. There was also a list of bastards from the great princes ... They then became teachers, doctors and other intelligentsia. The "Tobacco Captain" remains legendary if there was one. How could Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili send a congratulatory telegram on the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty from Tbilisi? Only as the son of the illegitimate Przewalski, it means the grandson of Alexander II. Where could a washerwoman from Gori receive her pension after the death of her husband by postal orders? So Lomonosov, if he was even three heads taller than himself, would never have been able to enter the university, if he were the son of a Pomor.
    4. Felix99
      Felix99 12 July 2016 08: 59
      +3
      What kind of orange did you give birth to, colleague?
      1. veteran66
        veteran66 12 July 2016 18: 47
        +1
        Quote: Felix99
        What kind of an orange did you give birth

        specifically ... I have two higher, I work in a bank. He started with the cashier, now the head of the branch. Children are also higher, they work in a bank, they started with cashiers. Something like this, colleague)))
        1. shasherin_pavel
          shasherin_pavel 12 July 2016 23: 39
          +3
          Quote: veteran66
          specifically ... I have two higher, I work in a bank.

          Who are you descended from? Maybe from the cashier in the store? It is clear that your branch is grafted and the two higher ones give corresponding fruits. My mother had 4 classes of education, she worked as a storekeeper at a brewery in Monchegorsk (there I learned to shoot rats from a slingshot in warehouses), then as a cashier in stores (there I learned to choose mature watermelons for buyers), since during the holidays I was not where. Secondary special education. He created the "Codification of the Gospel", where he arranged all the Gospels in chronological order, translated from the Church Slavonic Bible republished in 1900, translated, and not reprinted, "Budynsky collection" of the genealogy of the Slavic princes (the family descended from Sloven, therefore the Slavonic) who ruled the Slavic land to Rurik. My collection of the history of Russia, while still in draft form, has a volume equal to 5 Bibles of the full version. Only recently I learned that the one whom I considered my fathers, who left us, is not my father. I would not have lived to be 58 and would not have learned that my brother and I have different fathers.
          1. veteran66
            veteran66 13 July 2016 06: 27
            -1
            Quote: shasherin_pavel
            And from whom did you come from?

            Father is an officer, an air defense pilot. And I followed in his footsteps, but I didn’t get into aviation for health.
            Quote: shasherin_pavel
            your branch is vaccinated and the two higher ones give the corresponding fruits.

            you see, higher education, in itself, does not give anything, now many have it, but .... But the lack of this "vaccination" did not prevent you from building your life.
    5. Beefeater
      Beefeater 12 July 2016 12: 14
      +1
      Quote: veteran66
      "Father - a native of peasants, did not have a certain profession and all his life worked as a laborer, janitor, porter, moving from city to city. Mother was engaged in housekeeping." - oranges will not be born from aspen.

      Then this locksmith with an unfinished initial was immediately enrolled in the university. It is not clear what he could learn from such a low start. My father worked with German "trophy" specialists, he was 17 then, so the German technician was like our candidate of sciences.
      Such a degree of unprofessionalism, I agree with the author, was possible only in a Soviet country, where they were valued not for knowledge but for origin.
      1. Mother CheeseEarth
        Mother CheeseEarth 12 July 2016 14: 19
        +1
        Quote: Beefeater
        What he could learn from such a low start is not clear.

        Never mind. Could not people who had difficulty with three classes study at universities!
        Suffice it to recall that in those years there was a "brigade method" for passing tests-exams. This is when the questions were answered not individually, but by the whole brigade, and for the offset (for the whole group!) It was enough for someone from the whole group to answer the question!
        (carcass light in general)
        1. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam 13 July 2016 09: 42
          +1
          Quote: Mother CheeseEarth
          Suffice it to recall that in those years there was a "brigade method" for passing tests-exams.

          Dear colleagues, in vain minus the colleague MotherSyraZemlya. He set out a historical fact. In the second half of the 20s, in the beginning of the 30s there was such a way of passing exams at RabFak. In the mid-30s, it was abandoned.
          You need to know the history of your country in order to understand those or other processes that took place at certain times, and the reasons that gave rise to them. And to perceive these historical facts as a given, not a groan.
  5. Leto
    Leto 12 July 2016 07: 13
    +2
    Two more participants in the case, Sergey Pavlovich Korolev and Valentin Petrovich Glushko, although they received their sentences, fortunately, spent most of their time in the so-called "sharashki"

    ... BUT, fortunately, Glushko pulled the Queen out of Kolyma, where at the moment of "pulling out" he had already turned into a sick dying "wick" who had very little left to die.
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 12 July 2016 07: 30
      +6
      The Queen was also imprisoned on the denunciation of "colleagues"!
    2. Jipo
      Jipo 12 July 2016 08: 07
      +4
      Glushko had nothing to do with this, Tupolev pulled it out, Golovanov described it in his book about the Queen, and Chertok mentioned it in his "Rockets and People".
      1. MrK
        MrK 12 July 2016 17: 00
        +1
        Quote: JIPO
        Glushko had nothing to do with it,


        Had. He denounced the Queen
    3. Evgeniy-111
      Evgeniy-111 12 July 2016 12: 39
      0
      Is it a bit from the war until 1966?
    4. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 12 July 2016 16: 17
      +4
      Quote: Leto
      BUT fortunately Glushko pulled the Queen from Kolyma

      Dear colleague Ivan, V.P. Glushko, was involved (like some others) in the "landing" of S.P. Korolev. Until the end of his life, Sergei Pavlovich never forgave Glushko for this. The relationship between them was, to put it mildly, hostile.
  6. Million
    Million 12 July 2016 07: 19
    +5
    The more time has passed since the war, the more new "facts" are revealed. If only I knew where the truth is ...
  7. fider
    fider 12 July 2016 07: 20
    -1
    And here it was not without Jews.
    Boris Mikhailovich Slonimer (1902-1980) - Soviet scientist and military chemical engineer, organizer of the production of weapons and ammunition, head of the Reactive Institute from 1937 to 1940, one of the leaders in the creation of rocket-propelled mortars Katyusha, Hero of Socialist Labor (1991).
    By a decree of the President of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev of June 21, 1991, Boris Mikhailovich Slonimer as part of those who worked on the creation of Katyush: Ivan Terentievich Kleimenov, George Erichovich Langemak, Vasily Nikolayevich Luzhin, Boris Sergeevich Petropavlovsky and Nikolai Ivanovich Tikhomirov, was posthumously assigned Socialist Labor [7].
    1. Million
      Million 12 July 2016 07: 29
      +6
      Jews should not be allowed in to money and power, they are blowing the roof. In general, they are very smart people and bring a lot of benefit if they are engaged in business
      1. Simpsonian
        Simpsonian 12 July 2016 07: 33
        +2
        And there are a lot of them from somewhere in bully well, at least they consider themselves so ...
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 12 July 2016 15: 14
          +2
          As Zhvanetsky said. Do not call each other Eve, in our country, not all Jews
      2. fider
        fider 12 July 2016 07: 38
        -11%
        Million
        Nobody works without money, even Russian collective farmers. And judging by the nickname, you are attracted to millions.
        1. Simpsonian
          Simpsonian 12 July 2016 08: 56
          -2
          Is it not for workdays?
        2. MrK
          MrK 12 July 2016 17: 02
          +1
          Quote: fider
          Nobody works without money, even Russian collective farmers. And judging by the nickname, you are attracted to millions.


          Where are the collective farmers to the leaders of the Jews.
      3. Corsair
        Corsair 12 July 2016 09: 45
        +4
        Quote: Million
        Jews should not be allowed in to money and power, they are blowing the roof. In general, they are very smart people and bring a lot of benefit if they are engaged in business

        There are also many people of different nationalities among scientists, but their names are not well known just because of developed Jewish PR and jokes, among hundreds of Ivanovs, Petrovs, Kuznetsovs, Sadykovs or Khusainovs - Lieberman or Perelman will clearly stand out.
        Jews advertise their how they can (and this is right - the country, people - should know the heroes), and also try to support their own and pull up (this is the biggest plus), while others mostly try to drown and crawl out at the expense of others.
        1. tilix
          tilix 12 July 2016 10: 23
          +1
          And Petrika, you forgot Petrik
          1. V.ic
            V.ic 13 July 2016 12: 43
            0
            Quote: tilix
            did you forget Petrik

            Is that Poroshenko / Valtsman?
      4. Kenneth
        Kenneth 12 July 2016 13: 00
        0
        Right Let them go to camp for barbed wiring, and you will mournfully leave yourself the power and their money. So, mister fascist?
    2. gray smeet
      gray smeet 12 July 2016 08: 49
      +5
      Quote: fider
      And here it was not without Jews.
      .



      And in our country, the entire Soviet era was not without Jews ... And behind the "Iron Curtain" they were ordinary Soviet citizens, that is, like everyone else .. No one divided people by nationality, it’s to the words-Jews could not do without .. There were abilities, attracted to work, and rightly so. And the curtain fell, and now ... supposedly everyone was in prisons and under torture ...
      1. gray smeet
        gray smeet 12 July 2016 08: 57
        +2
        And according to the article - the first photo with "Katyusha" - was taken in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin. Now the photo of the entire collection in this Kremlin is not at hand, otherwise I would have posted it. Mosaics on the theme of the Second World War are very beautifully made from photographs of the war years - who invented and implemented this, thank you very much, very impressive!
      2. Kenneth
        Kenneth 12 July 2016 12: 58
        0
        Lie more
        Like everything ... the case of doctors, the case of rootless cosmopolitans, etc.
  8. Waltasar
    Waltasar 12 July 2016 07: 20
    0
    In my opinion on the autoreview, the article found that of all the katyushas on the pedestals of the real thing 2, the rest were later reworked without taking into account the realities of the application.
  9. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 12 July 2016 07: 22
    +5
    There is a double feeling from the article: pride for our scientists and quiet sadness about the untimely departed ... hi
  10. parusnik
    parusnik 12 July 2016 07: 32
    +6
    He took part in the fighting against Ukrainian rebels... He served in the units of Hetman Skoropadsky and Petlyura... I would like to know .. the units of Hetman Skoropadsky and Petlyura, are Ukrainian rebels ..? Or is it separate? .. And then who are the Ukrainian rebels ..? .. Why I ask ... Ukrainian rebels, units of Skoropadsky and Petlyura, associated with the Armed Forces ...
    1. Alex
      Alex 12 July 2016 11: 27
      +7
      Quote: parusnik
      He took part in the hostilities against Ukrainian rebels ... served in the units of the hetman Skoropadsky and Petlyura ... I would like to know .. the units of the hetman Skoropadsky and Petlyura, are these Ukrainian rebels ..? Or is it separate?

      I will try to answer.

      First, it sounds somehow strange that the same person served with Skoropadsky and Petliura. They were opponents, although in words they declared similar - nationalist - slogans. Skoropadsky was a direct creature of the Germans, Petliura was a foster child and a member of the leadership of the Central Rada, who later focused on Poland. Their armed forces were completely separate and did not overlap with each other in any way. However, nothing forbade individual stubborn nationalists to run from one camp to another, but for a Russian officer, which Lengemak considered himself to be, such behavior was hardly typical. The mood in the officer corps of Skoropadsky's troops is written very well in Bulgakov's novel The White Guard.

      Secondly, Ukrainian insurgents are generally, as a rule, irregular formations of a very different kind (well, the Ukrainian land is rich, including for all sorts of weeds) such as "Pan Ataman Hrytsian Tavrichesky" or the ever-memorable "Father Makhno". Of such attention, only the formations of the Galician army deserve attention - the remnants of the "Sichovy Striltsiv" corps, formed by the Austrians from the nationalist natives of Galicia and used by them at the end of the PMP against the Russian army. In the future, all these "rebels" scattered in different ways along the roads of life: who went to Ptlyura; some in the underground, and then to Volynets - Miller - Bandera; who gave up fighting; who went to emigration (Canada, Argentina, who is richer - France).

      Thirdly, your allusions to modern APUs are fully justified: all this national trash, without difference in shades, is now in Ukraine - national heroes.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 12 July 2016 13: 39
        +2
        The rebels ... too loud ... for me they are bandits ... They didn’t build up, they basically robbed ..
        1. Alex
          Alex 12 July 2016 16: 55
          +5
          Quote: parusnik
          The rebels ... too loud ... for me they are bandits ... They didn’t build up, they basically robbed ..

          Remember, as in the unforgettable "Wedding in a Robin":


          Gritian: And all my guys are like one ...
          Popandopulo: ... They stand for a free personality.
          Trendy woman: So they will rob.
          1. Alex
            Alex 12 July 2016 17: 05
            +2
            And here is the video.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 12 July 2016 19: 23
        0
        Quote: Alex
        Firstly, it sounds somehow strange that the same person served with Skoropadsky and Petlyura.

        No wonder. The same Separate Zaporizhzhya Division (the former corps) first served as the hetman, and then switched to the side of Petlyura and again became the corps. Anyway, Petlyura’s army, for the most part, used to serve the hetman.

        So do not be surprised. One Soviet marshal, a pomnitsa, managed to serve both the nationalists and the Reds. smile
  11. Nicola Bari
    Nicola Bari 12 July 2016 07: 47
    +7
    From the article, the feeling is mixed: something similar to a deep dispensation. From the fact that when people died every day and hour, somewhere in the rear, others could not get rid of the desire to ruin their neighbor only because he was more successful or capable. And after all, such situations can be found by taking an interest in the history of tanks, aircraft, artillery, and many more.
    1. MrK
      MrK 12 July 2016 17: 29
      +3
      Quote: Nicola Bari
      From the fact that when people died every day and hour, somewhere in the rear, others could not get rid of the desire to ruin their neighbor only because he was more successful or capable.


      I agree. From the book by Yu.I. Mukhina. The assassination of Stalin and Beria.
      “... In support of this thought, I can cite the memories of the wife of the“ great ”physicist Landau (his wife calls him Dau) about another“ great ”physicist - E. Livshits (Zhenya).
      “In the autumn of 1942, Ilya Livshits came to Kazan from Kharkov, although their institute was evacuated to Alma-Ata. In the evening from Zhenya Dau he returned very excited:
      - Korusha, what a mass of gold I saw in Zhenya! The first time I saw the gold of royal coinage. Having demonstrated their gold to me, Zhenya and Ilya began to persuade me to sneak into the Persian border now, and when the Germans take the Volga, cross the border and make their way to America. Gold will help get to America.
      “Dow, what do you have to do with it?” Let them run with their gold to America.
      “Corush, they need my name on the road, and especially in America.” No, don’t be afraid, I’m not going to run anywhere, but I couldn’t prove to the Livshits that the Germans would not cross the Volga and that it was impossible to conquer Russia! For some reason they forget the story. Hitler’s army will die as Napoleon’s army died.
      - Dau, but you did not advise Zhenya to donate your gold to the victory fund?
      - Corusa, we will win without Zhenya’s gold, but you should not know about gold. I gave my word about gold not to tell you. And the most important thing is that the country needs me now, because I also work for the Red Army. ”

      What Landau gave to the Red Army, having concealed Livshits' gold from it, is impossible to understand from Landau’s memoirs, and even from the biography. But they “settled down” in the rear quite well: “We had more than decent rations on cards. Zhenya was struck by the difference in hard card prices and black market prices. He decided to get rich. He sold everything, even soap. ”[K. Landau-Drobantseva. Academician Landau. M., "Zakharov", 2000.]

      That is, at a time when a Jew of Dragoons, even after a serious wound and disability, was rushing to the front, a Jew Livshits received food in the rear for nothing and increased the amount of his gold, reselling it to those who made weapons for the army.
      The Dragoons died, the Livshitsa grew fat, and this also must be taken into account in order to understand why Jewish Jews after the war became leaders of the Soviet Judaism.
  12. peta locksmith
    peta locksmith 12 July 2016 08: 04
    +2
    now the same "undercover struggle" in the Russian defense industry ...
  13. alstr
    alstr 12 July 2016 09: 00
    +3
    By the way, it should be noted the misconception that rockets were first used under orsha. But the first application was still on Hankin Goals from airplanes. Therefore, there was only a ground version to do. Since the aviation version was essentially the same (except for its size) from the ground. Moreover, at first the missiles were only m8. They were abandoned in the ground version only in 43 g.
  14. Kenneth
    Kenneth 12 July 2016 09: 15
    +1
    IMHO katyusha is given a somewhat exaggerated significance. Yet the main role was played by barrel artillery
  15. imugn
    imugn 12 July 2016 09: 46
    +7
    The allegations are based on sheer assumptions.
    1. "a mechanized installation for firing rocket projectiles of various calibers" - this is only the machine itself with guides. Langemak did not work in this direction.
    2. "Meanwhile, Kostikov could well be accused of murder." - why does the author think so? There is no justification in the article.
    3. “Today we can say with confidence that the only merit and skill of Kostikov was the ability to write denunciations. He really knew how to do that. But with work it was much worse. Nothing else can explain the complete absence of any significant inventions and developments in Kostikov's career. " - If this is true, please provide the facts. And I don’t have any significant inventions and developments, and I don’t write denunciations.

    Well, I read the article with interest. Thank.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 12 July 2016 11: 43
      +5
      Quote: imugn
      The allegations are based on sheer assumptions.

      I agree with that. When you undertake to prove that these are scoundrels, and these are well done, you must do this based on documents and facts. Otherwise, not a proof comes out, but a hypothesis. But, when they talk about scientific and technical developments, attributing their authorship to one person, this always raises doubts. This is extremely rare. The team most often works on scientific discoveries and talented projects. And when the authorship of the design of a tank, aircraft, rocket mortar, is attributed to one person - this always raises doubts about the honesty and decency of the person declaring: - I did it!
  16. Evgeniy-111
    Evgeniy-111 12 July 2016 12: 32
    +4
    As I understand from the article, Langemak created the missiles, and Kostikov - the launch system. Or did the missiles start by themselves? Besides the fact that in one line it is written that "Kostikov's only merit and skill was the ability to write denunciations," is there anything else? As for the rocket plane "302" - so at that time we had a lot of flightless aircraft, and not only Kostikov ...
  17. pafegosoff
    pafegosoff 12 July 2016 12: 57
    +4
    I first read Langemaku somewhere in the 1960s. Glushko was probably promoting a public inquiry. Personality is really suitable for denunciations.
    Unfortunately, the denunciation of colleagues and neighbors, often with a mercenary purpose, is so commonplace that Judas or Bartholomew’s Night (in the description there are curious eyewitness accounts) or all the palace intrigues come to mind first. And scientists! And among other intelligentsia !!! And what’s interesting, then, scammers or repressants always found who to turn the arrows on: the secret police! Ominous Benckendorf and Beria! The vile rulers! Stalin and Nikolai Palkin!
    America and Europe did the right thing: their murderers and crazy witch hunters were either justified by circumstances, the need to save the nation and other crap for lop-eared and tolerant intellectuals, or they were simply forbidden to mention it on pain of death. This is democracy in action. "They shoot the driven horses", "I am very sorry that your bay one broke her leg, but Bolivar will not stand two", "nothing personal ..." - such streamlined forms justify the elimination of competitors and climb up the corpses. That's right, Rockefeller began: blackmail, murder, racketeering, denunciations - all means are good. You will be respected. How thousands of respected Kostikovs all over the country crawled upstairs, decaying in the graves of the NKVD hundreds of thousands of "friends", neighbors, colleagues and relatives. Is Stalin to blame for this? As a person in charge of the Country, yes, but! And Truman for Atomic bombs or Churchill for Dresden or past crimes, and Roosevelt for terrible crimes, and ... Ah !!! That's the same! "These are our sons of bitches!" And every nasty little thing, like Senator McCarthy and Ronald Reagan, is recognized by our liberals as necessary self-defense against the bloody gebny and the commies ...
    So, gentlemen, Navalny und company ... you are not truth-seekers, but scammers.
    No matter how I relate to famous people, but the words of one of them: "I do not give up mine!" Arouse respect.
    Let's remember the good: "Man is a friend to man, comrade and brother"
  18. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 12 July 2016 14: 12
    +4
    Katyusha is a multiple launch rocket system, not a reactive projectile.
    Langemak, Kleimenov and these MLRS did not. Didn’t want or didn’t come up with another thing?
    Their main product, which was released in 1939, is a NURS for air combat.
  19. Mother CheeseEarth
    Mother CheeseEarth 12 July 2016 14: 15
    -11%
    Of course, only in a Soviet country a native of such a lower class could become not just a Hero, but a legend!

    Bolshevik myth.
    In normal countries, normal people from the lower classes could become "heroes", it is enough to recall Lavrenty Pavlovich, who was educated during the tsarist regime, being from a poor family, and working as a trainee in an oil office (Nobel, if anything) and it is quite possible under the tsar would reach the appropriate heights.
    In the Soviet country, however, mediocrity, who only knew how to write denunciations, usually became "heroes", and Kostikov is a clear example.
    On June 17, 1941, Kostikov demonstrated to the members of the Politburo, the government of the country and the leadership of the NPO of the USSR the operation of a vehicle-based installation.

    It is unlikely, most likely another Bolshevik myth, true in the same way as the authorship of Kostikov in the creation of Katyusha.
    And this was most likely the case. The RS was initially already in service as aircraft missiles, the first use of which was still at Khalkin Gol. But due to the "defeat of the reactive", they were safely "forgotten". They remembered only at the beginning of the war, when they learned that the main ammunition stock of the forgotten RS was under Nazi occupation. At the same time, they hastily dug up the old documentation on the RS and found out that the designer provided for the possibility of firing RS, including from water and ground installations, at the same time, the first tests of RS launchers on the ZIS-5 chassis were carried out by GAU in 1938!
    As a result, the first two ground-based launchers for the PC (and the installations themselves aren’t tricky) were made on June 27 (there is an option that they actually stood there from 1938, they just found them and passed them off for the newly made !), and the first battle test occurred on July 14 near Orsha, under the leadership of I. A. Flerov (who, after launch, for some reason ran into the enemy and dragged the whole battery behind him, as a result of which he died).
    Therefore, the stories that supposedly Dzhugashvili experienced something there before the war and ordered to put into service, most likely another Bolshevik myth!
    Such cruel times were

    No, cruel. Just false and irresponsible. Kostikov is a clear example of this.
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 12 July 2016 14: 34
      +2
      stick your clone
      1. Mother CheeseEarth
        Mother CheeseEarth 12 July 2016 16: 03
        -6
        Quote: Stas57
        stick your clone

        Especially for those who did not understand the first comment because of the many "letters".
        "Katyusha" is, first of all, RS, why any normal engineer will explain this to you.
        Father Katyusha Langemak, grandfathers Tikhomirov and Artemyev.
        The first combat use of the RS was at Halkin-Gol, the first ground launch of the RS with a car was carried out by GAU in 1938 with the ZIS-5 chassis.
        Because of the repressions and the recognition of the actions of the "rocket" as sabotage, all RSs were withdrawn from the troops and were remembered only in 41st, when 2 available BM-13s were issued as newly built ones and a myth was written about them about the "official history of Katyusha "led by the ideologically pure Kostikov.
        And yes, all the first RS on Katyushas were aviation, so they were seen again in aviation only in 1942.
        Why? Because by miracle, the surviving planes had nothing to fly on before the allies supplied fuel, and that is why it was decided to launch aircraft missiles from ground installations.
        Still have questions?
        1. Pissarro
          Pissarro 12 July 2016 16: 15
          +5
          Why? Because by miracle, the surviving planes had nothing to fly on before the allies supplied fuel, and that is why it was decided to launch aircraft missiles from ground installations.


          and where in your alternative reality did Baku go with its oil products? wassat
          1. Beefeater
            Beefeater 12 July 2016 18: 19
            +2
            In the USSR there were problems with processing, however, as now.
            There was oil, but only a few tens of kilograms were produced from a ton of gasoline
            1. Simpsonian
              Simpsonian 13 July 2016 04: 59
              +1
              Just oil is very different in composition. There was little such oil in the USSR.
            2. Kostadinov
              Kostadinov 13 July 2016 16: 07
              0
              With 40 kilograms of gasoline per ton of oil and 30 million tons of oil per year, more than 1,2 million tons of gasoline per year is obtained - 100 thousand tons per month. This is enough for more than 200 thousand fighter flights per month. Imported fuel went mainly for import aircraft.
          2. Amurets
            Amurets 13 July 2016 03: 43
            0
            Quote: Pissarro
            and where in your alternative reality did Baku go with its oil products?

            Sorry to interfere, but here are the links to your question:
            http://coollib.com/b/157966/read
        2. An64
          An64 12 July 2016 16: 38
          +1
          Quote: Mother CheeseEarth
          "Katyusha" is primarily RS

          "Katyusha" is a launcher, landing gear, fire control system and RS.
          I don’t argue that aviation PCs were used, but who thought of putting their guides on the car? In this form - not on a trailer, not in a field, not just on wheels?
          This is the invention of "Katyusha".
          1. Mother CheeseEarth
            Mother CheeseEarth 12 July 2016 19: 50
            -2
            Quote: An64
            Katyusha "is a launcher, landing gear, fire control system and RS

            Katyusha is ROCKET system Volley fire, and most importantly in it RS.
            Quote: An64
            Invented to put their guides on the car?

            And for what? On a camel ?! laughing
    2. Outsider V.
      Outsider V. 14 July 2016 17: 00
      0
      Interestingly, you declare any statement or fact inconvenient for you "the next Bolshevik myth"? winked
  20. An64
    An64 12 July 2016 16: 33
    +5
    The article is very controversial. There is a distortion of events and inventions - at first they talk about the invention of a rocket launcher, then a smooth, almost imperceptible transition to the inventors of projectiles, "as the basis of the installation." These are completely different concepts. As with any complex weapon. There are the main constructors of the component parts, but there are also the main ones throughout the sample.
    And in the end, Gorbachev's awarding of the titles of "Heroes of Socialist Labor" did not cancel:
    "On February 19, 1940, when employees of the institute A. Kostikov, I. Gvay and the representative of the Main Artillery Directorate of the Red Army V. V. Aborenkov received an inventor's certificate for the invention of a" mechanized installation for firing missiles of various calibers "No. 3338".

    So, whatever it was - documented authors of "Katyusha" (not shells, not principle, but - install) Kostikov, Guay and Aborenkov. And over the years no one has denied this.
  21. T62
    T62 12 July 2016 16: 43
    0
    Quote: Amurets
    Prior to this, work was carried out with the plumage not exceeding the dimensions of the rocket body.


    Does it look like ???
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 12 July 2016 18: 50
      0
      Disclosure after launch or behind the rocket body
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 13 July 2016 02: 36
      0
      Quote: T62

      Does it look like ???

      As a mortar mine. And also see the link: Shirokorad. Encyclopedia of Russian missile weapons 1817-2002. http://eknigi.org/voennaja_istorija/61925-yenciklopediya-otechestvennogo-raketno
      go-oruzhiya.html
  22. gattus
    gattus 12 July 2016 17: 23
    +1
    The author could also mention Ivan Andreevich Flerov. Under his command, "Katyushas" were first used in battle.
    June 21, 1995 he was posthumously awarded the title of Hero of Russia.
  23. S_Baykala
    S_Baykala 12 July 2016 21: 37
    +2
    I don’t know about you, but I immediately remembered the book by Yu. Nikitin (oh, a great thing) "The Golden Sword". About General A.D. Zasyadko I immediately give a footnote to Wiki (I myself know that you cannot trust them: they will twist how beneficial it is for them): https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Засядко,_Александр_Дмитриевич.

    So from there:

    19 (!) Century:

    The missiles developed by him had a flight range of up to 6 000 meters (English Kongreva missiles - up to 2 700 meters). He calculated how much gunpowder would be required to fly such a rocket to the moon. For the first time in the world, he built a rocket launcher with which it was possible to launch a volley of 6 missiles at once.

    Ps everything may have much earlier "roots".
  24. antivirus
    antivirus 12 July 2016 22: 00
    0
    in short the story is old enough
    Remember how Stirlitz delayed the creation of the atomic bomb by the Nazis.
    Maybe in this case they played giveaways with the whole world
    1. sibiryouk
      sibiryouk 12 July 2016 22: 55
      0
      About Shtirlitsa is a TALE (FANTASY).
      1. fider
        fider 13 July 2016 09: 53
        0
        antivirus, sibiryouk
        About Stirlitz
        https://javelin.whotrades.com/blog/43394507447?from=mail&utm_campaign=mail&utm_s

        ource = mail_click & utm_medium = content_digest_v1_active1 & mailing_log_id = content_dig

        est&ml_log_id=07d3919c92cf436eae4b3908aea59434&mail_link_type=blogpost.title.1
  25. Sagot
    Sagot 12 July 2016 22: 07
    +1
    Thanks to fellow countrymen of the Gorkovites!
  26. Super Black
    Super Black 13 July 2016 02: 15
    0
    Of course, the collective farmer could not invent such a child prodigy, the hand of a high-quality German is felt. But the Stalin-beast soaked all the best, spoiled the nation. My grandfather fought, said that this was the coolest thing during the war, the fascists were terrified of it.
    1. Simpsonian
      Simpsonian 13 July 2016 05: 02
      0
      yes, especially when they were shooting "sheds", fellow but the point is that everyone had something like that sad
  27. Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 13 July 2016 15: 18
    0
    The author of the article justified his pseudonym !!! Buffoon, in a word! wassat
  28. Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 13 July 2016 15: 32
    0
    Quote: veteran66
    Quote: Felix99
    What kind of an orange did you give birth

    specifically ... I have two higher, I work in a bank. He started with the cashier, now the head of the branch. Children are also higher, they work in a bank, they started with cashiers. Something like this, colleague)))

    Everything's clear with you !!! Do you think someone else’s money ?! wassat You get bonuses for savings ???! wassat
    Two towers, and returns - zilch !!! recourse Nah ... far, to us, to Mars !!! wassat

    Article MINUS !!!! Digging into information about "Katyusha" and thrusting a provocation between the lines, stomp into the accounting department, we worked out !!! wassat
  29. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 13 July 2016 15: 40
    0
    Quote: Mother CheeseEarth
    The first combat use of the RS was at Halkin-Gol, the first ground launch of the RS with a car was carried out by GAU in 1938 with the ZIS-5 chassis.

    Why were RS used for aviation on the battlefield in 1939 on Khalkhin Gol, despite the arrest of Langemak, and for RS with the ZIS-5 chassis, it only hit the launch, but did not hit the military use on Khalkhin Gol or in Finland?
    Quote: Mother CheeseEarth
    "Katyusha" is, first of all, RS, why any normal engineer will explain this to you.

    Katyusha was invented in ancient China, the birthplace of gunpowder and rockets, as any normal engineer will explain to you.
    Grabin made 76 mm SU because SU is primarily a cannon.
    Quote: Mother CheeseEarth
    And yes, all the first RS on Katyushas were aviation ones, so they were seen again in aviation only in 1942. Why? Because miraculously, the survivors and the planes simply had nothing to fly on until the allies supplied fuel, and that is why it was decided to launch aircraft missiles from ground installations. Do you have any questions?

    In aviation, RSs have been used on the battlefield since June 22, 1941. All of 1941, many planes hit the Red Army Air Force and they made many flights before the Allies delivered even one ton of fuel. In June 1941, when Katyusha was adopted, the war had not yet begun, and there were a lot of aircraft.
  30. Rif
    Rif 13 July 2016 18: 07
    0
    After 1953, even Eiche was rehabilitated, and even George Erichovich Langemak, God himself ordered.
  31. In100gram
    In100gram 14 July 2016 21: 09
    0
    Nda, a reward weighing 9 grams found her hero. Though posthumously rehabilitated