Day of military glory of Russia. The destruction of the Swedish army in the Battle of Poltava

July 10 celebrates the Day of Military Glory of Russia - the Victory Day of the Russian army over the Swedes in the Battle of Poltava. The Battle of Poltava itself, the decisive battle of the Northern War, took place on June 27 (July 8) on the 1709 of the year. The significance of the battle was immense. The Swedish army under the command of King Charles XII suffered a decisive defeat and was captured. The Swedish king himself barely managed to escape. The military power of the Swedish Empire on land was undermined. In the war there was a radical change. Russia moved to a strategic offensive and occupied the Baltic States. Thanks to this victory, Russia's international prestige has greatly increased. Saxony and Denmark again came out against Sweden in alliance with Russia.


prehistory

The just desire of the Russian state to reclaim the original Russian lands on the shores of the Gulf of Finland and at the mouth of the Neva and thereby gain access to the Baltic Sea, which Russia needed for military-strategic and economic reasons, resulted in a long and bloody Northern War with the Swedish Empire, which considered the Baltic its "lake". Russia was supported by Denmark, Saxony and Rzeczpospolita, who were also dissatisfied with the hegemony of Sweden in the Baltic.

The beginning of the war was a failure for Russia and its allies. The young Swedish king and talented commander Karl XII brought a lightning strike out of the war Denmark - the only power of the Northern Union (the anti-Swedish coalition consisting of the Russian state, Rzecz Pospolita, Saxony and Denmark), which had a navy. Then the Swedes defeated the Russian army near Narva. However, the Swedish king made a strategic mistake. He did not complete the defeat of the Russian state, forcing him to peace, and carried away by the war with the Polish king and the Saxon Elector Augustus II, chasing him through the territory of the Commonwealth. The Swedish king underestimated the Russian kingdom and organizational skills, determination and the will of Peter. He decided that his main enemy was the Saxon Elector and the Polish King Augustus II.

This allowed Tsar Peter to "work on the mistakes." The Russian Tsar strengthened the cadre of the army by saturating it with national cadres (previously the stake was on foreign military specialists). They strengthened the army at a rapid pace, built a fleet, and developed industry. While the main forces of the Swedish army, led by the king, fought in Poland, the Russian army began to crowd out the enemy in the Baltic states and captured the mouth of the Neva River. In 1703, the fortified city of St. Petersburg was founded. In the same year they created the Baltic Fleet and laid the foundation for the Russian fleet in the Baltic - Kronstadt. In 1704, Russian troops captured Derpt (Yuryev) and Narva.

As a result, when Karl again turned the army against the Russians, he met another army. An army that had already won victories more than once and was ready to compete with the forces of a powerful adversary (the Swedish army before Poltava was considered one of the best, if not the best, in Europe). In the moral, organizational and technical condition of the Russian army qualitatively changed for the better. Russia entrenched in the Baltic and was ready for new battles.



Russian campaign of Charles XII

In the meantime, the Swedes were able to end Poland and Saxony. Karl planted his protege Stanislav Leschinsky in Poland. In 1706, the Swedes invaded Saxony, and the Polish king and the Saxon elector Augustus II concluded a peace agreement with Sweden, emerging from the war. After that, Russia was left without allies. In the spring and summer of 1707, Karl XII prepared his army, located in Saxony, for the Russian campaign. The Swedish king managed to make up for the losses and significantly strengthened his troops. At the same time, the Swedish king cherished a plan for a large-scale invasion of Russia with the participation of the Turkish troops, the Crimean Khanate, the Polish puppet regime of Stanislav Leschinsky and the Cossacks of the hetman the traitor Mazepa. He planned to take Russia into giant “ticks” and forever discard Moscow from the Baltic Sea. However, this idea failed. The Turks did not want to fight during this period, and the betrayal of Mazepa did not lead to a large scale deposition of the Cossacks and an uprising in the south. A bunch of senior traitors could not turn the people against Moscow.

Karl was not embarrassed (he dreamed of the glory of Alexander the Great) and he began a campaign with the available forces. The Swedish army began the march in September 1707. In November, the Swedes forced the Vistula, Menshikov retreated from Warsaw to the Narew River. Then the Swedish army made a difficult transition on the actual off-road through the Mazury bogs and in February 1708 reached the city of Grodno, the Russian troops withdrew to Minsk. Exhausted by heavy marches on the road, the Swedish army was forced to stop at the "winter apartments". In June 1708, the Swedish army continued its march along the Smolensk-Moscow line. In late June, the Swedes crossed the Berezina south of Borisov. Simultaneously, the corps of Levengaupta with a huge wagon train went south from Riga. In July, the Swedish army defeated the Russian troops under Golovchin. The Russian army retreated beyond the Dnieper, Karl XII occupied Mogilev and captured the ferry across the Dnieper.

Further advancement of the Swedish army slowed down dramatically. Tsar Peter applied the old tactics of the Scythians - the scorched earth tactics. Swedish troops had to move through the devastated terrain, experiencing an acute shortage of food and fodder. 11-13 September 1708 was in the small Smolensk village Starishi held a military council of the Swedish king with his generals. The question of the further actions of the army was decided: to continue moving to Smolensk and Moscow, or to go south to Little Russia, where Mazepa promised full support. The movement of the Swedish army in the devastated area threatened with hunger. Winter was approaching, the Swedish army needed rest and food. And without heavy artillery, and the supplies that General Lewenhaupt was supposed to bring, it was almost impossible to take Smolensk. As a result, they decided to go south, especially, Hetman Mazepa promised winter apartments, food and assistance to 50-thousand. Little Russian troops.

The defeat of the Levengaupt corps 28 September (9 October) 1708 in the battle near the village of Lesnoy finally buried the plans of the Swedish command to march on Moscow during the campaign 1708 of the year. It was a serious victory, not for nothing that Tsar Peter Alekseevich called her “the mother of the Poltava battle”. The Swedes lost hope of strong reinforcements - about 9 thousand Swedes were killed, wounded and captured. By King Karl, General Lewenhaupt was able to bring only about 6 thousands of demoralized soldiers. The Russians seized an artillery park, a huge wagon train with a three-month supply of food and ammunition. Karl had no choice but to turn south.

Day of military glory of Russia. The destruction of the Swedish army in the Battle of Poltava

Portrait of Peter I. Artist Paul Delaroche

Swedish king Charles XII

Opposition in South Russia

And in the south everything was not as good as in the words of the traitor Mazepa. Of the many thousands of Cossacks, Mazepa managed to bring only a few thousand people, and even these Cossacks did not want to fight for the Swedes and fled at the first opportunity. Menshikov beat Karl XII's avant-garde, took Baturin and burned the reserves there. Swedes only got ashes. Karl had to move further south, making the population angry with looting. In November, the Swedes entered Romny, where they stopped for the winter.

In winter, the situation has not improved. Swedish troops are located in the area of ​​Gadyach, Romain, Priluk, Lukhovits and Lubin. Russian troops stationed east of this area, closing the approaches to Belgorod and Kursk. The bases of our troops were Sumy, Lebedin and Akhtyrka. The dispersion of the Swedish army was due to the inability to locate an army in one or two cities and the need for constant requisition of food and fodder from the local population. The Swedes were losing people in constant small skirmishes. Swedish troops were “bored” not only by the “parties” sent by the Russian generals, but also by peasants and citizens, dissatisfied with the activities of the interventionists. For example, in mid-November, three cavalry and one infantry regiments of the enemy approached the small town of Bold in the hope of winter apartments. Menshikov, learning of this, brought the dragoon regiments to help the townspeople. The Russian dragoons, along with the commoners, defeated the Swedes: around 900, a man was killed and captured. The whole wagon train has become a trophy of Russian troops. When the Swedish king Charles with the main forces arrived at the Bold, his population, having decided that the resistance was hopeless, left the town. Karl XII, on the advice of Mazepa, burned the rebellious city. In December, the Swedes captured the weakly fortified city of Tern, massacred more than a thousand residents and burned the settlement. Large losses - about 3 thousand people, the Swedes suffered during the storming of the fortress Veprik.

Both armies suffered losses not only during clashes and storms, but also from an unusually harsh winter. In 1708, severe frost swept across Europe and caused enormous damage to gardens and crops. As a rule, mild winter in Little Russia is unusually cold. Many soldiers froze or frostbit face, hands and feet. In this case, the Swedes suffered more serious losses. The ammunition of the Swedish soldiers, which had become heavily worn out after leaving Saxony, did not save them from the cold. Contemporaries from the Swedish camp left a lot of evidence about this disaster. The representative of S. Leshchinsky at the headquarters of Charles XII Poniatowski wrote: “Before coming to Gadyach, the Swedes lost three thousand soldiers who were frozen dead; besides, all ministers with carts and many horses. "

The Swedish army was cut off from the military-industrial base, the fleet and began to experience a lack of cannonballs, lead and gunpowder. It was impossible to replenish the artillery park. Russian troops systematically crowded the enemy, threatening to cut off the Swedes from the Dnieper. Karl could not impose on Peter the general battle in which he hoped to crush the Russians and open the way for an offensive against Moscow.

Thus, during the winter 1708 - 1709. Russian troops, avoiding the general battle, continued to harry the forces of the Swedish army in local battles. In the spring of 1709, the city of Karl XII decided to renew the offensive on Moscow through Kharkov and Belgorod. But before that, he decided to take the fortress of Poltava. The Swedish army has approached it with a force of 35 in thousands of people with 32 guns, not counting a small number of Mazepians and Zaporozhians. Poltava stood on the high bank of the Vorskla River. The city was protected by a shaft with a palisade. The garrison, commanded by Colonel Alexei Kelin, consisted of 6,5-7 thousand soldiers, Cossacks and militia. The fortress had 28 guns.

The Swedes, having no artillery and ammunition for the siege, tried to take the fortress by storm. From the first days of the siege, they began to storm Poltava time after time. Its defenders only in April month repelled 12 enemy attacks, often making daring and successful forays themselves. The Russian army was able to hold the garrison of Poltava with people and gunpowder. As a result, the heroic defense of Poltava gave the Russians a gain in time.

Thus, the strategic situation for the Swedish army continued to deteriorate. Poltava could not take, despite the long siege and heavy losses. In May, 1709 was defeated by the Lithuanian hetman Jan Sapega (a supporter of Stanislav Leschinsky), which dispelled the hopes of the Swedes for help from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Menshikov was able to transfer reinforcements to Poltava, the Swedish army was in actual surroundings. Carl's only hope was a decisive battle. He believed in the invincibility of his army and victory over the "Russian barbarians", despite their superiority in the number of people and guns.

The situation before the battle

Peter decided it was time for a general battle. 13 (24) June, our troops planned to break the blockade of Poltava. On the eve of the king sent the commandant of the fortress Kelin order that the defenders of the fortress at the same time the attack, which inflicted the main forces of the Russian army, made a sortie. However, the plan of attack broke the weather: heavy rain raised the water level in Vorskla so much that the operation was canceled.

But the bad weather operation was compensated by a successful attack in the Old Senjars. The Russian colonel Yurlov, who was in captivity, was able to secretly notify the command that in Stariy Senzharas, where Russian prisoners were kept, “the enemy is not fully populated”. 14 (25) June sent a dragoon to Lieutenant General Genskina there. The Russian dragoons stormed the city and liberated 1300 prisoners, destroying 700 enemy soldiers and officers. Among the Russian trophies was the Swedish treasury - 200 thousand thalers. The relatively insignificant losses of the Russian troops - 230 killed and wounded, were an indicator of the decline in combat skills and the spirit of the Swedish troops.

16 (27) June 1709, the Russian Military Council confirmed the need for a general battle. On the same day, the Swedish monarch was wounded in the leg. According to the version presented in the “History of the Holy War”, Karl and his retinue checked posts and accidentally ran into a group of Cossacks. The king personally killed one of the Cossacks, but during the fight a bullet hit him in the leg. According to contemporaries of the battle, when the king heard that several enemies had crossed the river, he, taking with him several Drabants (bodyguards), attacked and overturned them. During his return he was wounded by a shotgun. This event showed the courage of the Swedish king and his irresponsibility. Karl XII led his army to distant lands from his native Sweden and found himself on the verge of disaster in Little Russia, which, it would seem, should have thought about how to carry his legs and save the soldiers, and not risk his life in small skirmishes. You cannot deny Karl’s personal courage, he was a brave man, but he lacked wisdom.

Meanwhile, the moment of the decisive battle was approaching. Even before Charles was injured, 15 (26) of June, part of the Russian army forced Vorskla, which previously divided the two armies. When Renschild reported this to the king, he conveyed that the field marshal could act on his own. Since the time of the Battle of Forestry, Karl has been overwhelmed with bouts of indifference, it was such a moment. In fact, the Swedes almost did not offer resistance to the Russian forces that were being forwarded, although the water line was convenient for a counterattack and defense. 19-20 of June (30 of June - 1 of July) on the opposite bank of the river, Tsar Peter Alekseevich crossed with the main forces.

The Swedish king Charles XII, who always adhered to offensive tactics, showed no interest in the engineering preparation of the future battlefield. Karl believed that the Russian army would be passive, and would mostly be defensive, which would allow him to break through the enemy defenses and defeat him with a decisive attack. The main concern of Karl was to secure the rear, that is, to deprive the possibility of the garrison of Poltava to make a sortie at the moment when the Swedish army would be engrossed in a battle with the army of Peter. For this, Karl needed to take a fortress before the start of the general battle. June 21 (July 2) the Swedish command organized the next storming of Poltava. The Swedes again prepared undermining, laid the barrels of gunpowder, but, as before, there was no explosion - the besieged safely removed the explosives. On the night of June 22 (July 3), the Swedes went to the assault, which almost ended in victory: "... in many places the enemy rose on the shaft, but the commandant showed indescribable courage, because he himself was present and repulsed in all the right places." At the critical moment, the residents of the city also helped: “The residents of Poltava were all on the shaft; the wives, although they were not in the fire on the shaft, only brought stones and so on. ” The assault failed this time too. The Swedes suffered heavy losses and did not receive security guarantees for the rear.

Meanwhile, Russian troops built a fortified camp at the crossing point - the village of Petrovka, located 8 versts north of Poltava. After examining the terrain, the Russian tsar ordered the army to be moved closer to the enemy’s disposition. Peter decided that the open area at Petrovka gives the enemy a great advantage, since the Swedish army had previously been distinguished for its high maneuverability and ability to rebuild during the battle. Based on the experience of the battles of Forest, it was obvious that the Swedes lose this advantage in conditions when it is necessary to fight in conditions of rugged wooded areas, limiting the maneuver.

This terrain was in the area of ​​the village Yakovtsy. Here, five kilometers from the enemy, the Russian 25 June (6 July) began to build a new fortified camp. It was reinforced by the six redoubts built in front of the camp, which blocked the path of the Swedes to the main forces of the Russian army. Redoubts were located one from another at a distance of a gun shot. After examining the fortifications, Tsar Peter 26 of June (July 7) ordered to build four additional redoubts located perpendicular to the first six. The device of additional redoubts was an innovation in the engineering equipment of the battlefield. Without overcoming redoubts, it was extremely dangerous to enter into battle with opponents, it was necessary to take them. At the same time, the Swedes, storming the redoubts, each of which was a garrison from a company of soldiers, had to suffer serious losses from rifle artillery fire. In addition, the offensive through the redoubts disrupted the combat order of the attackers, worsening their position in the clash with the main forces of the Russian army.



The forces of the parties

At the disposal of Tsar Peter in the fortified camp in front of Poltava were 42 thousand regular and 5 thousand irregular troops (according to other sources, about 60 thousand people). The army consisted of 58 infantry battalions (infantry) and 72 cavalry squadrons (dragoons). In addition, 40 thousand more people were in reserve on the Psyol River. The artillery park consisted of 102 guns.

In the Swedish army, if we proceed from the calculation of casualties and prisoners of casualties under Poltava and Peremovochnaya, as well as those who fled with King Charles, there were a total of about 48 thousand people. Moreover, the number of the most combat-ready forces that participated in the Battle of Poltava was much smaller. About 48 thousand Kozak Mazepins and about 3 thousand Cossacks led by K. Gordienko, who went over to the side of Mazepa and Karl in March 8 of the year, and about 1709 Swedes, who continued to block the Poltava fortress. In addition, the Swedish king, apparently not confident of victory and trying to cover dangerous directions, set up several detachments along the Vorskla River until it fell into the Dnieper at Perevolochny, retaining the possibility of retreat. Also from the participants of the battle is to deduct persons not involved in the combat service: only under Peregrovochnaya prisoners took 1300 "servants". As a result, Karl could put about 3400-25 thousand people and 28 guns. Not all forces participated in the battle from both sides. The Swedish army was distinguished by high professionalism, discipline and won many convincing victories in the lands of Denmark, Saxony and Poland. However, recent failures have greatly affected her fighting spirit.


Denis Marten. "Battle of Poltava"

Battle

27 June (8 July) at two o'clock in the morning, the Swedish army under the command of Field Marshal KG Renshild (his bodyguards, the Drabant king, carried on stretchers) with four infantry columns and six cavalry columns secretly moved to the position of the enemy. Karl XII called on soldiers to fight bravely with the Russians and invited them after the victory to the feast in the tents of the Moscow tsar.

The Swedish army moved towards the redoubts and stopped at night in 600 m from the front fortifications. From there came the sound of axes: this is hastily completed 2 advanced redoubts. The Swedes deployed battle lines in 2 in advance: the 1-I consisted of infantry, the 2-I - from the cavalry. Russian horse riding discovered the approach of the enemy. From the redoubts opened fire. Field Marshal Renshild at five o'clock in the morning ordered the attack to begin. The Swedes on the move were able to take two of them who did not have time to complete. The garrisons of the other two offered stubborn resistance. For the Swedes, it was an unpleasant surprise: they knew only about the line of six transverse redoubts. Their assault did not have time to start. The enemy was attacked by the Russian dragoon regiments of generals Menshikov and K.-E. Renne. Swedish cavalry stepped forward infantry, a battle ensued.

The Russian dragoons threw back the royal squadrons and, on the orders of Peter I, withdrew beyond the line of longitudinal redoubts. When the Swedes resumed the attack, they were greeted by strong gun and gun fire from field fortifications. The right flank of the Swedish army, caught in crossfire and suffering heavy losses, retreated in disarray towards the forest near the village of Malye Budyshchi. The Swedish right-flank columns of generals KG Torn off from the main forces during the fight for redoubts Ross and V.A. Schlippenbach defeated the dragoons of General Menshikov.

At about 6 hours Peter I built the Russian army ahead of the camp in the 2 battle lines. The peculiarity of the construction was that each regiment had its own line in the second line, and not someone else’s battalion. Thus, the depth of battle order was created and the support of the first battle line was reliably provided. The center was commanded by General Prince A.I. Repnin. The Tsar laid the general command of the troops on Field Marshal B. P. Sheremetev, who was tested in the war. The Swedish army, which had made its way through the line of redoubts in order to lengthen its battle order, built itself into one battle line with a weak reserve behind. The cavalry was on the flanks in two lines.

At 9 in the morning hours the first line of Russians moved forward. The attack went and the Swedes. After a short mutual rifle fire (from a distance of about 50 meters), the Swedes, not paying attention to the gun and rifle, rushed into a bayonet attack. They sought to get closer to the enemy and to avoid disastrous artillery fire. Karl was sure that his soldiers would knock over any enemy in hand-to-hand combat. The right wing of the Swedish army, in which Karl XII was stationed, pressed the battalion of the Novgorod infantry regiment to which the Swedish 2 attacked. There was a threat of a breakthrough of the Russian position almost at its very center. Tsar Peter I personally led the second battalion of the Novgorodians to the counterattack, which was standing in the second line, which promptly knocked over the Swedes that had broken through, and closed the gap formed in the first line.

During the brutal hand-to-hand combat, the Swedish frontal attack choked, and the Russians began to oppress the enemy. The line of Russian infantry began to cover the flanks of the battalions of the royal infantry. The Swedes panicked, many soldiers ran, fearing encirclement. The Swedish cavalry, without resistance, rushed off into the Budishchinsky forest; followed by the infantry. And only in the center, General Levengaupt, next to whom the king was, was trying to cover the retreat to the camp. The Russian infantry pursued the retreating Swedes to the Budischensky forest and in 11 hours lined up before the last forest mass, hiding the enemy who had fled. The Swedish army was completely crushed and, in an upset composition, fled, led by the king and hetman Mazepa, from Poltava to the crossings across the Dnieper.

Russian casualties were 1345 people killed and 3290 wounded. Losses of the Swedes - 9333 killed and 2874 prisoners. Among the prisoners were Field Marshal Renschild, Chancellor K. Pieper and part of the generals. The 4 cannons and 137 banners, the camp and the convoy of the enemy became Russian trophies.

The remnants of the fleeing Swedish army 29 June (10 July) came to Perevolochne. The demoralized and exhausted Swedes began to search in vain for means of crossing the river. They dismantled the wooden church and built a raft, but it was carried away by the river current. Closer to the night, several ferry boats were found, to which were added wheels from carriages and carts: we had improvised rafts. But only King Karl XII and hetman Mazepa managed to get across to the west bank of the Dnieper with about a thousand people close to them and close protection.

Then Russian troops approached Peregovolno: the Guards Brigade led by General Prince Mikhail Golitsyn, X. NUMX of the dragoon regiments of General R.Kh. Bour and 6 Equestrian and 3 Foot Regiment led by Menshikov. He accepted at the 3 o'clock on the day of June 14 (July 30) the surrender of the Swedish army abandoned by the king, who did not even think about resistance. 11 banner and standard was captured. In all, 142 18 Swedes were captured, almost all of the generals, all their artillery, and the remaining property. King Charles XII and his retinue fled into the possession of Turkey.


Alexey Kivshenko. "The capitulation of the Swedish army"

Results

The elimination of the most efficient core of the Swedish army had strategic consequences. Strategic initiative in the war completely transferred to the Russian army. The Swedish army was now defending, relying on the fortress, while the Russians were advancing. Russia got the opportunity to win at the Baltic theater. Former allies of Russia in the Northern Union again came out against Sweden. At a meeting with the Saxon Elector Augustus II in Torun, a military alliance of Saxony and Rzecz Pospolita with Russia was again concluded. The Danish king also spoke out against Sweden again.

In Europe, highly appreciated the art of the Russian army in the Battle of Poltava. Russian military art was recognized as advanced, innovative. The famous Austrian commander Moritz Saxon wrote: “In this way, thanks to skillful measures, you can force happiness to lean in its direction.” Rokonkur, a major French military theorist of the first half of the 18th century, advised him to study the commanding art of Tsar Peter I. He wrote the following about the Battle of Poltava: “Such a decisive victory over the best disciplined European troops was not a well-known augury for what the Russians would eventually do ... Indeed, this battle is a new tactical and fortification combination, which would be real progress for both. In this very way, which until then was not used, although equally convenient for an offensive and defense, the whole army of adventurer Karl XII should have been destroyed. ”


Personal standard of Charles XII, captured during the Battle of Poltava
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  1. PKK
    PKK 11 July 2016 06: 26 New
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    Amused "Tactics of Scorched Earth", in those days they moved along the rivers. Without a huge fleet of invasion, the adversary had nothing to catch. Movements along rivers are correctly indicated and the names of battles fall on shifts from one river to another. Having captured the shifts, you become the owner of the whole region. Peter 1st in those days, he owned lands to the upper rivers and could not reach Muscovy, Muscovy was on other rivers and controlled the relics, still needed canals, but they were built later. I would like to read the full name of Karl12go, for example Karl Peter Ulrich Holstein Gottorpsky .Author plus.
    1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 15: 35 New
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      An extremely unrealistic article about the fact that the Swedes were at Poltava almost without gunpowder and fought with one cold weapon is not said. Moreover, their convoy with equipment was not destroyed by amusing troops.
      Peter was the same reformer-remodeler as a khrushchik, humpback or eltsin, even his entourage removed him from command of the Poltava battle during its course, until he lost it as Narva and much more, which actually brought the Swedes to Poltava.
      And do not tell tales that the Swedish army was something advanced, it didn’t have store rifles, they differed from archers only in a strange gayrope form of clothing, a hundred years later the French reached Moscow the same way because all Europe fought for them and their side was superior in strength. And to compare Sweden and Russia on economic and military indicators is idiocy. The emperor who executed them himself during the streltsy revolt was just a sadist, he liked the war, and he chose his opponent-Carlos weaker with whom he could play live / dead soldiers without any particular fear. And he played safely for him for more than 20 years. Then he bought (!) What was conquered for rabid grandmothers ... and forbade Russian peasants to settle there to "preserve the cultural identity of the region."
      1. Imperialkolorad 11 July 2016 16: 24 New
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        Dear, do Fomenko laurels haunt you ?. You have a very interesting view of history.
        1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 18: 32 New
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          What does Fomenko have to do with it, or does he write that the Swedes had store rifles? Did you try to compare Sweden and Russia on the map? At the same time, only one, the most southern province, is suitable for agriculture.
          1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 18: 35 New
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            Its winding up, with the still Dopenrovsky Ural ones, did not go to any comparison either.
            1. Andrey Yuryevich 11 July 2016 21: 46 New
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              Simpsonian (1) HU Today, 18:35 ↑ New
              Its winding up, with the still Dopenrovsky Ural ones, did not go to any comparison either.
              I forgive the whole "grammar", yes, Demidov, provided the army, when money and metal came from the Urals, there was no need for a bell to melt a gun.
              1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 22: 49 New
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                The Ural factories are pre-Petrovsky, and there was nothing like this anywhere else before British industrialization.

                the bells had to be melted because the possessed ones who left all the artillery near Narva, etc., simply could not stand the ringing of bells.
      2. Beefeater 11 July 2016 20: 47 New
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        Sweden was at that time a superpower with an army covered with the glory of past battles, with military traditions, high morale, trained officers. This is not modern Sweden, it is also the whole Baltic at first even with the “Leningrad Region” - Ingermanland, with possessions in Northern Germany, with Finland, with Karelia.
        Karl’s ancestors fought with fire and sword throughout Europe, in a 30-year war, gaining glory for Swedish weapons. So the victory was not easy.
        The main result of the war was the new status of the Russian state, which gave opportunities for further development
        1. Simpsonian 13 July 2016 03: 36 New
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          If Sweden was 10 times less economically inferior to the Russian Kingdom and 5 times militarily a superpower, then who was Russia that defeated the Steppe?

          The real "superpowers" of Europe could hardly cope with the Ottoman Empire.
      3. Cat
        Cat 11 July 2016 21: 28 New
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        Shop rifles !? My mustache wrapped in a bow.
        The Swedish army for 150 years before Poltava walked across Europe where it wanted and bent down all who wanted. And only after the defeat in the Northern War, the Swedes began to live not in one of the leading European powers, but simply in a regional one. And in Europe, the Swedes began to travel not as stewards, but simply as tourists.
        1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 23: 00 New
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          Whom did she bend over? Dwarf German principalities or Poland in which there was turmoil? Maybe France with Spain?
          The Austrians were not beaten only by the lazy.
      4. Looking for 11 July 2016 21: 53 New
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        A rifle, and even a store one. In 1709 ??? Or your task is to nibble the glorious pages of the history of Russia. So you then on the Ukrainian media, there you will find a grateful reader, a Russophobe.
        1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 23: 02 New
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          Go to the Yeltsin Center, put a candle for Peter ... they will understand you
      5. Mikhail Matyugin 12 July 2016 11: 54 New
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        Quote: Simpsonian
        Moreover, their convoy with equipment was not destroyed by amusing troops.

        Exactly so - under Lesnaya, the selected regiments and the guard of Peter I fought against generally second-rate forces.

        Quote: Simpsonian
        The emperor who executed them himself during the streltsy rebellion was just a sadist, he liked the war, and he chose his opponent, Carlos, weaker with whom he could play live / dead soldiers without much fear
        Yes, it was Peter I who actually organized the Great Northern War. He did not expect that the young Swedish heir would be a sort of super-war.
        1. Simpsonian 13 July 2016 03: 42 New
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          In general, under Lesnaya there was no amusing “guard of Peter”; there was an old-style army that left the Swedes without gunpowder.

          Yes, he expected everything, he just liked the "fun process" itself ...
      6. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 18: 45 New
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        Quote: Simpsonian
        An extremely unrealistic article about the fact that the Swedes were at Poltava almost without gunpowder and fought with one cold weapon is not said.

        Well, in general, one does not contradict the other - for example, one of the distinguishing features of Swedish military art was precisely a cold steel strike (after 1, rarely 2 volleys). And in the cavalry, Charles XII generally forbade shooting and took away firearms from field battles from many units (not at outposts).
    2. Pavel1 11 July 2016 18: 22 New
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      the traditional reading of our history is tired of everyone. After all, it is clear that something is wrong with our history, and yet they continue to stuff the people with this German cotton ...
      1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 18: 39 New
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        And who most of all brought this "German" to Russia? bully
        1. Pavel1 11 July 2016 18: 43 New
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          Quote: Simpsonian
          And who most of all brought this "German" to Russia? bully


          who, who, grandfather Pikhto, reformulate the question ...
          1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 19: 31 New
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            My grandfather didn’t go to Europe, and before that he didn’t hang out with Koku prostitutes.
            1. Simpsonian 11 July 2016 23: 03 New
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              ... the "good" anointed! laughing
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    3. Andrey Yuryevich 11 July 2016 21: 42 New
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      Day of military glory of Russia. The destruction of the Swedish army in the Battle of Poltava
      Congratulations to Sweden, on a historic date, there is reason to think, Scandinavians, you are northerners, why the hell do you want America? let's get together, we will be friends, listen to the "abba", crack the cod, what else do you need ???
  2. kalibr 11 July 2016 07: 31 New
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    "Tsar Peter I personally led a counterattack of the second battalion of the Novgorodians, who was in the second line, who overturned the Swedes who had broken through with a swift blow and closed the gap formed in the first line."

    In the travel magazine of Peter I, it was stated that the second line of the Russian infantry did not enter the battle. He probably knew better ...
    1. 97110 11 July 2016 21: 15 New
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      Quote: kalibr
      In the travel magazine of Peter I, it was stated that the second line of the Russian infantry did not enter the battle. He probably knew better ...

      And a person writing about the tsar-priest should bend in time and lay in time. He will not have time to read the magazines, they will just bypass the ranks, they will round him off with a dish. Do not we remember the classic "Leonid Ilyich personally ..." How else to demonstrate the presence of a selfless love for the authorities?
    2. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 00: 11 New
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      Quote: kalibr
      In the travel magazine of Peter I, it was stated that the second line of the Russian infantry did not enter the battle. He probably knew better ...

      In terms of truthfulness, his Yurnal competes with, for example, the materials of the Pravda newspaper about World War II.
  3. D-Master 11 July 2016 07: 33 New
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    Thank you so much for the article. As always, the author has detailed, with calculations and wide coverage of details. An article in the personal archive, the author is bold +. Continuing the theme of the Northern War. If possible an article about the Gangut battle. No matter how, the first major victory of the Russian fleet. ... Thank you in advance.
  4. Kenneth 11 July 2016 07: 42 New
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    What rivers are what you carry. Maybe for convincing he will give an example of Karl's river trips.
  5. evil partisan 11 July 2016 08: 29 New
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    Oh, I feel that the Swedes today, another Russian submarine will rush to search sad ... Happy Holidays to you partners! love
  6. V.ic 11 July 2016 09: 00 New
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    "There was a case near Poltava"
    The song was written (end of the 40s - beginning of the 50s of the XIX century) by the founder and conductor of the first professional choir of Russian folk songs Ivan Evstratovich Molchanov (1809-1881). He based the lyrics of his song on the poem “Three Bullets” (1845) by the poet Hradtsev.
    http://www.bibliotekar.ru/encSlov/2/122.htm

    "There was a case near Poltava
    Nice business, friends
    How we fought with the Swede
    Under the banners of Peter.

    Our mighty emperor
    Eternal memory to him,
    The hero was between us
    According to posture and mind.
    Himself beloved before the shelves
    Clear falcon flying
    Himself rifle soldier rules
    He himself loaded the guns.
    The battle rattled. Hero of Poltava,
    Our sovereign giant
    Already more than once thunder struck
    To a mighty enemy camp.
    It was a great day for us
    Death flew around the king.
    But the Lord kept for Russia
    Emperor Peter.

    Bullets rushed in a cloud
    Hot blood poured.
    Suddenly one villain bullet
    He dug into the king's hat.

    Apparently, the Swedes missed,
    The emperor sat up.
    He took off his hat, crossed himself,
    Again flew into battle.

    Many Swedes, Many Russians
    Under Poltava fell.
    Suddenly another bullet dug
    Right in the royal saddle.

    The emperor was not embarrassed,
    The gaze flashed like lightning.
    The horse did not flinch from the blow,
    The horse galloped faster.

    Here is just the third bullet
    Met with Peter.
    He flew right into his chest
    And hit like thunder.

    A wonderful miracle happened.
    At that moment, the king survived:
    On the king’s chest high
    A miraculous cross hung.

    The squeal bullet bounced
    From the wide cross
    And the saved winner
    Praised the Lord Christ!

    It was a matter near Poltava,
    Hundreds of years will pass
    These royal three bullets
    In the heart of Russian they will not die! "
    http://cossacksmusic.ru/byilo-delo-pod-poltavoj.html#ixzz4E4ov8vHA
    1. kalibr 11 July 2016 09: 04 New
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      Quote: V.ic
      These royal three bullets
      In the heart of Russian they will not die! "

      Alas, the royal three bullets is a fiction, even in solid work. Especially a bullet to the cross. These are all mythologems that meet the aspirations of the masses. In addition, the lead bullet could not screech from the pectoral cross.
      1. Kenneth 11 July 2016 09: 25 New
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        Why alas. If it were in real life, the tsar’s father would hardly have gotten around.
      2. Verdun 11 July 2016 11: 12 New
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        Quote: kalibr
        Alas, the royal three bullets are fiction,

        As for the bullet in the cross - yes, fiction. But the fact that the bullets pierced Peter's hat and frock coat is confirmed by many sources. True, this was not during the counterattack, but when Peter held defense along with the troops in the direction of the main strike of the Swedes. He kept it so that the troops would not run.
        1. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 00: 05 New
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          Quote: Verdun
          But the fact that the bullets pierced Peter's hat and frock coat is confirmed by many sources. True, this was not during the counterattack, but when Peter held defense along with the troops in the direction of the main strike of the Swedes.

          Interesting, what?

          I will tell you a little secret - in reality, Peter I did not personally take part in the battle, despite the loud assurances of his praisers.
    2. Kenneth 11 July 2016 09: 24 New
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      A link would be enough.
  7. Evgenijus 11 July 2016 09: 25 New
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    The days of the Russian army, the glory days of Russia should be celebrated and celebrated at such dates of significant events for us. We are still "celebrating" 23 February - a completely perverted event in history for Russia. Independence Day is also completely incomprehensible. Yes, and other holidays established by the Soviet authorities, are also a lie. Take, for example, the celebrated Day of the border guard. The Battle of Poltava is the Glory of Russia, there are enough such victories in the history of the country. That they should be included in history textbooks, such events should be included in the examinations for admission to universities. Good stuff in this article. Thank the author, I read it with pleasure.
    1. Evgenijus 11 July 2016 10: 06 New
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      If you have something to object to me, so please! And following Erdogan’s example, a knife (minus) is thrown into the back of the knife - you don’t need to be so crazy ...
    2. Stas157 11 July 2016 19: 32 New
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      Quote: Evgenijus
      The days of the Russian army, the glory days of Russia should be celebrated and celebrated precisely on such dates of significant events for us. For the time being, we are “celebrating” February 23 - a completely perverted event.

      Totally agree with you! Still need to return to the city on the Volga its former name, in honor of the Battle of Stalingrad!
    3. Cat
      Cat 11 July 2016 21: 45 New
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      Poltava, Gangut, Chesma, Sinop, Grengam and many many others are official holidays - DAYS OF THE MILITARY GLORY OF RUSSIA. On the day of the border guard, paratrooper and others. This is a legacy of the Soviet past. Yes, it may be historiographical, non-modern, mythological and possibly not objective, but this is history, this is our history, this is the story of our parents, grandfathers and great-grandfathers. On the day of "independence" it has not been on the red calendar for more than 10 years. The holiday is called DAY OF RUSSIA. If dear you reliably know a specific day, month, or are sure at least in the year of the emergence of the Russian state, I propose to discuss! To my regret I do not know.
  8. Gardamir 11 July 2016 09: 26 New
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    Everything is fine, only the author forgot to recall that in Russia today there are 17 days of military glory. And then it seems that in the whole history of Russia this is the most famous day.
    1. Evgenijus 11 July 2016 10: 08 New
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      I join the opinion ... wink
  9. Mikado 11 July 2016 10: 16 New
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    Pay attention to the ratio of losses of Swedes near Poltava: 9333 killed and 2874 prisoners. I suspect that the battle was too fierce, and the wounded were simply finished off. Although .. it seems that they were in no hurry to help them, but then any serious injury was fatal. I will say this - the Swedes themselves are to blame. Karl’s policy regarding the Russian prisoners was extremely cruel, at best they were mutilated; Renschild (the most important reptile) generally ordered them to be killed. As an example, only a couple of people survived from the personnel of the two captured our unfinished redoubts. Cultural Europe, sir!
    1. Beefeater 11 July 2016 20: 58 New
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      Quote: Mikado
      Pay attention to the ratio of losses of Swedes near Poltava: 9333 killed and 2874 prisoners. I suspect that the battle was too fierce, and the wounded were simply finished off. Though.. !

      The Swedish retreating army was driven several tens of kilometers. Menshikov with cavalry.
      As for the prisoners ... many Swedes then “changed their flag”, served in the Russian army and navy, there were several Swedish units in the Urals that performed security functions. Many remained forever in Russia, which became their second homeland. Since then, some kind of craft was taught at Swedish military schools for some time so that the Swedes could somehow feed themselves when they were captured.
    2. 97110 11 July 2016 21: 21 New
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      Quote: Mikado
      I suspect that the battle was too fierce, and the wounded were simply finished off.

      Or taken prisoner. Not dramatic enough? Captured only fit for health?
      1. Mikado 12 July 2016 01: 56 New
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        Quote: 97110
        Or taken prisoner. Not dramatic enough? Captured only fit for health?

        Just noticed it. As a rule, casualties are higher than casualties. Even if I'm wrong, where is it dramatic, not dramatic?
  10. SokolfromRussia 11 July 2016 10: 49 New
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    The day when Sweden has ceased to be one of the most powerful states in Europe. Captured by the Swedes, by the way, left quite curious memories of the battle.
    1. igordok 11 July 2016 13: 36 New
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      The trouble with Karl is that, unlike Bonaparte and Hitler, he began his predatory mission with Russia. Not having time to become especially famous, they almost immediately broke it off. First it was necessary to capture all of Europe, becoming famous. And only then it will be rocked to Russia. laughing
      1. PKK
        PKK 11 July 2016 18: 47 New
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        The trouble with our interlocutors is that they have little idea who actually held the entire Baltic at that time, and that all these Karls, Ulrichs, were one branch of the Oldenburg, in places they were called Karls, Gustavs, but in fact they are all relatives. all these warriors are actually inter-fighters.
      2. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 01: 53 New
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        Quote: igordok
        The trouble with Karl is that, unlike Bonaparte and Hitler, he began his predatory mission with Russia.

        You apparently do not know at all that Russia and Tsar Peter turned out to be the aggressor and the main organizer of the Northern War?

        And Charles XII in the beginning eliminated the threat from the east, where further defense was planned based on a chain of fortresses, while the main Swedish forces urgently rushed to Poland and Lithuania and then to Europe.
  11. Verdun 11 July 2016 11: 22 New
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    If you carefully read about the battle near Poltava at the same Tarle, it becomes clear that the campaign of Charles XII was pure adventure. On the one hand, the Swedish king had a poor idea of ​​the territory on which he was moving, and dreamed that he would conquer Russia and immediately enter India. On the other hand, all his plans were based on the promises of Mazepa, also, as it turned out in practice, far from reality. As for Peter, taught by his failures, he gathered troops so superior in numbers to the Swedish army that in the battle of Poltava the question was not whether the Russians would defeat the Swedes, but how complete this victory would be. And his main task - to kill or capture Karl in captivity, after which Peter could not be brought to peace. The war dragged on for many years.
    1. Mikado 11 July 2016 12: 35 New
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      Quote: Verdun
      The war dragged on for many years.

      but Karl already did not personally participate in it (at least in the Russian theater of action) .. probably this is also an achievement, although not so complete!
      1. pigkiller 11 July 2016 12: 40 New
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        The adventures of Charles XII and Mazepa after their escape through the Perevolochnu River and while they are visiting the Turks are interesting.
        1. Mikado 11 July 2016 13: 17 New
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          Quote: pigkiller
          The adventures of Charles XII and Mazepa after their escape through the Perevolochnu River and while they are visiting the Turks are interesting.

          Adventurous novel! So, I even had to fight with the Janissaries when they asked Karla to leave Turkey! In general, a good story for a separate article! Little has been written about this!
          1. pigkiller 11 July 2016 14: 29 New
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            The Petrine era is illuminated rather one-sidedly: Narva, the Battle of Poltava, Gangut, and the Nishtad peace. Little has been written about the winter war in the Finnish provinces, the Prut and Persian campaigns of Peter I, the participation of Russian troops in hostilities in North-Western Europe, etc.
            1. Mikado 11 July 2016 15: 02 New
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              Quote: pigkiller
              The Petrine era is illuminated rather one-sidedly: Narva, the Battle of Poltava, Gangut, and the Nishtad peace. Little has been written about the winter war in the Finnish provinces, the Prut and Persian campaigns of Peter I, the participation of Russian troops in hostilities in North-Western Europe, etc.

              Look Shirokorada, "Northern Wars of Russia", the northern part of the war is described in sufficient detail there. The book is freely available on Militer. Alexander Borisovich is considered the main historian of artillery in Russia, but his historical writings and political considerations sometimes cause critical comments from readers (and here at the HE, in particular). By the way, he himself does not skimp on emotional epithets addressed to the rulers: in particular, Mikhail Romanov - “a minor rock come”, False Dmitry II - “his worst parish” (it is believed that he was a Jew), Catherine I - a fallen woman, and there was no need to shave beards (Alexander Borisovich himself with a beard). wink By the way, it was he who widely voiced the idea that the "Elephant" captured at Gangut was not a frigate, but a pram. Easy to read. Yours faithfully, hi
              1. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 00: 15 New
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                Quote: Mikado
                , False Dmitri II - "His Most Mighty Majesty" (it is believed that he was a Jew)

                Most likely yes, possibly a Christian. Unlike (False), Dmitry I, who was very likely to be the rightful heir to the throne.

                Quote: Mikado
                Catherine I - Fallen Woman
                And how else can it be called? taken as a trophy to a soldier convoy, then to an officer? and so on to the king?
            2. Beefeater 11 July 2016 21: 01 New
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              The correct remark.
              Another war in Poland. There, we also helped Augustus the Strong.
          2. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 18: 48 New
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            Quote: Mikado
            So, I even had to fight with the Janissaries when they asked Karla to leave Turkey!

            There the trick was that it was not recommended to kill, the king of Sweden was needed alive, but he didn’t want to surrender. Therefore, the enchanting cabin came out right after all.
    2. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 00: 19 New
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      Quote: Verdun
      On the one hand, the Swedish king had a poor idea of ​​the territories on which he was advancing, and dreamed that he would conquer Russia and immediately enter India.

      Do you seriously consider Tarle, whose book was written as a political order of the Communist Party, adequate?

      Just look - quartermaster Yullenkruk. If you think that this most educated person (and Karl himself wasn’t a fool at all) did not know cartography, then ...
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  13. xan
    xan 11 July 2016 13: 29 New
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    Karl lacked the brains and realism to abandon the battle and accept Peter's proposals for peace. Who is his doctor? But there was only one claim to Peter - he left Renschild alive, who ordered the execution of all Russian prisoners after the victory at Fraustadt in 1706, in those days they did not do so inhumanly.
    1. Kenneth 11 July 2016 15: 35 New
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      They did the wrong thing. And civilians were cut out and prisoners. Swedes especially. And what happened during the Thirty Years War. Although sometimes prisoners were enlisted in their army as an alternative.
      1. Beefeater 11 July 2016 21: 03 New
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        Quote: Kenneth
        They did the wrong thing. And civilians were cut out and prisoners. Swedes especially. And what happened during the Thirty Years War. Although sometimes prisoners were enlisted in their army as an alternative.

        In the Thirty Years there was no such outrage.
        The Swedes, unlike the Austrians, did not rob civilians.
      2. xan
        xan 12 July 2016 11: 52 New
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        Quote: Kenneth
        And what happened during the Thirty Years War.

        Religious and civil wars are usually the bloodiest. Well, total war, actually one, the Second World War, where the prisoners were brutal, from the Germans. Ours did not specifically kill.
    2. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 00: 02 New
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      Quote: xan
      But there was only one claim to Peter - he kept alive Renschild, who ordered the execution of all Russian prisoners after the victory at Fraustadt in 1706, in those days they did not do so inhumanly.

      Do you want to present a claim to the genocide of your own people? The only tsar in fact, in which the population of Russia declined!

      Regarding Fraustadt, everything is very unusual there, and the number of prisoners killed is unclear. If Peter I considered the actions of Rönschild to be a war crime, then he would either execute or rot him in captivity, and the tzar had not even charged him for many years of captivity of the Swedish field marshal.
  14. Mikhail Matyugin 12 July 2016 11: 47 New
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    The overall result - the article is very weak, the latest data are not taken into account at all, the feeling that the material is copied from the textbook.

    Quote: Alexander Samsonov
    The garrison, commanded by Colonel Alexei Kelin, consisted of 6,5-7 thousand soldiers, Cossacks and militias. There were 28 guns in the fortress.
    There were no Cossacks there already. The Tsar ordered all garrisons from the Cossacks to be replaced by regular regiment soldiers (the Cossacks should be disarmed and transferred to the internal regions of Russia).

    And they kept it, among other things, because the tsar forced the top officers, led by Kelin, to swear on the cross and sign a “familiarization and consent” special order that they would not surrender under any conditions, and surrender under any, even the most honorable conditions would be perceived as treason means the death penalty.

    Quote: Alexander Samsonov
    that he, it would seem, should have thought about how to take his legs and save the soldiers, and not risk his life in minor skirmishes.
    The author simply does not understand what he writes about, retelling the old tales of Soviet historians.

    The Swedish king was engaged in a personal reconnaissance of the battlefield (which was planned to be given in a completely different place than in reality). Probably Napoleon was also that he himself tried before each battle to "climb on the rampage" in the line of outposts to inspect the battlefield?
  15. tiaman.76 12 July 2016 18: 34 New
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    he won, then Peter defeated near Poltava, but he didn’t spoil everything. I don’t say anything about the adventurous expedition .. everything was on the verge of death .. it would be foolish to seriously rely on the help of the Danube principalities .. don’t be a Janissary corps in this already decomposed state would have been awfully
  16. Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 00: 00 New
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    Quote: tiaman.76
    adventurous more precisely, you can’t say the Prut campaign .. everything was put on the brink of death

    Yes, no one could have imagined such stupidity from the Russian tsar, who observed that the enemy army fell into a strategic and operational environment and himself, with a much larger army, ran into exactly the same story through 2 of the year.

    By the way, Charles XII begged to give him at least a third of the Turkish forces in order to force him to surrender, but they refused him. And I almost managed to bribe myself in negotiations to prevent myself from bribing the vezir. Although the consent to the megawatch to the Turkish commander was still worth the head.
  17. Robert Nevsky 13 July 2016 17: 07 New
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    Super article. It's expensive to read about our great victories.