At the rear of the Tor-M2 self-propelled anti-aircraft turret, a radar station for detecting airborne targets was installed with a partial-frequency method of beam forming with frequency change, which forces the enemy EW to set up active barrier barriers with low power density, which does not allow to “score” scanning signal SOC
The escalation of a major regional conflict of the 21st century cannot exclude the massive use of strategic cruise missiles and other high-precision weaponsand, therefore, the workload of the air defense units that make up the VKS in this case will always be maximal: they will cover strategic industrial facilities, large cities, MIC enterprises, air bases, naval bases, and so on. In such a situation, the ground forces can only count on the cover of attached C-300B-B4 type military anti-aircraft missile systems, which will also have to withstand HARM, the planning of the UAB and other elements of the WTO, which will not fully ensure the safety of the SV. And then the army’s short and medium range air defense systems of the Tor-M1 / 2 and Buk-M1 / 3 types will become the only true defense.
Until recently, the main modifications of these complexes (Tor-M1 and Buk-M1) fully responded to all existing threats, but like any weapon system, they began to slowly lag behind modern anti-missile / anti-missile defense systems, which are gradually becoming hypersonic. speed limit of operation, as well as becoming less noticeable both in the radar and in the infrared.
Self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex (ZRSK) 9K331 "Tor-М1", different from the basic version of 9K330 "Tor" extended to 2 simultaneously with target-related channelities, software and hardware system linkage with the unified battery command 9С737, acted by kilogamma warhead missiles 14,5М9 and lowering the lower bound of the targets to destroy the Kyrgyz Republic to 331 m, was adopted by the Army in the 10 year. Due to the high combat qualities of the "Tor-M1991" to this day continues to serve as one of the most important means of air defense in the Russian army. The maximum speed of the target being hit - 1 m / s, as well as the minimum EPR - 700 м0,05 allow you to fight with almost any modern UAV, anti-radar missiles such as HARM and ALARM, as well as free-falling and guided bombs.
The main feature that holds the "Tor-M1" in the army is the unique performance of the 9K331 combat vehicle, represented by combining all the running, fire and network-centric elements in a single autonomous combat unit. The basis of the war machine is an X-band IRLS, having a low-element phased array of pulse-Doppler type. It fully satisfies the radio command guidance system of the 9М331 rocket, which requires the highest resolution at the moment of approaching the target. The beam width in 1 degrees made it possible to achieve a resolution in 1 m in elevation and azimuth planes, which allowed us to ensure confident activation of the anti-aircraft radio fuse even with the resolution of the MRLS in range in 100 meters, i.e. anti-aircraft missile does not "slip" past the target. And the modular equipment from two quadruple-launch containers 9Я281 allows you to reload the "Tor-M1" for 25 minutes.
The ammunition capacity of the new Tor-M2 will be increased 2 times due to the compactness of the new 9М338 SAMs (Item Р3В-MD), as well as their placement in small cylindrical TLCs (pictured below). On standing armed BM 9A331MK "Thor M2U" outfit of 8 regular ZUR 9M331 located 2 quad x-transport-starting 9YA281 modules placed within 2, separated by baffle tower niches (upper pictures)
Despite the fact that a more advanced version of the Tor-M1B complex was developed with the new 9Sh319 optical target and the upper target destruction zone expanded from 6 to 10 km, the fire performance of the complex did not change: the number of target channels did not exceed 2-x , because of which the reflection of a massive rocket-air strike was very difficult.
In order to improve the capabilities of the complex, the Scientific Research Electromechanical Institute developed a new modification, Tor-М2, which, in addition to the ceiling increased to 10000 m of the target, was equipped with a more advanced MRLS with the possibility of simultaneously intercepting 4-x complex air targets. The performance of the complex increased 2 times, the reaction time remained the same (4-8 s), which dramatically increased the survivability of the battery of the new "Thors" and the defended objects. But another task that had to be solved for several years was sitting in the minds of the developers, specialists of the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol (the manufacturer of the complex) and the military. We are talking about increasing the ammunition of the 9А331МК "Tor-М2У" combat vehicle by equipping it with an entirely new type of 9М338 SAME.
The prospective anti-aircraft guided missile 9М338 was developed by Vympel, located in Tactical Missiles Corporation with the support of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern. Detailed characteristics of the short-range interceptor missile are not disclosed, but it is known that the rocket is more compact, maneuverable and highly accurate than the early 9М331 and 9М331Д. The small size of the rocket will increase the ammunition "Tor-M2" 2 times (from 8 to 16 units). For this purpose, the 2-x guides of the 9М334 anti-aircraft missile modules will be significantly reduced and structurally adapted for the aerodynamic controls of the 9М338 rocket, which are located in the tail section. The new rocket has a 2 adjacent to a cruciform block of aerodynamic planes. The first - fixed aerodynamic wings to stabilize the air flow before the second block. The second block is represented by 4 rotary aerodynamic rudders, which have maximum efficiency thanks to the front tail. A similar design of the control unit is used in the French melee “Magic-2” rocket, with the only difference being that it is located in the nose of the rocket (“double duck”).
The uniqueness of this design in high disposable overloads, reaching up to 45 units. even without a CAT and gas-dynamic AHU. 9М338 destroyed 5 small-sized 9F841 "Saman" missiles on 9 33 SAM tests (a modification of the 3FM3М2 X-series of the Osa-AK complex), 2 of which was hit by kinetic destruction using "hit-to-kill" direct hit. Tor-MXNUMU showed unique anti-missile capabilities with a 2014 increased survivability in the most difficult conditions of an MRAU thanks to its doubled arsenal. By the middle of November, 40 of JSC VMP AVITEK produced 9 of new 338М2016 missiles, which in the second half of 2 will come into service of the two modernized Tor-MXNXU air defense systems. The “renewed” “Torahs” will mark the beginning of a large-scale reinforcement of a layered troop defense system in addition to the deeply improved Buk-М3 air defense system, which will replace the outdated Buk-М1 complexes. More on this.
Lieutenant-General Alexander Leonov, commander of the air defense forces of the Ground Forces, outlining the advantages of the updated Tor-M2 anti-aircraft missile systems, also stipulated the delivery dates for the Land Forces of the Russian Federation of advanced versions of the medium-range air defense missile system Buk-M3. About this RIA News, referring to PCH Radio, reported July 2 of the year 2016. According to A. Leonov, new divisions will begin to arrive in the troops to replace the Buk-М1 / М1-2 / М2 air defense system at the end of the year 2016. “Buk-М3” is a fundamentally new medium-range anti-aircraft missile system, which overlaps the upper boundary of aerospace from the invasion of modern hypersonic air attack weapons. Its element base is built on modern digital computing facilities, and the ammunition is 50% higher than that of earlier versions of the complex. The basis of the 9K317M air defense system is a completely new 9М317М SAM, the parameters of which are many times better than those of the 9М38М1 family of missiles. In the aggregate of most TTX, Buk-М3 is practically not inferior, and by some qualities it surpasses the C-300 basic antimissile systems of the first versions.
ALMOST “GLADIATOR” IN THE “SCALE” OF A SIMPLE “BEECH”
Consider all the advantages of "Buk-M3", based on the characteristics of the penultimate version of the complex Buk-M2.
The most significant advantage of the new “Book-М3” is the new XURUM 9М317М. Its constructive similarity with the ship version 9М317МЭ (КЗРК "Shtil-1") causes similar flight parameters. In particular, the maximum flight speed of the rocket is 1550 m / s (5580 km / h), which is 26% faster than the 9М317 rocket of the Buk-М2 complex (4428 km / h) and by 82% faster than the 9M38М1 rocket of the Buk MN-XX package. "(1 km / h); 3060M9М went to hypersound, and is now capable of intercepting the small-sized PLCR and TOBR on the accelerating part of the trajectory. Newly developed objects for use in the field of overalls; and C-317PM9 / 432 “Favorite”. The new dual-mode solid-fuel rocket engine with an extended period of the cruising mode made it possible to hit targets at a distance of 9 km and an altitude of 317 km, not lagging behind the C-9PT / PS air defense system. The maneuverability of the 36M10,1M SAM exceeds the 3000М300М300 performance by several units, reaching 1 - 2G. For performance purposes with complex highly manoeuvrable missiles 70M35M corresponds interceptors 300M9M of S-317VM "Antey-9» and C-38V1 that puts the first troop SAM "Buck" family to the level of specialized tools VOP-PRO long range.
In addition, there is a specialized package of modular execution of homing heads for 9М317М missiles, which includes the active radar satellite Slanets, developed by OJSC Moscow Research Institute Agat. Detection and acquisition of air targets is made by a slot antenna array with a monopulse radio direction finder. According to "Agatha", ARGSN "Slanets" can receive target designation from almost any external sources (airborne early warning aircraft, airborne ballistic missiles multi-purpose interceptor fighters, ground and naval radar with the appropriate information exchange equipment). The energy potential of the Slate makes it possible to capture a target with 0,3 m2 EPR at a distance of 35 km, which raises American ambitions for F-35A dominance in a 21st-century theater. The use of "Slate" rockets 9M317M able to wreak havoc in the squadron ODBC NATO as operators complex "Buk-M3", with external remote agents targeting will be able to fire with disabled JMA and 9S36 even from natural shelter relief that will raise the vitality division dozens or even hundreds of times.
A similar modular package of ARGSN was also developed for early versions of the 9М317А missiles that are included in the Buk-М1-2 and Buk-М2 SAM systems. But as an active seeker here it is not the “Slate” that is used, but its simplified version of the 9B-1103М “Puck”, capable of detecting a CC with XSRXNNXX EPR at a distance of about 0,3 km.
Even more interesting is the fire performance of the Buk-M3. First of all, let us dwell on the fact that the target canal of the modification of the complex, in which the 9М317М missiles with ARGSN Slate are used, will be maximum, corresponding to the overall throughput of the division in 36 targets. The target channel of the division where 9М317М missiles with PARGSN 9E432 will be used will depend solely on the number of 9X317 self-propelled launchers and the low-altitude radar of the illumination and 9X36 raised on the hydraulic arrow. Unlike the first version of self-propelled type 9A310M1 firing installations equipped with a single-channel radar illumination and the guidance, the MCS and 9A317 9A317M equipped hkanalnymi 4-load tap-changer with phased-array similar to PAR and equipped 9S36. The performance of the complex has increased 4 times. The on-load tap-changer captures a target with an 0,1 m2 EPR (at an altitude of 3 km) at a distance of 50 km, and with an altitude of 10 m - 17 km (only for a low-altitude XRLUM 9C36). The azimuth review and capture sector is 120 degrees in elevation - 90 degrees (from -5 to + 85), which allows you to reflect the impacts of high-precision weapons attacking from extreme vertical angles, for example, ALRM ALARM. According to this criterion, “Buk-М2 / 3” is superior to С-300В, where the radar of the program review 9С19М2 “Ginger” and РЛС 9С36 operate in the elevation sector to + 75 degrees.
One division of the Buk-M1 complex usually had 6А9М310 as part of 1, due to which the number of channels was limited to 6 or 10 (when connected to the divisional link of one 4-x-channel 9-36). The Buk-М3 division has up to 4-8 SOW 9А317М and up to 2-X RPN 9С36, due to which the complex can fire up to 36 air targets. Three-Hundreds can fire such a number of targets only as part of an anti-aircraft missile system from the 6 divisions, each of which is given an 6-channel on-load tap-changer 30Н6Е. From this another important conclusion is made: in terms of survivability, “Buk-М3” in some cases can exceed even С-300ПМ1. To destroy one C-300PM1 battery, it is enough just to disable the Spade (in the Air Defense Forces for the appropriate form they called the RPN 30H6Е), for Buk-M3, for this, it is necessary to destroy not only the RPN 9X36, but also each radar fire must be destroyed, but also each radar fire must be destroyed. self-propelled gun "9А317М, which requires about a hundred anti-radar and cruise missiles, and in one air strike. After the introduction of active radar targeting into the new “Beech”, it will be able to even with such an air defense system as the Vityaz C-350.
The 9C36 RPN on the 22-meter hydraulic boom reveals not only unique capabilities to combat low-altitude cruise missiles, but also allows you to destroy remote ground targets within a radius of 26 km (radio horizon for the 9-XNNXX raised on the boom)
We have already spoken about the importance of the stock of ammunition, analyzing the “reinforced” Tor-M2U, the same can be said about Buk-M3. If at the start-up installations of 9А39 and 9А316, there were all the units of the units of the OUVs of the 8М9М38 / 1МХNNXX R & D bureaus (of which the 9) were located on the starting rails, and 317 »Inclined TPK with 4 XUR 4М9М, any of which can be launched, and not only those 316 that lie on the upper launch carriage. As you can see, there are more opportunities and 2% more ammo. Is the same история and with the 9А317М sow: the 6 TPK ammunition package is located in a single oblique module. Anti-aircraft missiles are not in open space, and reliably protected durable hull transport and launch containers.
Without a bit of doubt, Buk-M3 can be considered a promising and most effective means of military air defense in the world. Even the development of the 9М317М rocket with the ARGSN Slanet speaks of the enormous modernization potential of the complex. The 9C18М3 “Dome” radar detector, operating in the centimeter wavelength range, has a resolution enabling it to provide accurate target designation to missiles with active RGSN, and with appropriate software and hardware upgrades, even with serial 9М317М missiles with standard semi-active WGSS, an increase, even with serial semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, and even increasing the missile XNUMXМXNUMXM with the semi-active WGSS, increasing the level with the semi-active WGTH, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active RGSN, and still increasing with the semi-active WGSS, it will even increase the target XNUMXMXNUMXM missile from the standard semi-active WGSS.
At the end of our review, we dare to suggest that already in the coming years after entering the brigade and divisional units of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation of Buk-МХNUMX universal anti-aircraft missile systems, long-range C-3В / В300 air defense systems, depending on the operational situation in the theater military operations, can be transferred to aerospace forces for more reliable protection of strategic important objects of the state in the conditions of established and growing instability on key eastern, southwestern and western air directions.