Military Review

Updated "Torah" and "Buki": anti-missile masters of survivability for military air defense

64

At the rear of the Tor-M2 self-propelled anti-aircraft turret, a radar station for detecting airborne targets was installed with a partial-frequency method of beam forming with frequency change, which forces the enemy EW to set up active barrier barriers with low power density, which does not allow to “score” scanning signal SOC



The escalation of a major regional conflict of the 21st century cannot exclude the massive use of strategic cruise missiles and other high-precision weaponsand, therefore, the workload of the air defense units that make up the VKS in this case will always be maximal: they will cover strategic industrial facilities, large cities, MIC enterprises, air bases, naval bases, and so on. In such a situation, the ground forces can only count on the cover of attached C-300B-B4 type military anti-aircraft missile systems, which will also have to withstand HARM, the planning of the UAB and other elements of the WTO, which will not fully ensure the safety of the SV. And then the army’s short and medium range air defense systems of the Tor-M1 / 2 and Buk-M1 / 3 types will become the only true defense.

Until recently, the main modifications of these complexes (Tor-M1 and Buk-M1) fully responded to all existing threats, but like any weapon system, they began to slowly lag behind modern anti-missile / anti-missile defense systems, which are gradually becoming hypersonic. speed limit of operation, as well as becoming less noticeable both in the radar and in the infrared.

Self-propelled anti-aircraft missile complex (ZRSK) 9K331 "Tor-М1", different from the basic version of 9K330 "Tor" extended to 2 simultaneously with target-related channelities, software and hardware system linkage with the unified battery command 9С737, acted by kilogamma warhead missiles 14,5М9 and lowering the lower bound of the targets to destroy the Kyrgyz Republic to 331 m, was adopted by the Army in the 10 year. Due to the high combat qualities of the "Tor-M1991" to this day continues to serve as one of the most important means of air defense in the Russian army. The maximum speed of the target being hit - 1 m / s, as well as the minimum EPR - 700 м0,05 allow you to fight with almost any modern UAV, anti-radar missiles such as HARM and ALARM, as well as free-falling and guided bombs.

The main feature that holds the "Tor-M1" in the army is the unique performance of the 9K331 combat vehicle, represented by combining all the running, fire and network-centric elements in a single autonomous combat unit. The basis of the war machine is an X-band IRLS, having a low-element phased array of pulse-Doppler type. It fully satisfies the radio command guidance system of the 9М331 rocket, which requires the highest resolution at the moment of approaching the target. The beam width in 1 degrees made it possible to achieve a resolution in 1 m in elevation and azimuth planes, which allowed us to ensure confident activation of the anti-aircraft radio fuse even with the resolution of the MRLS in range in 100 meters, i.e. anti-aircraft missile does not "slip" past the target. And the modular equipment from two quadruple-launch containers 9Я281 allows you to reload the "Tor-M1" for 25 minutes.


The ammunition capacity of the new Tor-M2 will be increased 2 times due to the compactness of the new 9М338 SAMs (Item Р3В-MD), as well as their placement in small cylindrical TLCs (pictured below). On standing armed BM 9A331MK "Thor M2U" outfit of 8 regular ZUR 9M331 located 2 quad x-transport-starting 9YA281 modules placed within 2, separated by baffle tower niches (upper pictures)



Despite the fact that a more advanced version of the Tor-M1B complex was developed with the new 9Sh319 optical target and the upper target destruction zone expanded from 6 to 10 km, the fire performance of the complex did not change: the number of target channels did not exceed 2-x , because of which the reflection of a massive rocket-air strike was very difficult.

In order to improve the capabilities of the complex, the Scientific Research Electromechanical Institute developed a new modification, Tor-М2, which, in addition to the ceiling increased to 10000 m of the target, was equipped with a more advanced MRLS with the possibility of simultaneously intercepting 4-x complex air targets. The performance of the complex increased 2 times, the reaction time remained the same (4-8 s), which dramatically increased the survivability of the battery of the new "Thors" and the defended objects. But another task that had to be solved for several years was sitting in the minds of the developers, specialists of the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant Kupol (the manufacturer of the complex) and the military. We are talking about increasing the ammunition of the 9А331МК "Tor-М2У" combat vehicle by equipping it with an entirely new type of 9М338 SAME.

The prospective anti-aircraft guided missile 9М338 was developed by Vympel, located in Tactical Missiles Corporation with the support of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern. Detailed characteristics of the short-range interceptor missile are not disclosed, but it is known that the rocket is more compact, maneuverable and highly accurate than the early 9М331 and 9М331Д. The small size of the rocket will increase the ammunition "Tor-M2" 2 times (from 8 to 16 units). For this purpose, the 2-x guides of the 9М334 anti-aircraft missile modules will be significantly reduced and structurally adapted for the aerodynamic controls of the 9М338 rocket, which are located in the tail section. The new rocket has a 2 adjacent to a cruciform block of aerodynamic planes. The first - fixed aerodynamic wings to stabilize the air flow before the second block. The second block is represented by 4 rotary aerodynamic rudders, which have maximum efficiency thanks to the front tail. A similar design of the control unit is used in the French melee “Magic-2” rocket, with the only difference being that it is located in the nose of the rocket (“double duck”).

The uniqueness of this design in high disposable overloads, reaching up to 45 units. even without a CAT and gas-dynamic AHU. 9М338 destroyed 5 small-sized 9F841 "Saman" missiles on 9 33 SAM tests (a modification of the 3FM3М2 X-series of the Osa-AK complex), 2 of which was hit by kinetic destruction using "hit-to-kill" direct hit. Tor-MXNUMU showed unique anti-missile capabilities with a 2014 increased survivability in the most difficult conditions of an MRAU thanks to its doubled arsenal. By the middle of November, 40 of JSC VMP AVITEK produced 9 of new 338М2016 missiles, which in the second half of 2 will come into service of the two modernized Tor-MXNXU air defense systems. The “renewed” “Torahs” will mark the beginning of a large-scale reinforcement of a layered troop defense system in addition to the deeply improved Buk-М3 air defense system, which will replace the outdated Buk-М1 complexes. More on this.

Lieutenant-General Alexander Leonov, commander of the air defense forces of the Ground Forces, outlining the advantages of the updated Tor-M2 anti-aircraft missile systems, also stipulated the delivery dates for the Land Forces of the Russian Federation of advanced versions of the medium-range air defense missile system Buk-M3. About this RIA News, referring to PCH Radio, reported July 2 of the year 2016. According to A. Leonov, new divisions will begin to arrive in the troops to replace the Buk-М1 / М1-2 / М2 air defense system at the end of the year 2016. “Buk-М3” is a fundamentally new medium-range anti-aircraft missile system, which overlaps the upper boundary of aerospace from the invasion of modern hypersonic air attack weapons. Its element base is built on modern digital computing facilities, and the ammunition is 50% higher than that of earlier versions of the complex. The basis of the 9K317M air defense system is a completely new 9М317М SAM, the parameters of which are many times better than those of the 9М38М1 family of missiles. In the aggregate of most TTX, Buk-М3 is practically not inferior, and by some qualities it surpasses the C-300 basic antimissile systems of the first versions.

ALMOST “GLADIATOR” IN THE “SCALE” OF A SIMPLE “BEECH”

Consider all the advantages of "Buk-M3", based on the characteristics of the penultimate version of the complex Buk-M2.

The most significant advantage of the new “Book-М3” is the new XURUM 9М317М. Its constructive similarity with the ship version 9М317МЭ (КЗРК "Shtil-1") causes similar flight parameters. In particular, the maximum flight speed of the rocket is 1550 m / s (5580 km / h), which is 26% faster than the 9М317 rocket of the Buk-М2 complex (4428 km / h) and by 82% faster than the 9M38М1 rocket of the Buk MN-XX package. "(1 km / h); 3060M9М went to hypersound, and is now capable of intercepting the small-sized PLCR and TOBR on the accelerating part of the trajectory. Newly developed objects for use in the field of overalls; and C-317PM9 / 432 “Favorite”. The new dual-mode solid-fuel rocket engine with an extended period of the cruising mode made it possible to hit targets at a distance of 9 km and an altitude of 317 km, not lagging behind the C-9PT / PS air defense system. The maneuverability of the 36M10,1M SAM exceeds the 3000М300М300 performance by several units, reaching 1 - 2G. For performance purposes with complex highly manoeuvrable missiles 70M35M corresponds interceptors 300M9M of S-317VM "Antey-9» and C-38V1 that puts the first troop SAM "Buck" family to the level of specialized tools VOP-PRO long range.

In addition, there is a specialized package of modular execution of homing heads for 9М317М missiles, which includes the active radar satellite Slanets, developed by OJSC Moscow Research Institute Agat. Detection and acquisition of air targets is made by a slot antenna array with a monopulse radio direction finder. According to "Agatha", ARGSN "Slanets" can receive target designation from almost any external sources (airborne early warning aircraft, airborne ballistic missiles multi-purpose interceptor fighters, ground and naval radar with the appropriate information exchange equipment). The energy potential of the Slate makes it possible to capture a target with 0,3 m2 EPR at a distance of 35 km, which raises American ambitions for F-35A dominance in a 21st-century theater. The use of "Slate" rockets 9M317M able to wreak havoc in the squadron ODBC NATO as operators complex "Buk-M3", with external remote agents targeting will be able to fire with disabled JMA and 9S36 even from natural shelter relief that will raise the vitality division dozens or even hundreds of times.

A similar modular package of ARGSN was also developed for early versions of the 9М317А missiles that are included in the Buk-М1-2 and Buk-М2 SAM systems. But as an active seeker here it is not the “Slate” that is used, but its simplified version of the 9B-1103М “Puck”, capable of detecting a CC with XSRXNNXX EPR at a distance of about 0,3 km.

Even more interesting is the fire performance of the Buk-M3. First of all, let us dwell on the fact that the target canal of the modification of the complex, in which the 9М317М missiles with ARGSN Slate are used, will be maximum, corresponding to the overall throughput of the division in 36 targets. The target channel of the division where 9М317М missiles with PARGSN 9E432 will be used will depend solely on the number of 9X317 self-propelled launchers and the low-altitude radar of the illumination and 9X36 raised on the hydraulic arrow. Unlike the first version of self-propelled type 9A310M1 firing installations equipped with a single-channel radar illumination and the guidance, the MCS and 9A317 9A317M equipped hkanalnymi 4-load tap-changer with phased-array similar to PAR and equipped 9S36. The performance of the complex has increased 4 times. The on-load tap-changer captures a target with an 0,1 m2 EPR (at an altitude of 3 km) at a distance of 50 km, and with an altitude of 10 m - 17 km (only for a low-altitude XRLUM 9C36). The azimuth review and capture sector is 120 degrees in elevation - 90 degrees (from -5 to + 85), which allows you to reflect the impacts of high-precision weapons attacking from extreme vertical angles, for example, ALRM ALARM. According to this criterion, “Buk-М2 / 3” is superior to С-300В, where the radar of the program review 9С19М2 “Ginger” and РЛС 9С36 operate in the elevation sector to + 75 degrees.

One division of the Buk-M1 complex usually had 6А9М310 as part of 1, due to which the number of channels was limited to 6 or 10 (when connected to the divisional link of one 4-x-channel 9-36). The Buk-М3 division has up to 4-8 SOW 9А317М and up to 2-X RPN 9С36, due to which the complex can fire up to 36 air targets. Three-Hundreds can fire such a number of targets only as part of an anti-aircraft missile system from the 6 divisions, each of which is given an 6-channel on-load tap-changer 30Н6Е. From this another important conclusion is made: in terms of survivability, “Buk-М3” in some cases can exceed even С-300ПМ1. To destroy one C-300PM1 battery, it is enough just to disable the Spade (in the Air Defense Forces for the appropriate form they called the RPN 30H6Е), for Buk-M3, for this, it is necessary to destroy not only the RPN 9X36, but also each radar fire must be destroyed, but also each radar fire must be destroyed. self-propelled gun "9А317М, which requires about a hundred anti-radar and cruise missiles, and in one air strike. After the introduction of active radar targeting into the new “Beech”, it will be able to even with such an air defense system as the Vityaz C-350.


The 9C36 RPN on the 22-meter hydraulic boom reveals not only unique capabilities to combat low-altitude cruise missiles, but also allows you to destroy remote ground targets within a radius of 26 km (radio horizon for the 9-XNNXX raised on the boom)


We have already spoken about the importance of the stock of ammunition, analyzing the “reinforced” Tor-M2U, the same can be said about Buk-M3. If at the start-up installations of 9А39 and 9А316, there were all the units of the units of the OUVs of the 8М9М38 / 1МХNNXX R & D bureaus (of which the 9) were located on the starting rails, and 317 »Inclined TPK with 4 XUR 4М9М, any of which can be launched, and not only those 316 that lie on the upper launch carriage. As you can see, there are more opportunities and 2% more ammo. Is the same история and with the 9А317М sow: the 6 TPK ammunition package is located in a single oblique module. Anti-aircraft missiles are not in open space, and reliably protected durable hull transport and launch containers.

Without a bit of doubt, Buk-M3 can be considered a promising and most effective means of military air defense in the world. Even the development of the 9М317М rocket with the ARGSN Slanet speaks of the enormous modernization potential of the complex. The 9C18М3 “Dome” radar detector, operating in the centimeter wavelength range, has a resolution enabling it to provide accurate target designation to missiles with active RGSN, and with appropriate software and hardware upgrades, even with serial 9М317М missiles with standard semi-active WGSS, an increase, even with serial semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, and even increasing the missile XNUMXМXNUMXM with the semi-active WGSS, increasing the level with the semi-active WGTH, increasing with the semi-active WGSS, increasing with the semi-active RGSN, and still increasing with the semi-active WGSS, it will even increase the target XNUMXMXNUMXM missile from the standard semi-active WGSS.

At the end of our review, we dare to suggest that already in the coming years after entering the brigade and divisional units of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation of Buk-МХNUMX universal anti-aircraft missile systems, long-range C-3В / В300 air defense systems, depending on the operational situation in the theater military operations, can be transferred to aerospace forces for more reliable protection of strategic important objects of the state in the conditions of established and growing instability on key eastern, southwestern and western air directions.

Information sources:
http://www.paralay.com/allocer_tab.xls
http://militaryarms.ru/voennaya-texnika/artilleriya/zrk-tor-m2u-opisanie-i-texnicheskie-xarakteristiki/
http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-772.html
http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/missile/wobb/buk-2m/buk-2m.shtml
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 8 July 2016 07: 00
    +1
    The escalation of a major regional conflict of the XNUMXst century cannot exclude the massive use of strategic cruise missiles and other precision weapons,

    As soon as these missiles fly, IMMEDIATELY wash off half of the mericatosia into the ocean. Fly more - wash off the second half. And gyroprot without meritosia is nobody and nothing (I don’t take sprats and Scandinavians into account).
    1. Falcon
      Falcon 8 July 2016 09: 51
      +3
      Quote: Damantsev
      detection of air targets with an isodal-partial method of forming a radiation pattern with a frequency change, which forces the enemy's electronic warfare to put active obstructive interference with a low specific power that does not allow “clogging” the scanning SOC signal

      Wow, that’s cool. Only this is done by any modern antenna with HEADLIGHT. And since the frequency range is not as large as we would like, then you can score everything with us as well as with them!
      Quote: Damantsev
      The beam width in 1 degrees made it possible to achieve a resolution of 1 m in the elevation and azimuthal planes, which ensured reliable activation of the SAM fuse even when resolving radar systems in range of 100 meters

      What kind of words is this ??? What is the resolution in 1 ??? And here the width of the beam - when you need a wavelength and power ??? And how did this set of words fit in with the activation of the fuse ???
      Quote: Damantsev
      Detailed characteristics of the new short-range missile interceptor were not disclosed


      Quote: Damantsev
      even without OVT and gas-dynamic DPU

      Yes Yes! And how does she lean without gas-dynamic steering surfaces from a vertical position? One of the reasons for the complexity of the implementation of short-range anti-aircraft guns with a vertical arrangement of missiles is their rapid declination in the right direction (the far hand has more time and energy) Therefore, there is no rudder without the HD.
      1. Falcon
        Falcon 8 July 2016 09: 53
        +1
        Quote: Damantsev
        3 of which were hit by the hit-to-kill method of direct hit by a target missile.

        That is so fantasy! Do not believe everything they write on the fence! Hit-to-kill with radio command hover is either an accident or the laws of physics must be abolished.
        Quote: Damantsev
        Its structural similarity with the ship version 9М317МЭ (КЗРК "Штиль-1") leads to similar flight performance. In particular, the maximum missile flight speed is 1550 m / s (5580 km / h)

        The calm 1230 m / s but oh well, a little embellished.
        Quote: Damantsev
        9М317М reached hypersound, and is now able to intercept after small-sized PRLR and OTRB in the accelerating section of the trajectory.

        Hypersound starts at 1650 m / s. And the OTDR on the accelerating section ... Well, if you stand in tight and one command, one operator launches both the OTDB and SAM, then probably "ALSO LIKE A CHANCE!" since the energy and speed of the RDB will be greater if it is with solid propellant rocket motors.
        Quote: Damantsev
        According to "Agat", the ARSN "Slate" can receive target designation from virtually any external sources (aircraft DRLOiU, BRLK multipurpose fighter-interceptors, ground and ship radars with appropriate information exchange equipment)

        interesting to look at such data agate ???


        Quote: Damantsev
        the energetic potential of Shale allows you to capture the target with the EPR 0,3 m2 at a distance of 35 km

        Complete nonsense, misinformation or just a lie !!! The most powerful version of the slate sees at a range of 40 km EPR 5m !!! No 35 with 0,3 were never dreamed of.

        Quote: Damantsev
        The viewing and capture sector in azimuth is 120 degrees elevation - 90 degrees (from -5 to + 85),

        Little confused. Target detection zone: in azimuth - ± 45 °, in elevation - 70 °, in range - 120 km
        1. Fulcrumxnumx
          8 July 2016 11: 30
          +2
          Quote: Falcon
          That is so fantasy! Do not believe everything they write on the fence! Hit-to-kill with radio command hover is either an accident or the laws of physics must be abolished.


          With the resolution of the centimeter SOC "Buk-M2U" (1 m), this is a pattern that is possible even with radio command guidance, and there is also a TV-optical sight for correction). Fantasy

          Quote: Falcon
          Complete nonsense, misinformation or just a lie !!! The most powerful version of the slate sees at a distance of 40 km ESR 5m !!! No 35 with 0,3 and never dreamed of


          And in the photo you have given, "Slate" is not, there are various versions of the ARGSN "Washer", which have the usual energy potential, the "Slate" has increased

          Quote: Falcon
          Little confused. Target detection zone: in azimuth - ± 45 °, in elevation - 70 °, in range - 120 km


          Your values ​​relate to the review mode, in the tracking mode it is + / 60 degrees in azimuth and + 85 degrees in elevation
          1. Falcon
            Falcon 8 July 2016 11: 59
            0
            Quote: Fulcrum29
            With the resolution of the centimeter SOC "Buk-M2U" (1 m), this is a pattern that is possible even with radio command guidance, and there is also a TV-optical sight for correction). Fantasy


            So you say that your regularity is not subject to the laws of physics? Do you know the basics of radar? The concept of refraction. Although the most super-duper radar is not able to change the laws of physics and provide hit-to-kill with radio command guidance laughing (only under your nose). Therefore, we need GOS at least semi-active.

            Quote: Fulcrum29
            And in the photo you have given, "Slate" is not, there are various versions of the ARGSN "Washer", which have the usual energy potential, the "Slate" has increased

            There is a whole series of manufactured AGSN. Bring another source - I will be glad there are no groundless statements!

            Quote: Fulcrum29
            Your values ​​relate to the review mode, in the tracking mode it is + / 60 degrees in azimuth and + 85 degrees in elevation


            Do not tell anyone such nonsense. Read the textbook for universities on radar. The review mode is always more as energy can be dissipated. The tracking mode is only in a narrow range. Look at the RLE of a combat aircraft (available in the public domain) there, data on the survey and capture are given. Escort only in a very narrow sector.
        2. Bongo
          Bongo 8 July 2016 14: 34
          +1
          Quote: Falcon
          What a fantasy!

          Cyril, well, here we are! Damantsev began to write about air defense! wassat A unique person, he wouldn’t have a price if he knew a little about what he was writing. lol
          1. Falcon
            Falcon 8 July 2016 14: 43
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            Quote: Falcon
            What a fantasy!

            Cyril, well, here we are! Damantsev began to write about air defense! wassat A unique person, he wouldn’t have a price if he knew a little about what he was writing. lol


            Hello, Sergey! drinks
            But beautifully poses - it does not take away fellow It is easy to read - if you do not delve into the topic.
            But how many pluses I collected - all patriots are happy cheers laughing

            The most annoying thing is that our air defense systems are really good, only you need to write the truth and not get wet
            1. Bongo
              Bongo 8 July 2016 14: 46
              +2
              Quote: Falcon
              But he sets out beautifully - this is not to be taken away. It is easy to read.

              A person with such talents needs to write fantastic stories, I recently tried myself in the alternative genre, I won’t say that it was easy. But Damantsev would have been just right, and no one would have made fun of him.
              1. Falcon
                Falcon 8 July 2016 14: 59
                0
                Quote: Bongo
                I recently tried myself in the alternative genre, I won’t say that it was easy


                Have not seen. I'll definitely see your article yes
                1. Bongo
                  Bongo 8 July 2016 15: 00
                  +3
                  Quote: Falcon
                  Have not seen. I'll definitely see your article

                  Just do not spit much ... repeat
        3. Simple
          Simple 8 July 2016 16: 36
          +2
          Quote: Falcon
          Hit-to-kill during radio command guidance is either an accident, or the laws of physics must be repealed.

          Sorry ... but you're wrong here
          MIM-104 missile guidance on target radio command from the ground, using the method of tracking through a rocket (TVM - abbr. Eng. Track-Via-Missile). A flying rocket receives a ground-based radar signal reflected from a target and relays it through a one-way communication channel to a command post. Since the missile in flight is always closer to the target than the radar accompanying the target, the signal reflected from the target is received by the missile more efficiently, which provides greater accuracy and more effective resistance to interference. Thus, the guidance radar emitter operates at two receiving stations: the radar receiver itself and the missile receiver. The control computer compares the data received from the ground-based radar and from the missile itself and generates corrections to the trajectory, directing the missile at the target.

          Guidance Enhanced Missile TBM (GEM-T)
          http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/products/patriot/gemt/
          The MIM-104B model has a fully autonomous passive guidance of the rocket to the signal source (SARS)
          ZUR ERINT has kinetic warhead and ARGSN mm (Ka) range, but guidance method on the non-terminal portion the same (AN / MPQ-65)- she just can't "catch" anything in a 20g angle (in my opinion).
          In principle, for HtK, it does not matter which guidance method (at such distances for 300 000 km / s, the delays are not significant, and the computer power on the ground is not comparable with the missile defense computer)

          the essence of HtK is the extremely short reaction time of a rocket when working out control commands (due to the use of momentary gas-dynamic control).

          Pulse propulsion system (IMU), which includes 180 radially spaced single pulsed microRDRTs (10 rings according to 18 engines). IMU with a total mass of 21.6kg is supplied with a fuel charge weighing 3.852kg has a length of 365mm and a diameter of 255mm and torque gas-dynamic control
          1. Falcon
            Falcon 11 July 2016 08: 19
            +1
            Quote: Just
            Sorry ... but you're wrong here


            Sorry, but you’re not right at all.

            Quote: Just
            In principle, for HtK, anyway, what guidance method


            Firstly, never write this - this is completely not true and contradicts the laws of physics!

            Quote: Just
            Aiming the MIM-104 missile at the target is carried out by radio command control from the ground, using the method of "tracking through the rocket" (TVM - abbr. Eng. Track-Via-Missile). A flying rocket receives a ground-based radar signal reflected from a target and relays it through a one-way communication channel to a command post. Since the missile in flight is always closer to the target than the radar accompanying the target, the signal reflected from the target is received by the missile more efficiently, which provides greater accuracy and more effective resistance to interference. Thus, the guidance radar emitter operates at two receiving stations: the radar receiver itself and the missile receiver. The control computer compares the data received from the ground-based radar and from the missile itself and generates corrections to the trajectory, directing the missile at the target.


            And then you yourself answer your question! This is NOT radio command guidance! This is guidance through a rocket that has its own semi-active GOS - which relays the received data to a ground station. ATTENTIVELY THORAH DOES NOT have his own GOS, the station receives data about the target not from ROCKET but directly !!! Therefore, it physically cannot give qs for htk due to atmospheric variability and wave refraction, etc. If we determined in a vacuum, then yes.
            Guidance through a rocket and a radio command is NOT ONE AND ALSO! You are completely confused, especially:

            Quote: Just
            The ERINT SAM has a kinetic warhead and ARGSN mm (Ka) range, but the guidance method in the non-terminal area is the same (AN / MPQ-65) - it just can't "catch" anything in an angle of 20gr (in my opinion).


            This is not a topic at all. I explain: on the marching section, ALL missiles are launched using the radio command method, to the zone where their GOS will be able to see the target itself. DO ZUR ERINT ACTIVE HEAD! On commands from the station, she enters the capture zone of her own AGSN and then SAMA is aimed at the target and therefore provides Htk. she does not need a ground station. And this is the third option of guidance, and NOT through a rocket and NOT a radio command !!!
            In general, you still need a lot to figure out wink !
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Fulcrumxnumx
        8 July 2016 11: 11
        0
        Quote: Falcon
        What kind of words is this ??? What is the resolution in 1 ??? And here the width of the beam - when you need a wavelength and power ??? And how did this set of words fit in with the activation of the fuse ???


        Direct linkage. In the previous sentence, the X-range of the MRLS was specified, which increases the resolution of the station. And in the radio command guidance method, exactly the resolution is the range and width of the beam are important for a more accurate approach of the missile defense to the target. The better the convergence - the greater the likelihood of timely activation of the fuse, everything is interconnected.

        Quote: Falcon
        Yes Yes! And how does she lean without gas-dynamic steering surfaces from a vertical position? One of the reasons for the complexity of the implementation of short-range anti-aircraft guns with a vertical arrangement of missiles is their rapid declination in the right direction (the far hand has more time and energy) Therefore, there is no rudder without the HD.


        And you read carefully!))) It says in Russian: "without gas-dynamic DPU" (DPU, - transverse control engines,). And you are talking about gas-dynamic declination engines, which are not used in the interception of the VC. The DPU belt is not in the tail, but in the center of mass of the rocket. R3V-MD has no DPU for maneuvering on the trajectory)
        1. Parsec
          Parsec 8 July 2016 12: 00
          +1
          Quote: Fulcrum29
          The better the approach, the greater the likelihood of timely activation of the fuse,


          You confuse the resolution in the corners and the resolution in the range.
          The range resolution for pulsed radars depends on the pulse duration, and the timeliness of cocking a radio fuse depends on the accuracy of determining the range to the target and to the rocket.
          The radio fuse is cocked according to the range difference Dvzv = Dts-Dr and does not depend on the angles (the cocking command will be issued when the angles and their increments (first and second derivatives)) and linear deviations are not greater than those set for the complex.
        2. Falcon
          Falcon 8 July 2016 12: 08
          +1
          Quote: Fulcrum29
          In the previous sentence, the X-range of the radar system was indicated, which increases the resolution of the station.


          ??? What??? What kind of resolution is the station and how can a range increase it?
          Detection range is calculated from the radar equation

          - what else
          Quote: Fulcrum29
          resolution range and beam width

          ??
          that there is a "resolution range" not a wavelength not a phase, but a "resolution range" belay

          The accuracy of determination is affected by power characteristics. Namely, the flux density - and the ratio of field strengths (incident and reflected).
          And neither one nor the other depends on
          Quote: Fulcrum29
          beam width

          wassat Since this is not geometry and the scanning area is not important.
          1. Shark Lover
            Shark Lover 8 July 2016 13: 21
            +4
            Fuuuuuuuu !!! This is a debate, this is a discussion !! Nifiga did not understand, but interesting. In short, will it reliably close the sky over the infantry?
          2. Parsec
            Parsec 8 July 2016 14: 13
            +2
            Quote: Falcon
            The accuracy of determination is affected by power characteristics.


            No.
            A lot of factors affect the accuracy of determining the coordinates of a target by a radar station, but not power.

            The impression that the Russian language is not native to commentators.
            "resolution range", "power characteristics affect".
            See dictionaries, and even better, type the text in advance in MS Word, there this Cherkizon will be corrected in Russian.
            1. Falcon
              Falcon 8 July 2016 14: 36
              0
              Quote: Parsec
              No.
              A lot of factors affect the accuracy of determining the coordinates of a target by a radar station, but not power.


              Of course a lot. For this, there are textbooks.
              But not "beam width" and "resolution range"
              Radar equation



              - P is the transmitter power. The more powerful the farther. those. with comparable EPR and ranges - the accuracy is greater for a more powerful one.

              The determination of coordinates is the difference between the accumulation of noise and the accumulation of the reflected signal. Especially if you take the electronic warfare from the target, then such a difference will be less for radars with greater power.

              The ESR of an object is nothing more than the difference between the sent and received signal powers.

              If there is high noise, then the radar with more power gets a greater ratio
          3. Fulcrumxnumx
            8 July 2016 15: 57
            -1
            Is there any difference here?))) X-band with a wavelength from 2,5 to 3,75 see laughing All stations with this range are mainly shooting stations, since their resolution is higher and the error is lower. You cling to synonyms) It's true that the G-range is also shooting (AN / MPQ-53), but there the wave is already longer. About "hit-to-kill" in 50% of interception cases was announced not by anyone, but by no means the first person in Almaz-Antey Sergey Druzin smile
            1. Falcon
              Falcon 8 July 2016 16: 15
              0
              Quote: Fulcrum29
              Is there any difference here?))) X-band with a wavelength from 2,5 to 3,75 see


              ca
              The beam width in 1 degrees made it possible to achieve resolution in 1 m in the elevation and azimuthal planes, which allowed for reliable activation of the SAM fuse even when resolving radar systems in range of 100 meters,


              What is the beam width and what is the resolution in 1? and what is the range in 100m?

              Quote: Fulcrum29
              About "hit-to-kill" in 50% of interception cases was announced not by anyone, but by no means the first person in Almaz-Antey Sergey Druzin


              So they write on the fence too. And advertising is the engine of trade, if you drip, then half of the applications are designed for those who are not well-informed and are lame for verification. Not, of course, it could be - if they knocked a mess in front of the nose. Is there a link to such a statement?
            2. Falcon
              Falcon 8 July 2016 16: 18
              +1
              Quote: Fulcrum29
              All stations with this range are mainly firing, since their resolution is higher and the error is lower.


              What does firing mean, what is the term?
              Resolution higher than what? And the error is lower than what?

              Patriot has a C-band
              1. Fulcrumxnumx
                8 July 2016 16: 43
                0
                The Patriot has a G-band (5,5 - 6,7 cm), located between the X and S-bands. On-load tap changers do not work in C-band. Shooting? Do you know? Read more special literature!)))
                1. Falcon
                  Falcon 11 July 2016 08: 27
                  +1
                  Quote: Fulcrum29
                  Shooting? And you do not know? Read more special literature!)))


                  lol Did you even open it yourself? If you write such a term ???

                  Instead of answering my question - did you decide to continue flogging nonsense?

                  I was mistaken in you, at first the person thought, if he didn’t figure it out, at least now he wants to understand! And you seem to want only to write illiterate articles for the primitive Ur patriots. It's a pity...

                  Here's another
                  Quote: serverny
                  instead of copy paste, the formula is out of place.

                  lol

                  Quote: Fulcrum29
                  All stations with this range are mainly firing

                  But what about the shell, again did not fall into your classification)))
                  1. Bongo
                    Bongo 11 July 2016 08: 31
                    +2
                    Quote: Falcon
                    And you seem to want only to write illiterate articles for the primitive Ur patriots. It's a pity...

                    Hi, Kirill! On this occasion, I even wrote to Smirnov in PM, but unfortunately I did not receive an answer request
                    1. Falcon
                      Falcon 11 July 2016 08: 52
                      +1
                      Quote: Bongo
                      Hi, Kirill! On this occasion, I even wrote to Smirnov in PM, but unfortunately I did not receive an answer


                      Hello, Sergey! Unfortunately cheers patriotism here comes first crying
              2. serverny
                serverny 8 July 2016 19: 32
                0
                Take it easy.
                Screwed up - so calmly admit the mistake, instead of copy-paste formulas are out of place.
          4. Simple
            Simple 8 July 2016 19: 04
            0
            Quote: Falcon
            that there is a "resolution range" not a wavelength not a phase, but a "resolution range"

            probably meant a range of frequencies

            although this is a target detection station (SOC) with systems for identifying their nationality and stabilizing the base of the antenna with a new antenna based on a slotted HEADLIGHT (due to this, a second target channel is conveyor mode)
            the Chinese clone also

            what used to be a coherent-pulse centimeter-wave radar (EF) with frequency beam control in elevation

            in my opinion it was torn from the SOC 9С18М1-3Э

            + the radar itself for tracking targets and guiding missiles (called the guidance station (SN) in the complex is equipped with a low-passive phased array antenna that provides electronic scanning of a pencil-shaped beam (0,8 x 0,8 degrees) in the sector 30 x 30 degrees in azimuth and elevation.
      4. Simple
        Simple 8 July 2016 19: 13
        0
        Quote: Falcon
        Therefore, without the steering wheels in any way.

        Well, it’s kind of not quite the GDR ... wink

        These are gas distributors

        At launch, the rocket is ejected by the catapult vertically at a speed of about 25 m / s. The SAM is deflected by a predetermined angle, the magnitude and direction of which is introduced before starting into the autopilot from the guidance station, before the rocket engine starts as a result of the expiration of the combustion products of a special gas generator through four two-nozzle gas distribution units installed at the base of the aerodynamic steering wheel. The flues leading to oppositely directed nozzles overlap depending on the steering angle. The combination of the aerodynamic steering wheel and the gas distributor into a single unit made it possible to exclude the use of a special drive for the declination system. The gas-dynamic device tilts the rocket in the desired direction, and then, before turning on the solid-fuel engine, stops its rotation.

        The launch of the missile engine was carried out at an altitude of 16-21 m from the ground (either after a predetermined one-second delay from the start, or when the angle of deviation of the missile axis from the vertical 50 ° was reached). Thus, the entire pulse of the solid propellant rocket is consumed to give the rocket speed in the direction of the target.

        and they are "gas ducts" not where you showed

        and you have in the photo the elements of the clamshell drives
        1. Falcon
          Falcon 11 July 2016 08: 41
          0
          Quote: Just
          Well, it’s kind of not quite the GDR ...


          Well it's like they wink
          You just got very confused - you are deeply mistaken.
          I explain in order:
          Quote: Just
          These are gas distributors

          At launch, the rocket is ejected by the catapult vertically at a speed of about 25 m / s. The SAM is deflected by a predetermined angle, the magnitude and direction of which is introduced before starting into the autopilot from the guidance station, before the rocket engine starts as a result of the expiration of the combustion products of a special gas generator through four two-nozzle gas distribution units installed at the base of the aerodynamic steering wheel. The flues leading to oppositely directed nozzles overlap depending on the steering angle. The combination of the aerodynamic steering wheel and the gas distributor into a single unit made it possible to exclude the use of a special drive for the declination system. The gas-dynamic device tilts the rocket in the desired direction, and then, before turning on the solid-fuel engine, stops its rotation.

          The launch of the missile engine was carried out at an altitude of 16-21 m from the ground (either after a predetermined one-second delay from the start, or when the angle of deviation of the missile axis from the vertical 50 ° was reached). Thus, the entire pulse of the solid propellant rocket is consumed to give the rocket speed in the direction of the target.

          and they are "gas ducts" not where you showed


          Here you are absolutely right, just talk about another rocket! Everything you write is true for the 9m331 rocket smile


          And we talked about the RZV-MD - and this is, as it were, completely different and it was precisely the main steering wheels.
          9m331 has pulsed solid propellant rocket motors for declination above - of course, from time immemorial it was


          That's just RZV-md or 9M338 (!!! another rocket !!!) which I SPEAKED about! And Damantsev about her
          The uniqueness of this design in high available overloads, reaching up to 45 units. even without OVT and gas-dynamic dpu. On tests missiles 9М338

          !!!
          No pulsed solid propellant rocket motors on top!

          and they won’t fit below - since there is a marching engine and there is a main steering wheel wink
      5. Falcon5555
        Falcon5555 9 July 2016 01: 28
        +3
        Quote: Falcon
        Quote: Damantsev

        The beam width in 1 degrees made it possible to achieve a resolution of 1 m in the elevation and azimuthal planes, which ensured reliable activation of the SAM fuse even when resolving radar systems in range of 100 meters


        What kind of words is this ??? What is the resolution in 1 ??? And here the width of the beam - when you need a wavelength and power ??? And how did this set of words fit in with the activation of the fuse ???

        From a falcon who was forced to register with numbers because all reasonable nicknames have already been taken apart, a falcon without them wink
        Yes, this is an empty set of words. 1 degree for example at 10 km will give a resolution of 174 meters, if you do not chemistry with mathematics, envelopes, highs, etc. Suppose there is also a range resolution of 100 m. And the radio fuse is activated with this resolution (I think it is activated differently). Then the probability of knocking something down with such a rocket, I figured it out, something like 10 ^ -5.
        And why wavelength and power are needed, it is not clear to me.
    2. cherkas.oe
      cherkas.oe 8 July 2016 20: 00
      0
      Quote: aszzz888
      And gyropra without merikatosia is nobody and nothing

      About a thousand atomic warheads in England and France, they also need to be caught with something. You will not wave a broom.
  2. Shiva83483
    Shiva83483 8 July 2016 07: 07
    0
    In a word, welcome, our "daragie", the so-called pantners, please taste, how much is strawberry in Alaska ...
  3. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 8 July 2016 07: 16
    +1
    Thanks to the author for the work and good analysis, the article is just brilliant !!! +
  4. dsm100
    dsm100 8 July 2016 07: 53
    +5
    All so our air defense systems are the best in the world. As the saying goes, "we can sleep well." Thanks to the author for the article and to the designers for the development. Low bow and respect to you.
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 8 July 2016 13: 15
      0
      This is true. But remember that the enemy does not sleep or sleep.
  5. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 8 July 2016 08: 24
    +7
    Tor-M2U can still shoot on the move, also an interesting feature.

  6. AKsvlad047
    AKsvlad047 8 July 2016 08: 31
    0
    Such news only pleases and causes pride for our scientists and technologists, lays calm in our hearts for the future of the country! Well done !!!!!
  7. akv0571
    akv0571 8 July 2016 09: 12
    0
    We are at the military department in gr. KUB Institute studied, or rather the SURN of this complex.
    And BEECH is a continuation of the development of the CUBE, and I still have in my head the unresolved issue of the unfortunate flight MH17. It seems like it has already been raised that they knocked him down with a BEECH.
    On the KUB, this is unlikely, unlike the BUK, the KUB missile does not have an active seeker and the target must be constantly accompanied and highlighted, i.e. There is target data such as speed, altitude and course, and confusing a Boeing with a military fighter, interceptor or AN26, as the Ukropov general claimed, is very unlikely.
    A missile launcher has a semi-active and active GOS, which in the final section can itself capture the target. And the question for specialists in beech:
    Is it possible in principle that the MH17 was shot down by a BUK by mistake?
    For example, they shot down one target, the target "dodged", the rocket flew further and already captured the Boeing itself ???
    1. ism_ek
      ism_ek 8 July 2016 09: 31
      0
      Quote: akv0571
      unlike the BUK, the KUB missile does not have an active seeker

      Active GOS are on the latest modifications of the BUK, which they are only going to deliver to the troops.
    2. venik
      venik 8 July 2016 09: 43
      0
      Unlikely! There were actually no other planes in the sky. According to some information (t of the local population), only the Su-25 APU attack aircraft was spinning ...
      And to confuse "Boeing" with "Drying" ... Sorry, as the classic said - I DO NOT BELIEVE !!! There the EPR is several times (!!) different. True, if we accept the complete absence of any qualifications from the air defense missile systems, then everything is certainly possible ...
      One fact is alarming - the screams around this tragedy have risen very rapidly ... As if they were WAITING for it ...
    3. Parsec
      Parsec 8 July 2016 12: 03
      +2
      Quote: akv0571
      For example, they shot down one target, the target "dodged", the rocket flew further and already captured the Boeing itself ???


      To do this, it is necessary that the second target was in alignment with the first, fly at the same speed as the first target, and an absolutely dumb calculation sat in the SDA, not understanding what it was doing.
  8. akv0571
    akv0571 8 July 2016 09: 36
    0
    Quote: ism_ek
    Quote: akv0571
    unlike the BUK, the KUB missile does not have an active seeker

    Active GOS are on the latest modifications of the BUK, which they are only going to deliver to the troops.


    A year ago, I read somewhere in the internet that in the early missiles there is an active GOS, but I did not find anything about the characteristics of this GOS.
    1. Falcon
      Falcon 8 July 2016 10: 30
      +2
      Quote: akv0571
      A year ago, I read somewhere in the internet that in the early missiles there is an active GOS, but I did not find anything about the characteristics of this GOS.


      Not. Only on the beech-m3 and it has not yet been adopted. And certainly they would not have been shot there)))
      Of our modern air defense systems (adopted for service), it is only with Redut. Unless of course MANPADS and arrow laughing Everything else is only in development.
      1. kugelblitz
        kugelblitz 8 July 2016 10: 58
        +2
        As I recall, the 9M96Е and 40Н6Е missiles have active GOS, which are part of the Triumph and one of them is in Vityaz.
        Apparently they decided to do the same for Buk-M3 for special cases, and to use mainly semi-active and remote-controlled guidance systems to reduce the cost of shots.
        I don’t remember what guidance system the 9М100 rocket, like the telecontrol like Tor used, was it?
        1. Falcon
          Falcon 8 July 2016 12: 16
          0
          Quote: kugelblitz
          As I recall, the 9M96Е and 40Н6Е missiles have active GOS, which are part of the Triumph and one of them is in Vityaz.


          Separate flies from cutlets. 9m96 is part of Redoubt, and wrote about him. BUT the Vityaz complex has not yet been adopted. 40н6 should be part of c-400 but has still not been adopted, and has not been finalized, as all officials say. All c-400 come with missiles from C-300ПМУ2, namely 48н6.

          Quote: kugelblitz
          I don’t remember what guidance system the 9М100 rocket, like the telecontrol like Tor used, was it?


          Officially, there wasn’t even one launch of such missiles. They simply do not exist yet, until they brought 9m96Д. There is a short hand 9m96 which was created on a tender with South Korea. For the most part, these are fantasies of journalists. In real life, most likely this is a missile from the Morpheus air defense system, which is also not accepted for service! But journalists are already writing that the guidance is radio command.
          But basically, these are unconfirmed fantasies, so I urge you to discuss what really is.
          1. Bongo
            Bongo 8 July 2016 15: 25
            +2
            Quote: Falcon
            All s-400 come with rockets from C-300PMU2 namely 48n6.

            You wanted to say C-300ПМ2?
            1. Falcon
              Falcon 8 July 2016 15: 32
              +1
              Quote: Bongo
              You wanted to say C-300ПМ2?


              yes Your true u-box is exportable yes
  9. Svoy_tovarish
    Svoy_tovarish 8 July 2016 09: 43
    -1
    The Russian state is famous for its air defense systems. I did not know that the missile defense system is fighting against hypersonic targets, in which case this complex can be considered strategic).
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 8 July 2016 13: 08
      +1
      So far, only Hollywood fights impenetrable stupidity with hypersound.
  10. akv0571
    akv0571 8 July 2016 09: 55
    0
    Ну
    Quote: venik
    Unlikely! There were actually no other planes in the sky. According to some information (t of the local population), only the Su-25 APU attack aircraft was spinning ...
    And to confuse "Boeing" with "Drying" ... Sorry, as the classic said - I DO NOT BELIEVE !!! There the EPR is several times (!!) different. True, if we accept the complete absence of any qualifications from the air defense missile systems, then everything is certainly possible ...
    One fact is alarming - the screams around this tragedy have risen very rapidly ... As if they were WAITING for it ...

    Well, for a year two Boeing777s of one company are also very strange ....
    1. kugelblitz
      kugelblitz 8 July 2016 11: 16
      0
      Quote: akv0571
      Well, for a year two Boeing777s of one company are also very strange ....

      [conspiracy therapist’s mode] Already painfully large cracks in the side members formed along the way, it was necessary to dispose urgently! [/ conspiracy therapist’s] wassat
    2. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 8 July 2016 14: 55
      +1
      Boeing confused with military transport
      1. Falcon
        Falcon 8 July 2016 15: 01
        +1
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Boeing confused with military transport


        Question on the echelons? So high military do not fly
  11. Lt. Air Force stock
    Lt. Air Force stock 8 July 2016 12: 16
    0
    It is good that ammunition is being increased, and not just modernized component base without increasing firepower. Now the Tor-M2U division has 8 launchers of 128 missiles, the Buk-M3 8 launchers have 6 missiles on a total of 48 missiles in the division (if you also count the transport-launchers with 12 missiles each get more).
  12. NordUral
    NordUral 8 July 2016 12: 19
    -2
    Thanks to the author for the detailed layout! And to developers and manufacturers success in work! Most likely we will need thousands of such installations with tens of thousands of missiles. And not in the distant, unfortunately, future.
    1. NordUral
      NordUral 8 July 2016 13: 10
      0
      What kind of enemy appeared here who does not like the sky closed from enemies? Open your face, Gulchitai.
      1. NordUral
        NordUral 8 July 2016 13: 17
        -1
        Shy thing? A worker on an invisible front, so to speak.
    2. Bongo
      Bongo 8 July 2016 14: 38
      +1
      Quote: NordUral
      Thanks to the author for the detailed layout!

      I put you an extreme minus, you're sorry! But the author absolutely does not own the topic! No.
      1. Fulcrumxnumx
        8 July 2016 18: 35
        -2
        The topic is normal, but you should still confuse DPU with tail gas rudders of declination smile
      2. serverny
        serverny 8 July 2016 19: 34
        0
        Judging above by your kisses in the ass to Comrade Falcon, who through the word carried a fierce heresy, trying to pass as clever - you understand the topic worse than the author of the article. And you are a petty minuser.
        1. Falcon
          Falcon 11 July 2016 08: 55
          +1
          Quote: serverny
          Judging above by your kisses in the ass to Comrade Falcon, who through the word carried a fierce heresy, trying to pass as clever - you understand the topic worse than the author of the article. And you are a petty minuser.


          Harvard President (google what it is lol ) during the period from 1971-1991 once said:

          Quote: Bock, Derek Curtis
          If you think education is too expensive, try how much ignorance


          Looks like you know the price?
  13. buk-m3
    buk-m3 8 July 2016 14: 55
    0
    It's just interesting when these m3 beechs will actually come into service. And so +
  14. sivuch
    sivuch 8 July 2016 23: 11
    +2
    On 9M338 they threatened to add an infrared seeker (which is also indicated by the shape of the fairing). But so far something is quiet. Honestly, I do not know how it will be with accuracy at max. range 15-18 km only with r / com
    1. Falcon
      Falcon 11 July 2016 09: 09
      +1
      Quote: sivuch
      Honestly, I don’t know how it will be with accuracy at max. range 15-18 km only with r / com


      Here they wrote hit-to-kill will be fellow laughing