The ships laid down according to the pre-revolutionary shipbuilding programs and completed in the first decade of Soviet power contributed to the victory over the Nazis in the naval theaters of the Great Patriotic War. Despite their considerable age, wear of bodies and mechanisms, they steadfastly carried military service at all fleets, participated in both well-known operations and in everyday hostilities. Thus, of the six Novik-class destroyers transferred to the fleet in 1923-1928, three ships - Nezamozhnik, Zheleznyakov and Kuibyshev - were awarded the Orders of the Red Banner for their heroic service during the war years. The work to preserve these destroyers during the civil war and devastation, the organization of their completion in the process of restoring the country's industrial potential became a noticeable milestone in stories domestic shipbuilding.
By the beginning of 1918 in Petrograd and Kronstadt, 11 was afloat and in Nikolaev, 4 of unfinished destroyer squadrons, half of which had a high degree of readiness (by corps - 90% and more). By order of the General Directorate of Shipbuilding, all work on them was stopped in February-March. 28 May The Main Shipbuilding Department issued orders for unloading shipbuilding materials, blanks and other property from destroyers of the Izyaslav and Gavriil types, evacuated from Revel, to the Petrograd factories, as well as for drawing up inventories and preservation of hulls and mechanisms.
On August 2, according to the report of the Chief of the Main Directorate of the Main Directorate for the Construction of Ships under Construction, the Naval Collegium decided to transfer the destroyers Prymislav, Bryachislav, Fedor Stratelates (like Izyaslav), Captain Belly, Captain Kern ”(of the type“ Lieutenant Ilyin ”) and“ Mikhail ”(of the type“ Gabriel ”), and the remaining unfinished ships of these types are eliminated. The question of the fate of the unfinished destroyers "Ushakovskaya" series remained open, in connection with the occupation of Ukraine by German troops.
The planned measures were not fully implemented: there was not enough materials for warming decks and superstructures, fuel and electricity, but the main thing was done: the bottom and overboard fittings were preserved from defrosting, the mechanisms were laid up, the property was sheltered from the weather and protected.
15 March 1919 of the Year The Revolutionary Military Council of the RSFSR decided to complete the construction of the Svetlana cruiser, two destroyers of the squadrons (Prymislav and Captain Belly) and five minesweepers. To perform work on the "Captain Belly" was even given a preliminary outfit (readiness - for the spring 1920 g.). However, the state of the country's economy and the situation on the fronts did not allow these plans to be implemented: already 30 of April was followed by an order to remove from the ship some of the mechanisms necessary for an urgent transfer to the oil heating of the destroyers sent to the Caspian Sea.
The question of completing the construction of “Pryamislav” and “Captain Belly” was raised again at the end of 1919 in connection with the death of “Gabriel”, “Constantine” and “Freedom”; The possibility has been studied of ordering abroad appropriate materials, tools and appliances But the end of the civil war, in the European part of the country, brought national economic tasks to the forefront, and measures to ensure the combat capability of the naval forces of the country temporarily had to be reduced to repairing ships remaining in service in the Baltic, and to rebuilding the fleet in the Black Sea, where the departure of the interventionists and the white guard ships is almost gone.
The squadron destroyer Zante, abandoned by Wrangel's troops in a semi-submerged state at the Big Fountain in Odessa and towed to Nikolaev in September of 1920, was recognized as one of the primary shipbuilding facilities. By the time of the termination of work in March 1918, its hull readiness was 93,8%, according to the mechanisms - 72,1%, all boilers, bow turbine, most of the auxiliary mechanisms and some of the pipelines were installed; from the armament two torpedo tubes were mounted. It was necessary to clean the case from dirt and corrosion, to open and repair mechanisms, to replace the brickwork of the boilers, to perform some other restoration work. The total readiness of the ship to the beginning of completion was estimated at 55%.
23 December 1922, the Main Marine Technical and Economic Department (Glavmortekhozupr) concluded a contract with Glavmetall VNHK for completing the construction of Zante at Nikolaev state plants "in accordance with the approved drawings, specifications and specifications for 33 nodal speed destroyers". Glavmetal has pledged to present the ship in full readiness for official trials through 11 months, taking into account the prohibition to remove anything from the Corfu and Levkos to be completed later.
12 June 1923 of the Year “Zante” was renamed “Unauthorized”, and 29 of April 1926 of the year “Unmarked”. According to their tactical and technical elements, the device of the hull, the composition and location of technical means, armament, the ship was repeated by the previously built destroyers of this type. Only the anti-aircraft artillery differed from the prototype: a 76-mm gun was installed in the stern in the 30 calibers of the FF Lender system, and later another was added.
The acceptance committee chaired by A.P. Shershova began work on September 13 1923. After 10 days, “Nezamozhny” went to Sevastopol, having carried out a six-hour test of mechanisms on an economic course. The displacement was 1310 tons, the average speed was 18,3 kn at 302 rpm and power 4160 l. s., fuel consumption 4,81 t / h. Boilers and mechanisms worked satisfactorily, burning was smokeless. The ship also successfully passed the 27 on September six-hour cruising mode (1420 tons, 23,9 knots, 430 rpm, 14342 hp). On October 10, after alkalization and cleaning of the boilers, the mechanisms were tested at full speed. With a displacement of 1440 t, it was possible to obtain the average 3,5 speed for 27,5 h at 523 rpm, the total power of the 22496 turbines, hp and the full force boilers. There was also a large smoke and significant overall vibration of the case. Since the contract did not define the obligations of the plant to achieve certain speed indicators, the commission decided not to repeat the tests.
The next day, we tried artillery, and October 14 “Nezamozhny” returned to Nikolaev, where they disassembled and cleaned the mechanisms and boilers for a week, determined the stability (the metacentric height with a displacement of 1350 t corresponded to the specification and was 0,87 m). October 20 held a control exit, after which the commission found the "Non-clever" to meet the requirements of the fleet. 7 November 1923 on the ship solemnly raised the naval flag, and he was enlisted in the naval forces of the Black Sea.
At the request of Glavmortehozoupra on the conditions for completing the construction of the Pramislav, Captain Belli and Captain Kern squadrons, the Petrogradsky District Court in the beginning of 1923 reported the deadlines for these works (16, 12 and 20 months from the date of conclusion of the contract) and the price of 3,132 million rub. Such funds in the 1923 / 24 fiscal year failed to allocate. At the same time, the international situation dictated the need to strengthen the defense of the maritime borders of the USSR, and on September 2, the Labor and Defense Council adopted a resolution to assign destroyers Pramyslav, Captain Belly and Corfu to other ships for the Navy. and Levkos. Outfitting work was prescribed to conduct according to the drawings and specifications of the serial ships of the corresponding types.
The contract for the completion of "Corfu" concluded 10 April 1925 of the year, in fact, work began immediately after the delivery of the "Cleared". From 16 January to 16 February 1924, carts of the Morton slipway carried out cleaning, repair and painting of the hull with minus, setting up significant corrosive wear of the exterior plating, dwelling deck and second floor (up to 25% of original thickness). Part of the sheets replaced. By the end of 1924, the installation of the main and auxiliary mechanisms, pipelines, systems, devices and weapons was completed. Through the 3-4 of the month, similar work was carried out on Levkos. 5 February 1925 ships were renamed: “Corfu” - to “Petrovsky” (in honor of the Chairman of the CEC of the USSR Grigory Ivanovich Petrovsky), “Levkos” - to “Shaumyan” (in honor of one of the 26 Baku commissars).
March 10 march to Odessa began factory running tests "Petrovsky", and April 25 - official. The state acceptance commission was headed by Yu.A. Szymansky. 30 April on the transition to Sevastopol, the turbine speed was brought to 560 for a short time, the speed of the lag reached 29,8 ties.
The plant took into account the experience of the completion and testing of the “Nezamozhny”: the boilers and mechanisms of the “Petrovsky” worked more reliably, the smoke and vibration decreased. 9 May at the three-hour full speed mode developed the average speed of 30,94 and the maximum - 32,52 nodes. Three days later, the cruising range of the 19 hub economic course was determined, which, with a full supply of 410 fuel, amounted to 2050 miles, and in actual navigation with an "inexperienced military team with the consequences of fouling and pollution of boilers" - about 1500 miles. 14 May identified elements of the circulation of the destroyer, and 28 May - its stability. Tests of weapons showed the unreliability of the optional 37-mm anti-aircraft machine of the Maxim system, which after the first three shots gave continuous misfires, (it was removed at the end of the twenties, adding a second 76-mm gun to the poop.
After inspecting the mechanisms, selecting defects and controlling the exit, the 10 of June 1925 of the year saw the solemn raising of the Naval flag, and the Petrovsky became part of the Black Sea Naval Forces. The conclusions of the acceptance committee indicated the need to eliminate the vibration on the moves of more than 400 rpm, the reason for which is Yu.A. Szymansky considered too long a propeller shaft between the bracket and the deadwood with weakness of the aft hull, this was not noted in the Baltic destroyers.
The slip was taken into account, and the contract of 13 of August 1925 of the year, for the completion of the “Shahumyan” being prepared for tests, provided for additional reinforcement of the stern, which gave positive results. The tests launched on October 19 were successful: the average full speed reached 30,63, the highest - 31,46 knots, with power respectively 27740 and 28300 l. c, with moderate vibration in the 400-535 rpm range. The navigation range of the 18 hub was 2130 miles. December 10 Commission signed the acceptance certificate.
The first of the destroyers completed in Leningrad under the 1924 / 25 program of the fiscal year was Kalinin (up to 5 in February 1925 of the year - “Direct”), whose overall readiness was estimated at 69% by the beginning of work. Of the mechanisms on the ship, there was no bow turbo-condensate pump, aft engine fan and main condenser tubes. Pipeline installation has not been completed. From the autumn of 1925 of the year to January, the 1926 of the destroyer went docking with replacement of screws. According to the experience of using the artillery of the same type of destroyer Karl Marx (formerly Izyaslav), the second 102-mm gun was transferred to three shpatsii in the nose, because at the same place his shots at sharp course angles stunned the calculation of the first gun. The elevation angle of the main artillery increased to 30 °. After completing all the work and testing, the ship 20 July 1927 of the year became part of the Baltic Sea Naval Forces.
The construction of “Captain Belly” had to be postponed for a whole year: during the 23 September 1924 flood, the surge surged it from the moorings, and after many hours of drift, the ship found itself on the sandbank in the Fox Nose area, having been damaged and tilted to 2 °. In the summer of next year, it was necessary to wash the 300-meter channel to remove it from the ground. Therefore, first of all, they decided to finish building “Captain Kern”. 10 has started work on December 1924 of the year. They made and installed the missing main condenser and boiler turbofans, but then the matter stalled due to the lack of pipes and fittings of the main steam line, which had to be ordered abroad. The mooring trials began only in the spring of 1927 of the year, and the 18 of September, the destroyer carried out the 6-hour program of the full stroke mode, showing the average speed of 1360 and the maximum 29,54 nodes at normal displacement (30,5 t). On October 15, the commission that conducted the tests signed the ship acceptance certificate for the fleet.
The completion of “Captain Belly”, renamed 13 in July 1926 to “Karl Liebknecht”, was completed only in spring 1928. On August 2, the ship showed the average speed 30,35 knots on the measuring line. and on the two-hour “full stroke” mode, developed 540 rpm with 31 power 660 l. with. and the operation of 63 nozzles from 80 (speed through the lag reached 32 knots). The Commission, noting that “the move was easily achieved, and could be further increased,” signed the acceptance certificate the next day. In contrast to the previously built destroyers of this type, the Kuibyshev (before 31 in May 1925 of the year - “Captain Kern”) and “Karl Liebknecht” installed three-legged masts (on the first - both, on the second - only the nasal). Destroyer armament included four 102-mm and one 76-mm anti-aircraft gun, 37-mm machine gun Maxim, two 7,62-mm machine guns and three three-tube torpedo tubes.
In the years of the prewar five-year plans, the ships that replenished the formations of squadron destroyers in the mid-twenties, became a real “forge of cadres” for the reviving fleet of our country. They participated in long-distance campaigns, intensively engaged in combat training, repeatedly visited foreign countries. In the prewar years, these destroyers were overhauled and upgraded. They installed smoke and noise-finding equipment, para-guards of the type K-1, aft bomb spreaders for large and small depth bombs, two 45-mm anti-aircraft guns, 7,62-mm machine guns were replaced with large-caliber (12,7-mm). In the 1942-1943, on the remaining ships, anti-aircraft armament was reinforced by 37- and 20-mm anti-aircraft guns of the new models, replacing the 76-mm tools of the Lender system. Having a good seaworthiness, retaining the 25-28-junction, the “novices” during the years of the Great Patriotic War remained valuable warships.
The destroyer of the Northern Fleet "Kuibyshev" the first of them 24 June 1943, was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. 27 July 1941 g. Artillery fire, he, together with the destroyer "Uritsky" prevented enemy attempts to break into the Middle Peninsula. Having passed the 44 000 war for miles, the ship escorted 240 transport ships, shot down two enemy aircraft, in the conditions of the worst storm, saved 1942 in November, the main part of the crew of the crushing destroyer SX (179 people), successfully performed many other command assignments. The destroyer finished his service as a target ship during the testing of atomic weapons off the coast of New Earth 21 September 1955 of the year. Kuibyshev was located at a distance of 1200 m from the epicenter. The destroyer did not receive serious damage, with the exception of radioactive contamination. Was dismantled for metal in the 1958 year.
Heroically acted as part of the Black Sea Fleet "Independent", "Zheleznyakov" (before the 23 July 1939 of the "Petrovsky") and "Shaumyan", who took part in the defense of Odessa and Sevastopol, in the landing of the landing force in Feodosia.
April 3, 1942 "Shaumyan" in extremely adverse conditions made the transition from Novorossiysk to Poti. Near Gelendzhik, the destroyer ran aground and struck the bottom. It was impossible to remove the ship from the stones. In addition, the ship was badly damaged by storms and fascist aviation. The guns were removed from it and transferred to the coastal artillery.
The "undeclared" in the battles and campaigns passed more than 46 000 military miles, "Zheleznyakov" - more than 30 000. The ships covered dozens of transports from enemy aviation, shot down three enemy planes, suppressed several batteries with artillery fire, supported the 4 of February 1943 in February with the landing of the landing force in South Ozeriyka. 8 July 1945 “Zheleznyakov” and “Independent” were awarded the Order of the Red Banner. 12 January 1949 of the Year “The Cleaver” was converted into a target ship, and in the early fifties, it was sunk when testing new weapon systems near the shores of the Crimea.
A more interesting post-war fate was at the destroyer Zheleznyakov. In 1947, it was handed over to the Bulgarian Navy. There, in the 1948 year, there was a fire on the ship, after which he was sent for repairs to Varna. After repairing continued service in Bulgaria. However, due to the overgrowth of the underwater part and illiterate exploitation, the ship’s speed dropped to 15 nodes. The next repair was made in Sevastopol. In 1949, the destroyer returned the USSR. In April, the 1953 of the year Zheleznyakov was converted into a floating tower, and in 1957, it was handed over for dismantling.
Karl Liebknecht, which was overhauled from October 1940 to October 1944, managed to take part in the operations of the Northern Fleet at the final stage of the war, and 22 on April 1945 sunk a German U-286 submarine. This destroyer also ended his service after testing the 21 September 1955 nuclear weapon, and was later put on board as a floating pier in the Belushya Bay, where, apparently, it still stands today.
The squadron destroyer Kalinin, which entered service after a long overhaul in the first days of the war, already became the flagship of the June NNYX 27 squadron of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet ships assigned for the equipment of the mine-artillery position in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, which securely covered the approaches to Leningrad from seas. 1941 August ship under the flag of Rear Admiral Yu.F. Rallia led the rearguard of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet ships departing from Tallinn. In 28 h 23 min Kalinin hit a mine and sank after half an hour due to severe hull damage.
This was the service and the end of the last representatives of the glorious "Novikov" galaxy, the completion of which in the difficult conditions of the recovery period prepared the reviving shipbuilding industry to implement new shipbuilding programs, and left a noticeable mark in the history of domestic shipbuilding.
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