Military Review

Sverdlov-type artillery cruisers: the last in the Russian fleet

82
Sverdlov-type artillery cruisers: the last in the Russian fleet

The cruiser "Sverdlov" at coronation celebrations at Spithead raid, June 1953.

5 July 1950 of the year launched the lead ship of the series, which became the basis of the surface forces of the Navy for two decades

Great Patriotic war on the USSR met with one of the largest fleets in the world: 3 battleships, 7 cruisers, 59 leaders and destroyers, 218 submarines, 269 torpedo boats, 22 patrol boats, 88 minesweepers, 77 submarine hunters and number other ships and boats, as well as auxiliary vessels. But during the four military years, the Soviet Navy suffered significant losses and therefore by the end of the 1940's was much weaker, having difficulty in ensuring the country's security at sea borders. Meanwhile, the former allies of the USSR were rapidly turning into his opponents in the Cold War, and above all the United States, which had the most powerful military fleet at that time. To compensate for the lag in this area, the first post-war military shipbuilding program of the Soviet Union was adopted in 1950, under which the construction of the largest series of domestic cruisers, the 68 bis project Sverdlov, began. It got its name by the name of the lead cruiser of the series, which was launched on July 5 1950.

Although the construction program fleet, in the framework of which the construction of 68 bis cruisers was carried out, was adopted in 1950, the tactical and technical task for the development of the project was issued three years earlier. But in general история Creations of cruisers - more precisely, at first they were called light cruisers, although they eventually became the largest ships of the cruising class in the Soviet Navy - the 68 project began at the end of the 1930's. Their actual predecessors were light chapaev-type cruisers, the first of which was laid back in August 1939. In total, before the start of the war, five ships of this project were laid and launched, but they were completed in the post-war years: all five were commissioned in 1950.

It was this project that the shipbuilders took as the basis for starting work on new, post-war artillery cruisers for the Soviet Navy. In fact, these were the last ships of such class and rank in the USSR, since the conditions of the Cold War required a completely different ocean fleet and completely different weapons - nuclear and rocket. But in the conditions of the post-war reconstruction of the country and the urgent development of that new fleet and new weapons systems, it was necessary to hastily arm naval sailors with at least defenses - and only then with offensive weapons. The Sverdlov project cruisers became such “defensive” ships.

However, the rush and some “obsolete” of the project did not prevent the Sverdlov-type cruisers from becoming the first warships in the history of Russian cruiser building that received an all-welded hull. The creators of the ships managed to develop and put into practice a system for welding thick and large-sized sheets of armored low-alloyed steel - and as a result, the time taken to build one cruiser was halved compared to the construction by riveting the hull. And it was possible to develop a new technique using the experience of both German shipbuilders who mastered armor welding well, and ... Soviet tank building, where similar technologies during the war years worked perfectly on tens of thousands of T-34 and other machines.

Since the Soviet Navy of the late 1940-x - the beginning of the 1950-x required a large number of new ships, and the technology to build the cruisers of the 68 bis project allowed them to be produced fairly quickly, the plans included building a series of 25 units. But in the end, only fourteen or six were built in Leningrad (in three plants: the Ordzhonikidze Baltic, André Marty and the Sudomeh plant), three in Nikolaev and two in Molotovsk (later renamed Severodvinsk). The ships received the names of famous naval commanders, military leaders, political figures of the USSR and cities: “Admiral Senyavin”, “Admiral Lazarev”, “Admiral Ushakov” and “Admiral Nakhimov”, “Alexander Suvorov”, “Alexander Nevsky”, “Dmitry Pozharsky” and “ Mikhail Kutuzov, Sverdlov, Zhdanov, Ordzhonikidze and Dzerzhinsky, as well as Molotovsk and Murmansk. More 11 cruisers were laid, but not completed, because the country's leadership has concluded that the fleet needs other ships. Five of them managed to be floated, four more only to be pawned, and orders for two more were simply canceled.


Cruiser Ordzhonikidze, 1960 year

Despite the fact that the 68 bis project was largely pre-war, and cruisers were built under more than difficult conditions, they turned out to be strong warships that served in the USSR Navy for a long time. The shortest service fell to the share of the cruisers Ordzhonikidze and the Admiral Nakhimov - they were listed in the ship lists for 11 years. On average, the cruisers of the 68 project served for more than three decades, which is not surprising. After the navy was forced to write off the largest ships that remained in its structure from the times of the First World War - Sevastopol-type battleships, it was the Sverdlov-type cruisers that took their place. Although, of course, they were inferior to the battleships in their combat capabilities: the armament of these ships consisted of twelve 152-mm guns in four towers and twelve 100-mm guns in six twin-mounted units. In addition, sixteen dual 37-mm artillery mounts, designed for the air defense of ships, were located on board: the military and shipbuilders fully took into account the experience of the recently ended war.

Initially, all the cruisers of the Sverdlov project were distributed over three fleets: the Baltic, Northern and Black Sea, in accordance with the place of construction. But in the end, four ships - "Admiral Lazarev", "Dmitry Pozharsky", "Admiral Senyavin" and "Alexander Suvorov" - ended up in the Pacific Fleet, where they served until the end of the 1980's. And the longest fate fell to the lot of the Black Sea cruiser Mikhail Kutuzov. Unlike all the rest of his fellows, after the end of combat service, he was not sold abroad, he was not allowed to go on needles and left to rot in foreign waters (as Murmansk did not reach the customers). Written off last, in August 1998 of the year, two years later, he embarked on an eternal moorage in Novorossiysk, becoming a museum ship.

In the history of the combat service of the Sverdlov-type cruisers there have been many notable events. They made international visits, including in honor of the coronation of the Queen of Great Britain Elizabeth II (Sverdlov), went to distant raids in the equator area, watching American aircraft carriers, participated in the test programs of ship cruise missiles, helped the Egyptian fleet during the Arab-Israeli conflicts, rescued fishermen and victims of earthquakes, assisted the Soviet nuclear submarines that had suffered accidents ... For two decades, these cruisers became a real symbol of the resurgent Soviet Navy - and the core of its surface forces, until they were replaced by more modern, high-speed and better armed ships. But its role in the history of the Russian Navy cruisers like "Sverdlov" played, and significant. It was their honor to prove to the whole world that the Russian fleet suffered all the war that had just ended and is ready at any moment to repel any attack. That is, to give the country and its sailors and shipbuilders the time and opportunity to design and build the very novelties that the 68 bis cruisers have ousted from the battle fleet.
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  1. andrewkor
    andrewkor 9 July 2016 06: 05
    +10
    Altai Territory was moving just above the cruiser "Sverdlov". I remember at our school there was a meeting with the sailors of the cruiser - our fellow countrymen. How the boys 'eyes burned from the impressions of the sailors' stories. That was patriotic education !!!
    1. sherp2015
      sherp2015 9 July 2016 13: 10
      +3
      Quote: andrewkor
      Altai Territory was moving just above the cruiser "Sverdlov". I remember at our school there was a meeting with the sailors of the cruiser - our fellow countrymen. How the boys 'eyes burned from the impressions of the sailors' stories. That was patriotic education !!!

      The cruisers are good, but the name "sverdlov" should have been changed.
      What a patriotic upbringing for this odious person whose hands are in blood in the neck. (Directive on the total destruction of the Cossacks with children by women and the elderly)
      I expect from the Zionofashists clouds of minuses
      1. Kenneth
        Kenneth 9 July 2016 19: 06
        +5
        Anti-Semitism eats the mind cleaner than zombies. The communist internationalist Sverdlov was equally disgusted by both Zionists and fascists. So from Zionofashists you can get only the pros.
      2. Manul
        Manul 9 July 2016 22: 19
        +3
        Quote: sherp2015
        The cruisers are good, but the name "sverdlov" should have been changed.
        What a patriotic upbringing for this odious person whose hands are in blood in the neck. (Directive on the total destruction of the Cossacks with children by women and the elderly)
        I expect from the Zionofashists clouds of minuses

        Go through the forest, comrade. After the collapse of the Union, I have heard a lot from liberal historians. I DO NOT TRUST your sources. Changing a comma in a phrase sometimes changes the meaning. And what the gentlemen from Ehamaska ​​do with my story, I am in a rage. And about extermination .. So everyone always exterminates someone. Only not all over the world. Otherwise, there would be no one left on earth. Stalin so “ruined” millions in the Gulag. Why so many people were born under him? If so "everything was bad"?
        And in the second branch in a row I catch people in flood. If there is an opinion about your stuffing - in a personal, or an article. And so - return to the discussion of ships.
        1. alex86
          alex86 9 July 2016 23: 03
          +1
          Quote: Manul
          .And what the gentlemen from Ehamaskwa do with my story, I am furious.

          So don't listen. And then "Orthodox activists", in order to be offended, specially go to exhibitions. If you do not listen, you will not be mad. I'm not Dm. I don’t listen to Kiselyov or Solovyov - for "corrupt women" (this is to get around the ban) - and I don’t get mad at them.
          And the story cannot be yours - it is our common one.
          1. Manul
            Manul 9 July 2016 23: 43
            -1
            Quote: alex86
            So don't listen. And then "Orthodox activists", in order to be offended, specially go to exhibitions. If you do not listen, you will not be mad. I'm not Dm. I don’t listen to Kiselyov or Solovyov - for "corrupt women" (this is to get around the ban) - and I don’t get mad at them.
            And the story cannot be yours - it is our common one.

            And why did Soloviev not please YOU. Offended that I did not pronounce your mouthpiece of "truth" correctly? The address stated above. Wish on the topic in the same place.
            1. alex86
              alex86 10 July 2016 08: 44
              +1
              Soloviev did not please me with the custom-made focus on confrontation and "podmakhing" the authorities (which is, in fact, the same thing) in all the base provocations of the "aggressively obedient majority" (remember this term?) With brainwashed TV brains to shouts like: "fifth column "," liberals "," obama "," krymnash ".
              It makes no sense to be offended by stupid ridicule: the manner of conducting a discussion is an inalienable property of each participant, each is expressed to the extent of his upbringing and degree of respect for the interlocutor's right to have an opinion.
              And once again - here very often there are haters of "Echo of Moscow", who, nevertheless, actively listen to it (and raise their rating). "You either put on your panties, or remove the cross" (C)
              1. alex86
                alex86 11 July 2016 18: 59
                0
                Judging by the minuses, we are angry, but there is nothing to say ...
                1. JIaIIoTb
                  JIaIIoTb 28 September 2016 22: 37
                  0
                  Truly verbiage. Where did you see the minus?
        2. sherp2015
          sherp2015 12 July 2016 17: 38
          -1
          Quote: Manul
          Go through the forest, comrade. After the collapse of the Union, I have heard a lot from liberal historians. I DO NOT TRUST your sources. Changing a comma in a phrase sometimes changes the meaning. And what the gentlemen from Ehamaska ​​do with my story, I am in a rage. And about extermination .. So everyone always exterminates someone. Only not all over the world. Otherwise, there would be no one left on earth. Stalin so “ruined” millions in the Gulag. Why so many people were born under him? If so "everything was bad"?

          Do not distort Ilya Iosifovich nicknamed Manul. Probably Manuel
          It's about the bastard and the Executioner Sverdlov, so that he would be cursed with his descendants!
          You won't hear anything bad about Stalin from me.
          Stalin saved the Russian people from extermination by you
      3. Bratkov Oleg
        Bratkov Oleg 4 October 2016 08: 53
        0
        Do not breach. These are liberal tales.
        In general, the two-faced Cossacks first signed neutrality with the Bolshevik authorities, and then began to fight on the side of the former exploiters. It turned out to be more pleasant for the Cossacks to parasitize on peasants.
        1. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer 4 October 2016 12: 27
          +2
          Quote: Bratkov Oleg
          Do not breach. These are liberal tales.
          In general, the two-faced Cossacks first signed neutrality with the Bolshevik authorities, and then began to fight on the side of the former exploiters. It turned out to be more pleasant for the Cossacks to parasitize on peasants.


          Why would the Cossacks "parasitize" on the peasantry?
          I have roots from Smolensk peasants and Ural Cossacks - all middle peasants, everyone worked for themselves and lived well - they did not hire farm laborers, they worked hard from dawn to dawn until the Soviet government took away the land (which it promised to give!) And everyone went around the world - The Cossacks moved to the cities - they were building Magnitka, and the Smolensk people went into poverty, on the collective farm they hunch back their workdays for "sticks".

          By the way, in the 70s I was on this collective farm, not from Smolensk, from the district center (Khislavichi) on the road 30 km by bus, and another 12 km on foot on the road.
          A collective farm like a collective farm, poverty and poverty - people did not even have oil! They bought margarine, smeared it on bread and sprinkled it with sugar - it was a delicacy! They fed from the gardens, potatoes and bread that were pickled from the garden - they ate in the winter. In the store - bread, salt, matches, sometimes margarine. But moonshine was a sea - without it, the people simply could not stand such an existence.

          By the way, now there are only ruins overgrown with weeds and a few houses where the old people were left to "live out" - the people fled from such a "happy life" prescribed by the communists.

          So your "stories" about a happy past are your personal impressions. The majority lived very poorly and the "Soviet power" was based solely on fear and compulsion.
      4. murriou
        murriou 27 December 2016 11: 50
        0
        As always, there are a lot of shouts from the bakers about the bloody Bolsheviks.

        But when it comes to facts, to presenting real evidence to mythical villains, to comparing the mythical red villains to the real affairs of the executioners Kolchak, Denikin, Wrangel - either immediately fleeing into the bushes in front of their own screech, or screeching and hysterical before fleeing into the bushes laughing
  2. Old26
    Old26 9 July 2016 06: 08
    +8
    Unfortunately, I did not have a chance to see the cruiser of this project with my own eyes. But at the November 1972 Parade on the Neva was the cruiser of the previous project 68-K "Zhelyaznikov". Impressive. When the "river tram" bypassed the ships and boats standing on the Neva, the destroyers and minesweepers looked just crumbs in comparison with this whopper.
    1. ekebastus
      ekebastus 9 July 2016 07: 54
      +3
      Take a trip to Novorossiysk and look at "Mikhail Kutuzov" ....
  3. tundra
    tundra 9 July 2016 06: 45
    +6
    Quote: Old26
    Unfortunately, I didn’t see the cruiser of this project with my own eyes.

    Come to Novorossiysk.
    It stands in the port (Mikhail Kutuzov) and there are excursions around it.
    MUSEUM however !!!
    Handsome !!!!
    1. alstr
      alstr 27 December 2016 10: 51
      +1
      It’s good to at least make a museum out of it, otherwise they’ll let everything on metal.
      In general, it would be nice to organize a museum of old warships on every fleet.
      Kronstadt, Murmansk, Sevastopol (although here you need to look where the place will be), Vladivostok.
      Put one ship in a series into the eternal parking lot. This will be just great. And the boys (and not only) will have something to grow on.
      Now the ship is being written off to the Black Sea Fleet after the fire of the main turbine. Why not put it in the museum (after all, the main engine is not particularly needed for the museum).
  4. Captain45
    Captain45 9 July 2016 07: 55
    +7
    My dad served in the Baltic Fleet as a tower gunner of the vertical guidance of the main ship of the cruiser "Admiral Lazarev", for two years in 1955 and 56 they took the challenge prize of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy for artillery firing. There is even a photo of the battleship "October Revolution" formerly "Gangut".
    1. Lyubopyatov
      Lyubopyatov 9 July 2016 22: 00
      +1
      Renaming "Gangut" into "October Revolution" I consider it a shame.
      1. alstr
        alstr 27 December 2016 10: 31
        +1
        Why shameful then? The October Revolution as nekruti, and a landmark event in our country. We use its fruits to this day.
        Although the name Gangut was normal, but then there was such a time - to renounce the old and start all over again. So they renamed everything. And in this case, even the name was more or less logical
      2. murriou
        murriou 27 December 2016 11: 53
        0
        But I now consider it a shame to sit like-battleships of the "Sevastopol" type near the capital during the entire WWI.

        And the ridiculous performance characteristics of these pseudolinkors are also considered a shame. And the huge cost of their construction.

        And the name ... "What does the name mean? The fish smells like fish, even if you call it fish, though not ..." (C)
  5. ekebastus
    ekebastus 9 July 2016 07: 58
    +8
    In Novorossiysk
    1. tundra
      tundra 9 July 2016 13: 49
      +3
      Damn did not learn to upload pictures here.
      Well, even how many times I've been there, CLASS !!!!!
      I personally like
      Brutal such!
      WHERE I read that NATO was struck by his volley.
      Is there a Navy? Explain, litter.
      1. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 9 July 2016 20: 41
        0
        the caliber is not giant - 152mm.
      2. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 9 July 2016 20: 41
        0
        the caliber is not giant - 152mm.
  6. ekebastus
    ekebastus 9 July 2016 08: 01
    +4
    Main caliber, Poop ...
  7. ekebastus
    ekebastus 9 July 2016 08: 11
    +2
    ....more photos
  8. Kudrevkn
    Kudrevkn 9 July 2016 08: 39
    +8
    And I was lucky to be doing ship practice on the "Alexander Nevsky" under the command of the then Cap.2 rank (now Admiral) Yarygin! To be honest, the service in the "sixty-eighth" was "tough", but two "tough things" were especially remembered - shooting with the main caliber and ... the ship's punishment cell! But there is something to remember, now it's nice! "Lieutenant, have you been a member of the Court? Ah, youth, youth - a member there, a member here!" (Anecdote). And another morning tidying up with rubbing the wooden upper deck "to parquet shine" under the personal supervision of the chief officer, followed by shagistics for the "especially distinguished" and putting in the punishment cell of the "leading shock workers of communist labor"?
    1. tundra
      tundra 9 July 2016 13: 56
      0
      How familiar it all is!
      Strategic Missile Forces THE SAME FIG.
      Fighter TURN OUT FEEDS,
      bam and there are pine nuts,
      sweep the broom and forward the whole parade ground.
      And the fact that you are on the night of duty,
      we'll talk tomorrow.
      Ah ARMY is the best time, after 30 years
      only good is recalled !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! laughing
  9. Galleon
    Galleon 9 July 2016 08: 46
    +13
    I would like to add: for thousands of cadets, these ships made their first exit to the sea (practice after the first year). And on such a steamer I received the largest and most unexpected gift on my birthday from a friend - a whole cigarette "Belomorkanal" on the 10th day at sea, when everything was already cleaned up. And the other guys found the courage not to fall on the tail - we smoked it smile just five of them.
  10. King, just king
    King, just king 9 July 2016 09: 06
    +5
    The article is, to put it mildly, guano. Well, what is it, to write about the largest series of cruisers - SO, and in SUCH format. Even the "Book of Future Admirals" does not pull.
  11. Old26
    Old26 9 July 2016 09: 23
    +2
    Quote: ekebastus
    Take a trip to Novorossiysk and look at "Mikhail Kutuzov" ....

    Damned sclerosis !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! am He was near him last year in Novorossiysk. And I forgot. And until last year, I really only saw in Leningrad in 1972
  12. demiurg
    demiurg 9 July 2016 10: 35
    +3
    It will not be enough: ((You can write so much about the Sverdlovs, about booking in particular and survivability in general, about the automation of the GK towers with a record rate of fire. About options for upgrading cruisers.
    1. tundra
      tundra 9 July 2016 14: 15
      +1
      Quote: demiurg
      It will not be enough

      !!!!!! I am a purely land person.
      Well damn, impression makes
      !!!!
      Can i ask you?
      They told me that you can’t shoot in one gulp,
      Tipo the body is loosening, towers, confusion.
      And so on and so on.
      Really no?
      Well damn the guns are not kids Oho Oho !!
      1. Kudrevkn
        Kudrevkn 9 July 2016 18: 00
        0
        When the main battery (main caliber) fired, all the plafonds (light bulbs) were shattered! Just catch the pieces in the cockpit! There, the loading system is very complicated, with the barrels raised to a vertical position, then a projectile, again "vertically", then a powder "wad" and bang! Even inside the compartments, the ears lay, but the "horned" (artillerymen) still try to shoot alternately and alternately, so that the tower is not "led". In my opinion, on one of the cruisers the turret was torn apart - a helipad appeared instead, it seems on Pozharsky, but could I be wrong?
        1. Arseny
          Arseny 10 July 2016 01: 39
          +1
          The explosion of the main caliber tower is on the Admiral Senyavin, and not on the Pozharsky. By the way, the tower withstood the explosion, but the blast wave went down and killed 37 sailors, including the journalist Krasnaya Zvezda. The crew fought for the survivability of the ship and prevented the explosion of the cellars otherwise .. ..It was June 1978. In Shkotov-17 there is a monument on the hill - you can see it from afar, and the helipad on Senyavin was there even before the explosion (though there were no helicopters themselves)
          1. okroshka79
            okroshka79 10 July 2016 09: 38
            +1
            Well, actually not an explosion, but a fire in the first tower. The reason is a chain of gross violations of safety regulations, the rules of action in case of misfires and protracted shots, the Rules of the Artillery Service of the Navy due to the unpreparedness of the personnel and the desire of the command of the ship and the fleet to "bend" once again in front of the leadership of the state and the fleet and deserve another praise. A disgraceful incident that led to the death of a large number of sailors in the tower during practical firing at a sea target.
            1. Arseny
              Arseny 10 July 2016 21: 38
              +1
              It is an explosion, and a fire after an explosion. There was a protracted shot, and the firing was credited for the rank of the guards, because after visiting L.I. Brezhnev and kept pace, did not wait a minute as expected, but immediately opened the bolt and either sent the projectile or pulled it out, but in the end the charge exploded. Sorry, but the term ignited a charge or a projectile I think is wrong. This is called an explosion. And the case is not shameful, but tragic. And not only the tower, cellars, sentries in the cockpit died, I served on Senyavin 10 years after this tragedy. Many officers remembered a lot of things.
              1. okroshka79
                okroshka79 11 July 2016 01: 13
                +5
                Dear Arseny! The case is certainly tragic. Tragic, because it led to the death of people. But, at the same time, shameful for the leaders of this action. Apparently, you did not serve in BC-2, if you write here too, like it was so, or that way. Yes, and with the rules of action for misfires and protracted shots, you wrote in a way that absolutely cannot be done. However, this is not the resource for me to write these rules for you. What is the shame of the leadership: there was a change of personnel on the ship and experienced gunners were transferred to the reserve, and the tower commander left for a new duty station. Poorly trained both conscripts and officers were in the tower. After a successful preparatory shooting, without any analysis and assessment of the shooting indicators, the fathers-commanders decided to execute the test AU, which was planned for August, which is not permissible in accordance with the current rules. I hear about the guard for the first time and only from you. What were the gross mistakes of the personnel in the tower: To increase the tactical rate of fire, the operating instructions were grossly violated and the projectile-charge interlocks were disabled and the charge caps along the feed path were "stripped" in advance. On the ninth shot from the right gun, it did not follow. L \ s opened the bolt, grossly violating the rules of action for misfires and protracted shots. And since the blocking was turned off, the next projectile was automatically fed, which crashed into the charge that was in the breech. The charge ignited and fell into the turret compartment along with the next projectile, and the projectile in the barrel channel flew out and fell into the water after several tens of meters. Since in the tower and in the turret, the charges were "stripped" (that is, removed from metal canisters), they also ignited and the fire instantly spread into the cellar along the entire feed and loading path. The overwhelming majority of the combat crew died from the fire, and the rest drowned, since the cellar was flooded. Here, in short, that's all. The pursuit of show and unsatisfactory personnel training has killed so many people! I am writing to you as a flagship artilleryman in the past, but in a different fleet. This accident was analyzed in great detail. Therefore, I remember this long history. And further. Gunpowder doesn't explode. It always burns, but it burns explosively in an enclosed space, but it still burns.
  13. db1967
    db1967 9 July 2016 10: 47
    +4
    The USSR met the Great Patriotic War, having one of the largest fleets in the world.


    Great Britain, USA, Japan, France, Italy, Germany - 6-7th place IMHO somehow on one of the largest does not pull wink
    1. Cat
      Cat 9 July 2016 11: 07
      0
      But they were in the top ten!
    2. cdznjckfd
      cdznjckfd 9 July 2016 11: 31
      -1
      I do not agree, with the exception of the first three, the BF and the Black Sea Fleet could well compete with the fleets of France, Italy and Germany.
      1. Cat
        Cat 9 July 2016 18: 54
        +1
        The main problem of our fleet is geography. Four possible naval theaters of military operations: the Baltic, the Arctic Ocean, the Far East, the Black Sea + the fifth Caspian. Here, with all the desire, the "trishkin caftan" is not divided.
        1. Lyubopyatov
          Lyubopyatov 9 July 2016 22: 07
          0
          And the same geography is our trump card in geopolitics. Only GDP often forgets this. begins to lisp and stray in statements. About the territorial integrity of b / Ukraine, for example.
        2. Alf
          Alf 10 July 2016 20: 44
          +2
          Quote: Kotischa
          The main problem of our fleet is geography. Four possible naval theaters of military operations: the Baltic, the Arctic Ocean, the Far East, the Black Sea + the fifth Caspian. Here, with all the desire, the "trishkin caftan" is not divided.

          There is no trouble here.
          The main forces of the fleet are based on the North and Far East, i.e. to those places through which the fleet can freely operate. But on the Black Sea Fleet and the Baltic Fleet it is necessary to have a coastal defense fleet, since these fleets are locked in their seas.
      2. Alf
        Alf 10 July 2016 20: 41
        +1
        Quote: cdznjckfd
        I do not agree, with the exception of the first three, the BF and the Black Sea Fleet could well compete with the fleets of France, Italy and Germany.

        Then, for the interruption of supplies in Spain, only 2 heavy cruisers were enough for pasta.
        As for the Black Sea Fleet, this is generally a fairy tale. How could the Black Sea Fleet fight
        Quote: cdznjckfd
        with the fleets of France, Italy and Germany
        if he could not get out of the Black Sea?
      3. Alexander Emrys
        Alexander Emrys 24 June 2019 17: 56
        0
        Just for comparison: by the 1940s, the Soviet fleet had 3 old battleships and 7 cruisers - all four of these fleets.
        The Italian fleet had 6 battleships (including the two newest "Littorio") and 21 cruisers, 7 of the last being heavy (which were not in the Soviet fleet at all).
        The French fleet had 8 battleships (of which three were the newest — two Dunkirks and only the completed Richelieu) and 19 cruisers, of which 7 were heavy. +1 aircraft carrier, which the Italians and the Soviets did not have.
        Separately, it should be noted that France and Italy could concentrate the bulk of their forces in a single fist, and the Soviet fleet was scattered across four seas.
        So, they could not compete in any way on equal terms. Considering the state in which the shipbuilding programs of France, Italy and the USSR were in 1940, the Soviet fleet would not have lagged behind them before the late forties, when all the battleships of project 23 were completed (yes, I remember that it was supposed to put them into operation in 42-44 years, but even the most advanced ship in construction had only 21% of readiness by the beginning of the Second World War, that is, it would have entered service not earlier (but rather later) 1945 at such a pace, and the serial ships of the project later)
    3. murriou
      murriou 27 December 2016 11: 58
      0
      Fortunately, the Soviet Union considered the ground forces, aviation, tanks and artillery to be priorities. It was not bad with them in WWII.
      And at sea ... The main work of the navies was done by small ships and naval aviation.
  14. masiya
    masiya 9 July 2016 10: 58
    +2
    A beautiful, classical architecture ship, when he was a boy in Sevastopol, he constantly shot secretly, both at the wall and in the repair roads, excellent photos still lie somewhere at home.
  15. Verdun
    Verdun 9 July 2016 11: 00
    +6
    I would like to add a little to the author of the article. Initially, the project was called 68-K. But only five ships were completed on it - Chapaevv, Chkalov, Zheleznyakov, Frunze and Kuibyshev. One of the main reasons that prompted the revision of the project was not a very pleasant circumstance, which was revealed after the launch of the ships. The fact is that during the design, some miscalculations were made and, when the ships were stationary, they had a noticeable trim on the bow. In the navy, this is called "sitting a pig" and is considered a disadvantage. True, in motion the cruisers leveled off and the trim disappeared. One way or another, the rest of the ships were being completed according to the 68-bis project, on which they got rid of the unpleasant phenomenon, mainly by moving part of the cargo to the stern. Several modifications were made to the already built cruisers.
    67-EP - on one ship in an experimental manner installed SCRC KSS "Strela" (1955) ("Admiral Nakhimov").
    70-E - on one ship, the Volkhov air defense system (1958) (Dzerzhinsky) was installed on a trial basis.
    68-U1 / U2 - a control cruiser with a new REV, mounted by the Osa-M air defense missile system (1966-1972) (Zhdanov / Admiral Senyavin).
    Several modification projects were developed that did not reach the real embodiment.
  16. Berkut24
    Berkut24 9 July 2016 11: 09
    +2
    In the late 50s, my father graduated from the naval school. The time came when the ships were cut right on the stocks. Khrushchev believed that "our missiles are everything," although there weren't really any missiles yet, and the ships were laying down artillery. massive redundancies began in the fleet, for many there was despair and a professional breakdown in the soul - people went through the whole war, all life is connected with the fleet and here you are not needed. My father said that many were shooting, could not stand it. The period when "not yet missiles, but no longer guns" led to a shortage of warships and confusion in the design and construction of new ships.
  17. bandabas
    bandabas 9 July 2016 11: 26
    -2
    "Yes. There were people in our time. Not like the current tribe. Heroes are not you." Unfortunately, I can't add anything to the classics. The genocide in Russia continues, and everyone is silent. The principle is standard - "My hut is on the edge, I don't know anything."
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 9 July 2016 19: 11
      0
      Actually an article about ships. And you feel good in your world.
      1. bandabas
        bandabas 10 July 2016 21: 26
        0
        You're right. I just made a mistake with the commentary on the articles. I looked through several articles. It happens. Error. Questions? Living in a global world?
  18. V.ic
    V.ic 9 July 2016 11: 59
    0
    Article title
    Sverdlov-type artillery cruisers: the last in the Russian fleet

    Project 68 bis Sverdlov. It got its name from the head cruiser of the series, which was launched on July 5, 1950. Author Sergey Antonov

    So in Russian or in the Soviet Navy?
    By the way, Batu Tukhvatovich Sirazetdinov, who participated in the 1953 campaign in England, led civil defense in the AIM. The offset on the maps for moving on the ground when the enemy used nuclear weapons, our group handed over to him. They untwisted it into memories, but the man was a flint! In 2010, he left ...
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 9 July 2016 19: 13
      -1
      Both in Russian and in Soviet. No more artillery cruisers were built.
  19. Resistance
    Resistance 9 July 2016 12: 16
    +4
    Cr. "October Revolution" against the background of the island of Crete, 5th point
  20. resh
    resh 9 July 2016 12: 19
    +1
    In Wikipedia about 58-bis is written quite fully. I, at that time a cadet of VVMKU them. MV Frunze, passed a month of practice in June 1981 at the "October Revolution" (formerly "Molotovsk") in Baltiysk. An unforgettable experience standing behind the main battery turret while shooting! You can see how the projectile takes off!
    1. Arseny
      Arseny 10 July 2016 01: 49
      +2
      Well, you bent it! The column of fire from the barrel is the maximum that can be seen. Once I foolishly decided to look at the shot too, being the horizontal gunner of the DUK on the "Admiral Senyavin", I opened the armor and stuck out my head so that the barrel could be seen, it flapped in my ears that a bullet flew back and the sea of ​​fire from the barrel was the only thing I saw. I didn't do that again.
      1. Alf
        Alf 10 July 2016 20: 46
        +1
        Quote: Arseny
        .I didn’t do that anymore.

        Not in vain for the most advanced in front of the volley of GK howler is given.
        1. Arseny
          Arseny 10 July 2016 21: 45
          +1
          I forgot to clarify that I was looking at a shot from my gun and from my tower. I didn’t see how the main one shoots, because access to the deck is forbidden, and I really didn’t want to be honest. When fired, the ship’s floor shook. Well, a howler is also given when shooting a DUK. But the main one does not shoot in one gulp, three barrels in turn.
          1. Alf
            Alf 10 July 2016 22: 11
            0
            Quote: Arseny
            But the main one does not shoot in one gulp, three barrels in turn.

            They shot before the war, and after it became clear that the simultaneous salvo of nearby guns reduces accuracy.
            About especially advanced, sorry if offended.
  21. Eastern wind
    Eastern wind 9 July 2016 14: 34
    +1
    My dear Novorossiysk "Mikhail Kutuzov" ...
    1. Eastern wind
      Eastern wind 9 July 2016 14: 36
      +4
      At night, against the backdrop of the port is especially beautiful ...
      1. proud
        proud 9 July 2016 23: 28
        +1
        Great shot! Young photographer !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
  22. Verdun
    Verdun 9 July 2016 14: 57
    +1
    Personally, it seems quite possible for me to return naval artillery to artillery at a new technological turn. It would be quite possible to create artillery mounts, not only using active-reactive ammunition, but also, if necessary, firing through the barrel of the RCC. For example, the diameter of the Exosets is 350 mm, the Harpoons are 340 mm, the Penguins are 280 mm. This means that in the caliber 305-380 mm, the creation of such installations is quite achievable. And it would significantly expand the combat use of such ships.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 9 July 2016 19: 15
      0
      What for. From mines and launchers or containers, it is both simpler and cheaper. On the ship there is no such problem with a place as on a tank.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 9 July 2016 19: 22
        +1
        Quote: Kenneth
        What for.
        And why do tanks know how to shoot with shells and ATGMs, and do fighters equip with missiles and cannons? More expensive anti-ship missiles can be used when delivering precision strikes against maneuvering targets. And cheaper shells - when shooting at less important targets. Sometimes there are situations when the density of fire is more important than its high accuracy.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 9 July 2016 21: 38
          -1
          Again. There is little space on the tank. Perverts with starting through the barrel only from the fact that would not mount the launcher. There is a place on the ship.
  23. antivirus
    antivirus 9 July 2016 14: 57
    +1
    Quote: sherp2015
    Quote: andrewkor
    Altai Territory was moving just above the cruiser "Sverdlov". I remember at our school there was a meeting with the sailors of the cruiser - our fellow countrymen. How the boys 'eyes burned from the impressions of the sailors' stories. That was patriotic education !!!

    The cruisers are good, but the name "sverdlov" should have been changed.
    What a patriotic upbringing for this odious person whose hands are in blood in the neck. (Directive on the total destruction of the Cossacks with children by women and the elderly)
    I expect from the Zionofashists clouds of minuses

    Cossacks noted for 20 years of dispersal of demonstrations for the development of Kolyma, but then it was not mentioned yet in the plans of five-year plans.
    "I serve the working people" - and the Cossacks were forgiven.
    1. murriou
      murriou 27 December 2016 12: 02
      0
      There were also a fair number of Red Cossacks, there were Cossack units in the Red Army - so a lie about the "genocide of the Cossacks in the USSR" is a lie, nothing more.
  24. okroshka79
    okroshka79 9 July 2016 16: 30
    0
    I want to supplement one more positive tactical property of these ships. This is their, so to speak, low visual visibility at the range of a real artillery duel (approximately 100 kbt = 18,52 km). The external impression is that the ship is half sitting in the input. Something like this.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 9 July 2016 19: 16
      0
      If they had found with whom this duel to lead.
      1. okroshka79
        okroshka79 10 July 2016 00: 07
        0
        So there was a pie chart of KRL "Sverdlov" - KRL "Cleveland" just for this purpose.
  25. Olegmog
    Olegmog 9 July 2016 16: 57
    0
    Question to the marine forum users! Is there a chance that the new warship
    called Murmansk. Or the previous fate of the namesake, this will not allow!
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 9 July 2016 17: 25
      +1
      Quote: Olegmog
      Or the previous fate of the namesake, this will not allow!

      And what is fate? The cruiser served for many years and ended service only in 1989 (entered service in 1956). The battleship "Gangut" sank, and this did not prevent the construction of the battleship of the same name. And ships named "Moscow", as far as I know, are pursuing various troubles and, nevertheless, they are given such a name ...
  26. Kenneth
    Kenneth 9 July 2016 19: 17
    +2
    It would be nice to give in such articles at least briefly that at this time the adversaries were building.
  27. Old26
    Old26 9 July 2016 20: 27
    0
    Quote: Verdun
    Personally, it seems quite possible for me to return naval artillery to artillery at a new technological turn. It would be quite possible to create artillery mounts, not only using active-reactive ammunition, but also, if necessary, firing through the barrel of the RCC. For example, the diameter of the Exosets is 350 mm, the Harpoons are 340 mm, the Penguins are 280 mm. This means that in the caliber 305-380 mm, the creation of such installations is quite achievable. And it would significantly expand the combat use of such ships.

    At a new technological level, of course it is possible, but why, again, come up with something. There are ARSs with a certain range. But to create a weapon for firing anti-ship missiles - sorry stupid. What kind of acceleration does a projectile develop in a bore, and what kind of rocket does it launch? RCCs are unlikely to withstand such overloads. In addition, the caliber you specify is the diameter of the case. And did you calculate the planes, their scope?
  28. SPIKER
    SPIKER 9 July 2016 21: 17
    +2
    Passed on the "Murmansk" ship practice in 1978, was painted in the 6th boiler room ... unforgettable impressions, especially a large tidy on the upper deck ... scrubbing a wooden deck with river sand, to the music and swearing of the boatswain ... Class !!! They fed them for slaughter, their own bread, their own bakery, pasta in the Navy and the admiral's hour !!! After a month of practice, the muzzle did not climb through the porthole !!! I still remember, His Majesty the Cruiser "Murmansk" !!! It is a pity that his fate is not enviable !!! Was sold by "our liberals" for scrap in Norway, in my opinion, but how "Varyag" broke off the towing end and drowned in coastal waters !!!
  29. B-15
    B-15 9 July 2016 22: 21
    0
    Father went to Sverdlov. He told me when they gathered in England, so they removed the latest locator.
    But his service instilled a persistent reluctance to eat buckwheat. The potato was only for officers.
    Because of the foreign campaign with the transition to the Pacific, he had to serve more than 4,5 years.
  30. Munchhausen
    Munchhausen 10 July 2016 00: 24
    -2
    Food for the cruiser De Moin.
    The car is backward. Grave for the crew.
  31. Alf
    Alf 10 July 2016 20: 59
    +1
    Yes, the cruiser is beautiful. For peacetime service. What could oppose Sverdlov adversary? Or does everyone think that Sverdlov would have entered into a classic duel with the Amer cruiser? I dare say that since the middle of the war aviation became the main enemy of ships. But Sverdlov’s air defense, to put it mildly, is not so hot.
    A trifle - for the 37-mm machine gun V-11 there was no projectile with a radio fuse. That is, it would have been shooting for a concussion. And this at an airplane speed of more than 1000 km / h.,
    100 mm each.
    The development of the next generation of medium-caliber AUs began during the years of World War II. The designers sought to maximize the experience gained during the war. However, this experience was not fully taken into account, because the main efforts were aimed at increasing the accuracy of shooting, and such a factor as a sharp increase in the density of fire due to an increase in rate of fire was put in second place. Therefore, the first domestic medium-range ACs developed in the post-war period were the usual semi-automatic twin-deck-turret ACs. This way of stabilizing the AU turned out to be a dead end in comparison with the stabilization of the gun by the angle of vertical guidance and the entire AU by the angle of horizontal guidance. In addition, ACs with general stabilization had considerable complexity and mass.
    By the time they were put into service, despite their excellent ballistic characteristics, these guns were already outdated and were inferior in terms of firepower to the best foreign guns of that time (120-mm Bofors gun, 80 rpm, 1950; 127-mm Mk gun -42, 40 strokes / min, 1955). Although the radars of domestic control systems were the latest achievements of domestic science and technology, their capabilities were also inferior to their foreign counterparts and were at the level of the radars of the USA and England in the middle of World War II.

    The ship for displaying the flag is excellent, for the war, not really.
  32. avg avg
    avg avg 12 July 2016 08: 24
    0
    Quote: alex86
    Judging by the minuses, we are angry, but there is nothing to say ...

    Why argue with you? After all, it is known: To teach a fool - what to treat the dead.