In April, 2016, on the eve of the talks between Russian and Japanese foreign ministers Sergey Lavrov and Fumio Kisida, the right-wing Japanese Japanese newspaper Sankey Shimbun demanded that the Russian government "return" the Kuril Islands, apologize for Moscow’s violation of the pact Neutrality ", which Tokyo allegedly unswervingly and honestly performed.
Rodina wrote in detail about the results of the Yalta Conference and diplomatic collisions that dotted i in the question of the islands ("The Kuril problem is resolved. In the 1945 year, N 12 in the 2015 year). The 70 anniversary of the beginning of the work of the Tokyo Tribunal is a good occasion to recall how "honestly and conscientiously" Japan fulfilled the conditions of the Soviet-Japanese neutrality pact.
The verdict of the International Tribunal
International Military Tribunal for the Far East - the court "of people accused individually or as members of organizations, or as those and others at the same time, any of the offenses constituting crimes against peace" - was held in Tokyo from May 3 1946 till November 12 1948 in the judgment stated: "The Tribunal considers that a war of aggression against the Soviet Union provided for and planned by Japan during the period that she was one of the main elements of the Japanese national policy and that it tse Lew was the seizure of the territory of the USSR in the Far East ".
Another quote: "It is obvious that Japan was not sincere at the conclusion of a neutrality pact with the Soviet Union (April 1941 city - Auth.) And, apart from their agreements with Germany more profitable, signed a neutrality pact in order to facilitate their implementation plans attacks on the USSR ... "
And finally, one more: "The evidence submitted to the Tribunal indicates that Japan, being far from neutral, as it should have been in accordance with the pact concluded with the USSR, provided significant assistance to Germany."
In this and dwell.
"Blitzkrieg" in the Kremlin
13 on April 1941 of the year at a banquet in the Kremlin on the occasion of the signing of the Neutrality Pact (the "Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan Yosuke Matsuoka called him a" diplomatic blitzkrieg ") was an atmosphere of satisfaction According to eyewitness accounts, Joseph Stalin, in an effort to emphasize his cordiality, personally moved the guests with plates of food and poured wine. Raising his glass, Matsuoka said: "The agreement is signed. I do not lie. If I lie, my head will be yours. If you lie, I will come after your head."
Stalin grimaced and then said in all seriousness: "My head is important for my country. Just like yours for your country. Let's take care that our heads stay on our shoulders." And, having already said goodbye in the Kremlin to the Japanese minister, he suddenly appeared at the Yaroslavsky railway station in order to personally conduct Matsuoka. One of a kind event! With this gesture, the Soviet leader found it necessary to emphasize the importance of the Soviet-Japanese agreement. Moreover, stress both the Japanese and the Germans.
Knowing that among the supporters was the German ambassador in Moscow, von Schulenburg, Stalin defiantly hugged the Japanese minister on the platform: "You are an Asian and I am an Asian ... If we are together, all the problems of Asia can be solved." Matsuoka echoed him: "The problems of the whole world can be solved."
But the military circles of Japan, unlike politicians, did not attach special importance to the Neutrality Pact. In those same hours, 14 April 1941 year, "Secret Diary of War" Japanese General Staff recorded as follows: "The value of this contract is not to provide the armed uprising in the south is not a contract and means to avoid war with the United States He just gives more time.. to make an independent decision to start a war against the Soviets. " Even more specifically, Defense Minister Hideki Tojo said the same April 1941: "Despite the pact, we will actively carry out military preparations against the USSR."
About the same evidence made 26 April statement by the chief of staff placed at the borders of the USSR of the Kwantung Army, General Kimura at a meeting of commanders of formations: "It is necessary, on the one hand, more and more to strengthen and expand training for war with the Soviet Union, and on the other - to maintain friendly relations with the USSR seeking to preserve the armed world and at the same time prepare for operations against the Soviet Union, which at a crucial moment will bring Japan’s sure victory. "
Soviet intelligence, including its resident Richard Sorge, promptly and objectively informed Moscow of these sentiments. Stalin understood that the Japanese would not weaken their combat readiness on the borders with the USSR. But he believed that non-aggression pacts with Germany and neutrality with Japan would help to gain time. However, these expectations were not met.
29 August, the day "X"
Already 22 1941 June, Foreign Minister Matsuoka mentioned above, to urgently come to the emperor Hirohito, persistently asked him to immediately attack the Soviet Union:. "We need to start from the north, and then go to the south do not enter the cave of the tiger, the tiger will not pull out. Need to decide. "
The question of the attack on the USSR in the summer of 1941 was discussed in detail at a secret meeting held on July 2 in the presence of the emperor. The chairman of the Privy Council (advisory body to the emperor), Kado Hara, said bluntly: "I believe all of you will agree that the war between Germany and the Soviet Union is indeed historical Japan's chance. Since the Soviet Union encourages the spread of communism in the world, we will be forced to attack it sooner or later. But, since the empire is still busy with the Chinese incident, we are not free to decide on an attack on the Soviet Union as we would like. Nevertheless, I believe that we should attack the Soviet Union at a convenient moment ... I wish that we attack the Soviet Union ... Someone might say that in connection with the Japan Neutrality Pact, it would be unethical to attack The Soviet Union ... If we attack it, no one will consider this a betrayal. I look forward to the opportunity to strike at the Soviet Union. I ask the army and government to do this as soon as possible. The Soviet Union must be destroyed. "
According to the results of the meeting adopted a Program of National Empire policy:. "Our attitude to the German-Soviet war will be determined in accordance with the spirit of the Tripartite Pact (Japan, Germany and Italy) However, we will not interfere in this conflict, we will discreetly enhance our military. preparation against the Soviet Union, adhering to an independent position ... If the German-Soviet war develops in a direction favorable to the empire, we, having resorted to armed force, will solve the northern problem ... "
The decision to attack the USSR — at the moment when it would weaken in the struggle against Hitler’s Germany — was called the strategy of ripe persimmon in Japan.
The General Staff of the Japanese army determined the date of the attack on the USSR - 29 August 1941.
Help Hitler from the East
Today, Japanese propagandists and some of their supporters in our country claim: the attack did not take place, because Japan honestly fulfilled the conditions of the neutrality pact. In fact, the reason was the failure of the German plan of the "blitzkrieg". And even the official Japanese historians are forced to admit: "The Soviet Union, leading a defensive war against Germany, did not weaken their forces in the East, keeping the group equal to the Kwantung Army Thus, the Soviet Union was able to achieve the goal - the defense of the East, avoiding war .... The main factor was that the Soviet Union, having a vast territory and a large population, during the years of the prewar five-year plans became a powerful economic and military power.
As for the plan of war against the USSR, it had the cipher name "Kantogun toksyu ensyu", abbreviated as "Kantokuen" ("Special Maneuvers of the Kwantung Army"). And all attempts to portray him as “defensive” do not hold water and are refuted by the same pro-government historians of the Land of the Rising Sun. Thus, the authors of the "Official History of the Great East Asia War" (Asagumo Ministry of Defense Publishing House) admit: "The basis of relations between Japan and Germany was a common goal - to crush the Soviet Union ... The military ministry believed that Japan should contribute to the military successes of the German army ... Fidelity to the Tripartite Pact was understood as the desire not to yield to England and the USA, to curb their forces in East Asia, to forge Soviet troops in the Far East and, taking advantage of this opportunity, to defeat it. "
Another documentary proof: a report of the German Ambassador to Japan Eugen Ott to his chief, Minister for Foreign Affairs von Ribbentrop: "I have the pleasure to announce that Japan is ready to all kinds of accidents in relation to the Soviet Union to join forces with Germany ... I I think that there is hardly any need to add that the Japanese government always has in mind the expansion of military preparations, along with other measures, to accomplish this goal, as well as to tie the forces of Soviet Russia to Yes nem East, which it could use in the war with Germany ... "
The task of handing over the Soviet troops was carried out by Japan throughout the entire Great Patriotic War. And this was highly appreciated by the German leadership: "Russia must keep troops in Eastern Siberia in anticipation of a Russian-Japanese clash," Ribbentrop instructed the Japanese government in a telegram from 15 in May 1942 of the year. Instructions are executed strictly.
January 18, 1942, anticipating a joint victory, the German, Italian and Japanese imperialists "divided" the territory of the Soviet Union. The preamble of a top secret agreement stated bluntly: "In the spirit of the Tripartite Pact of September 27 1940, and in connection with the agreement on December 11 1941, the armed forces of Germany and Italy, as well as the Army and Navy of Japan conclude a military agreement for cooperation in operations and crushing as soon as possible the military power of the opponents. " The military operations zone of the Japanese armed forces declared a part of the Asian continent east of 70 degrees east longitude. In other words, vast areas of Western Siberia, Transbaikalia and the Far East were to be seized by the Japanese army.
The line dividing the German and Japanese zones of occupation was to run along the Omsk meridian. And the “Total War I Program of the First Period. Construction of East Asia” was developed, in which Japan identified the areas to be conquered and the natural resources explored there:
- Primorsk region:
a) Vladivostok, Marinsk, Nikolaev, Petropavlovsk and other districts;
b) strategic raw materials: Tetyukhe (iron ore), Okha and Ekhabi (oil), Sovetskaya Gavan, Artem, Tavrichanka, Voroshilov (coal).
- Khabarovsk region:
a) Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, Rukhlovo and other districts;
b) strategic raw materials: Umarita (molybdenum ores), Kivda, Raychikhinsk, Sakhalin (coal).
- Chita region:
a) Chita, Karymskaya, Rukhlovo and other districts;
b) strategic raw materials: Halekinsk (iron ores), Darasun (lead and zinc ores), Gutai (molybdenum ores), Bukachach, Ternovsky, Tarboga, Arbagar (coal).
- Buryat-Mongolian region:
a) Ulan-Ude and other strategic points.
The “program” envisaged “resettling Japanese, Korean and Manchurians to the occupied areas, carrying out a forced eviction of local residents to the north”.
It is not surprising that with such plans the Japanese ignored - we choose the mildest definition - the Neutrality Pact.
Undeclared war on land and sea
During the war, the number of armed attacks on Soviet territory increased markedly. Parts and formations of the Kwantung Army 779 once violated our land frontier, and the Japanese Air Force aircraft 433 times - air. Soviet territory was subjected to shelling, spies and armed gangs were thrown at it. And it was not an improvisation: the "neutrals" acted in strict accordance with the agreement of Japan, Germany and Italy from January 18 of the year 1942. This was confirmed at the Tokyo process by the Japanese ambassador to Germany Oshima. He also admitted that during his stay in Berlin he systematically discussed with Himmler the measures for conducting subversive activities against the USSR and its leaders.
Japanese military intelligence actively obtained spy information for the German army. And this is also confirmed at the Tokyo process where Major General Matsumura (from October to August 1941 1943, the head of the Russian department of Intelligence of the Japanese General Staff) acknowledged: "Me systematically transmitted to Colonel Kretschmer (Military Attaché of the German Embassy in Tokyo - Auth.. a) information about the forces of the Red Army, the deployment of its units in the Far East, the military potential of the USSR. For Kretschmer, I transmitted information about the withdrawal of the Soviet divisions from the Far East to the west, about the movement of the Red Army units inside and countries, about the deployment of the evacuated Soviet military industry. All this information was compiled on the basis of reports received by the Japanese General Staff from the Japanese military attaché in Moscow and from other sources. "
Add to these exhaustive testimony can only be what after the war and representatives of the German command recognized: they widely used data from Japan in military operations against the Soviet Union.
And finally, the Japanese openly torpedoed the Neutrality Pact, launching an undeclared war against the Soviet Union at sea. The unlawful detention of Soviet merchant and fishing vessels, their sinking, capture and detention under arrest continued until the end of the war. According to official figures provided by the Soviet side to the Tokyo Tribunal, from June 1941 to 1945 the Japanese Navy detained 178 and sank 18 Soviet merchant ships. Japanese submarines torpedoed and sunk such large Soviet vessels as Angarstroy, Kola, Ilmen, Perekop, Maykop. Being unable to refute the fact of the death of these ships, some Japanese authors make awkward statements today that the ships were sunk, de ... by planes and submarines of the Soviet Union fleet USA (?!).
Announcing April 5 1945 of the denunciation of the Neutrality Pact, the Soviet government had sufficient grounds to declare: "... Since then, the situation has changed radically, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, and Japan, Germany's ally, helping the latter in its war against the Soviet Union.. In addition, Japan is at war with the United States and Britain, which are allies of the Soviet Union. In this situation, the neutrality pact between Japan and the USSR lost its meaning, and the extension of this Pact became impossible ... "
It only remains to add that the overwhelming majority of the above documents were published in Japan back in the 1960s. Alas, not all of them were made public in our country. This publication in the "homeland", I hope, will give impetus both for historians and politicians, and to all Russians deeply interested in not so distant history, which now becomes the object of a fierce struggle for the minds and hearts of people.