Military Review

Strategy of ripe persimmon

21
[Center]


In April, 2016, on the eve of the talks between Russian and Japanese foreign ministers Sergey Lavrov and Fumio Kisida, the right-wing Japanese Japanese newspaper Sankey Shimbun demanded that the Russian government "return" the Kuril Islands, apologize for Moscow’s violation of the pact Neutrality ", which Tokyo allegedly unswervingly and honestly performed.

Rodina wrote in detail about the results of the Yalta Conference and diplomatic collisions that dotted i in the question of the islands ("The Kuril problem is resolved. In the 1945 year, N 12 in the 2015 year). The 70 anniversary of the beginning of the work of the Tokyo Tribunal is a good occasion to recall how "honestly and conscientiously" Japan fulfilled the conditions of the Soviet-Japanese neutrality pact.

The verdict of the International Tribunal

International Military Tribunal for the Far East - the court "of people accused individually or as members of organizations, or as those and others at the same time, any of the offenses constituting crimes against peace" - was held in Tokyo from May 3 1946 till November 12 1948 in the judgment stated: "The Tribunal considers that a war of aggression against the Soviet Union provided for and planned by Japan during the period that she was one of the main elements of the Japanese national policy and that it tse Lew was the seizure of the territory of the USSR in the Far East ".

Another quote: "It is obvious that Japan was not sincere at the conclusion of a neutrality pact with the Soviet Union (April 1941 city - Auth.) And, apart from their agreements with Germany more profitable, signed a neutrality pact in order to facilitate their implementation plans attacks on the USSR ... "

And finally, one more: "The evidence submitted to the Tribunal indicates that Japan, being far from neutral, as it should have been in accordance with the pact concluded with the USSR, provided significant assistance to Germany."

In this and dwell.

"Blitzkrieg" in the Kremlin

13 on April 1941 of the year at a banquet in the Kremlin on the occasion of the signing of the Neutrality Pact (the "Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan Yosuke Matsuoka called him a" diplomatic blitzkrieg ") was an atmosphere of satisfaction According to eyewitness accounts, Joseph Stalin, in an effort to emphasize his cordiality, personally moved the guests with plates of food and poured wine. Raising his glass, Matsuoka said: "The agreement is signed. I do not lie. If I lie, my head will be yours. If you lie, I will come after your head."

Stalin grimaced and then said in all seriousness: "My head is important for my country. Just like yours for your country. Let's take care that our heads stay on our shoulders." And, having already said goodbye in the Kremlin to the Japanese minister, he suddenly appeared at the Yaroslavsky railway station in order to personally conduct Matsuoka. One of a kind event! With this gesture, the Soviet leader found it necessary to emphasize the importance of the Soviet-Japanese agreement. Moreover, stress both the Japanese and the Germans.

Knowing that among the supporters was the German ambassador in Moscow, von Schulenburg, Stalin defiantly hugged the Japanese minister on the platform: "You are an Asian and I am an Asian ... If we are together, all the problems of Asia can be solved." Matsuoka echoed him: "The problems of the whole world can be solved."

But the military circles of Japan, unlike politicians, did not attach special importance to the Neutrality Pact. In those same hours, 14 April 1941 year, "Secret Diary of War" Japanese General Staff recorded as follows: "The value of this contract is not to provide the armed uprising in the south is not a contract and means to avoid war with the United States He just gives more time.. to make an independent decision to start a war against the Soviets. " Even more specifically, Defense Minister Hideki Tojo said the same April 1941: "Despite the pact, we will actively carry out military preparations against the USSR."

About the same evidence made 26 April statement by the chief of staff placed at the borders of the USSR of the Kwantung Army, General Kimura at a meeting of commanders of formations: "It is necessary, on the one hand, more and more to strengthen and expand training for war with the Soviet Union, and on the other - to maintain friendly relations with the USSR seeking to preserve the armed world and at the same time prepare for operations against the Soviet Union, which at a crucial moment will bring Japan’s sure victory. "

Soviet intelligence, including its resident Richard Sorge, promptly and objectively informed Moscow of these sentiments. Stalin understood that the Japanese would not weaken their combat readiness on the borders with the USSR. But he believed that non-aggression pacts with Germany and neutrality with Japan would help to gain time. However, these expectations were not met.

29 August, the day "X"

Already 22 1941 June, Foreign Minister Matsuoka mentioned above, to urgently come to the emperor Hirohito, persistently asked him to immediately attack the Soviet Union:. "We need to start from the north, and then go to the south do not enter the cave of the tiger, the tiger will not pull out. Need to decide. "

The question of the attack on the USSR in the summer of 1941 was discussed in detail at a secret meeting held on July 2 in the presence of the emperor. The chairman of the Privy Council (advisory body to the emperor), Kado Hara, said bluntly: "I believe all of you will agree that the war between Germany and the Soviet Union is indeed historical Japan's chance. Since the Soviet Union encourages the spread of communism in the world, we will be forced to attack it sooner or later. But, since the empire is still busy with the Chinese incident, we are not free to decide on an attack on the Soviet Union as we would like. Nevertheless, I believe that we should attack the Soviet Union at a convenient moment ... I wish that we attack the Soviet Union ... Someone might say that in connection with the Japan Neutrality Pact, it would be unethical to attack The Soviet Union ... If we attack it, no one will consider this a betrayal. I look forward to the opportunity to strike at the Soviet Union. I ask the army and government to do this as soon as possible. The Soviet Union must be destroyed. "

According to the results of the meeting adopted a Program of National Empire policy:. "Our attitude to the German-Soviet war will be determined in accordance with the spirit of the Tripartite Pact (Japan, Germany and Italy) However, we will not interfere in this conflict, we will discreetly enhance our military. preparation against the Soviet Union, adhering to an independent position ... If the German-Soviet war develops in a direction favorable to the empire, we, having resorted to armed force, will solve the northern problem ... "

The decision to attack the USSR — at the moment when it would weaken in the struggle against Hitler’s Germany — was called the strategy of ripe persimmon in Japan.

The General Staff of the Japanese army determined the date of the attack on the USSR - 29 August 1941.

Help Hitler from the East

Today, Japanese propagandists and some of their supporters in our country claim: the attack did not take place, because Japan honestly fulfilled the conditions of the neutrality pact. In fact, the reason was the failure of the German plan of the "blitzkrieg". And even the official Japanese historians are forced to admit: "The Soviet Union, leading a defensive war against Germany, did not weaken their forces in the East, keeping the group equal to the Kwantung Army Thus, the Soviet Union was able to achieve the goal - the defense of the East, avoiding war .... The main factor was that the Soviet Union, having a vast territory and a large population, during the years of the prewar five-year plans became a powerful economic and military power.

As for the plan of war against the USSR, it had the cipher name "Kantogun toksyu ensyu", abbreviated as "Kantokuen" ("Special Maneuvers of the Kwantung Army"). And all attempts to portray him as “defensive” do not hold water and are refuted by the same pro-government historians of the Land of the Rising Sun. Thus, the authors of the "Official History of the Great East Asia War" (Asagumo Ministry of Defense Publishing House) admit: "The basis of relations between Japan and Germany was a common goal - to crush the Soviet Union ... The military ministry believed that Japan should contribute to the military successes of the German army ... Fidelity to the Tripartite Pact was understood as the desire not to yield to England and the USA, to curb their forces in East Asia, to forge Soviet troops in the Far East and, taking advantage of this opportunity, to defeat it. "

Another documentary proof: a report of the German Ambassador to Japan Eugen Ott to his chief, Minister for Foreign Affairs von Ribbentrop: "I have the pleasure to announce that Japan is ready to all kinds of accidents in relation to the Soviet Union to join forces with Germany ... I I think that there is hardly any need to add that the Japanese government always has in mind the expansion of military preparations, along with other measures, to accomplish this goal, as well as to tie the forces of Soviet Russia to Yes nem East, which it could use in the war with Germany ... "

The task of handing over the Soviet troops was carried out by Japan throughout the entire Great Patriotic War. And this was highly appreciated by the German leadership: "Russia must keep troops in Eastern Siberia in anticipation of a Russian-Japanese clash," Ribbentrop instructed the Japanese government in a telegram from 15 in May 1942 of the year. Instructions are executed strictly.

Meridian Omsk

January 18, 1942, anticipating a joint victory, the German, Italian and Japanese imperialists "divided" the territory of the Soviet Union. The preamble of a top secret agreement stated bluntly: "In the spirit of the Tripartite Pact of September 27 1940, and in connection with the agreement on December 11 1941, the armed forces of Germany and Italy, as well as the Army and Navy of Japan conclude a military agreement for cooperation in operations and crushing as soon as possible the military power of the opponents. " The military operations zone of the Japanese armed forces declared a part of the Asian continent east of 70 degrees east longitude. In other words, vast areas of Western Siberia, Transbaikalia and the Far East were to be seized by the Japanese army.

The line dividing the German and Japanese zones of occupation was to run along the Omsk meridian. And the “Total War I Program of the First Period. Construction of East Asia” was developed, in which Japan identified the areas to be conquered and the natural resources explored there:

- Primorsk region:

a) Vladivostok, Marinsk, Nikolaev, Petropavlovsk and other districts;

b) strategic raw materials: Tetyukhe (iron ore), Okha and Ekhabi (oil), Sovetskaya Gavan, Artem, Tavrichanka, Voroshilov (coal).

- Khabarovsk region:

a) Khabarovsk, Blagoveshchensk, Rukhlovo and other districts;

b) strategic raw materials: Umarita (molybdenum ores), Kivda, Raychikhinsk, Sakhalin (coal).

- Chita region:

a) Chita, Karymskaya, Rukhlovo and other districts;

b) strategic raw materials: Halekinsk (iron ores), Darasun (lead and zinc ores), Gutai (molybdenum ores), Bukachach, Ternovsky, Tarboga, Arbagar (coal).

- Buryat-Mongolian region:

a) Ulan-Ude and other strategic points.

The “program” envisaged “resettling Japanese, Korean and Manchurians to the occupied areas, carrying out a forced eviction of local residents to the north”.

It is not surprising that with such plans the Japanese ignored - we choose the mildest definition - the Neutrality Pact.

Undeclared war on land and sea

During the war, the number of armed attacks on Soviet territory increased markedly. Parts and formations of the Kwantung Army 779 once violated our land frontier, and the Japanese Air Force aircraft 433 times - air. Soviet territory was subjected to shelling, spies and armed gangs were thrown at it. And it was not an improvisation: the "neutrals" acted in strict accordance with the agreement of Japan, Germany and Italy from January 18 of the year 1942. This was confirmed at the Tokyo process by the Japanese ambassador to Germany Oshima. He also admitted that during his stay in Berlin he systematically discussed with Himmler the measures for conducting subversive activities against the USSR and its leaders.

Japanese military intelligence actively obtained spy information for the German army. And this is also confirmed at the Tokyo process where Major General Matsumura (from October to August 1941 1943, the head of the Russian department of Intelligence of the Japanese General Staff) acknowledged: "Me systematically transmitted to Colonel Kretschmer (Military Attaché of the German Embassy in Tokyo - Auth.. a) information about the forces of the Red Army, the deployment of its units in the Far East, the military potential of the USSR. For Kretschmer, I transmitted information about the withdrawal of the Soviet divisions from the Far East to the west, about the movement of the Red Army units inside and countries, about the deployment of the evacuated Soviet military industry. All this information was compiled on the basis of reports received by the Japanese General Staff from the Japanese military attaché in Moscow and from other sources. "

Add to these exhaustive testimony can only be what after the war and representatives of the German command recognized: they widely used data from Japan in military operations against the Soviet Union.

And finally, the Japanese openly torpedoed the Neutrality Pact, launching an undeclared war against the Soviet Union at sea. The unlawful detention of Soviet merchant and fishing vessels, their sinking, capture and detention under arrest continued until the end of the war. According to official figures provided by the Soviet side to the Tokyo Tribunal, from June 1941 to 1945 the Japanese Navy detained 178 and sank 18 Soviet merchant ships. Japanese submarines torpedoed and sunk such large Soviet vessels as Angarstroy, Kola, Ilmen, Perekop, Maykop. Being unable to refute the fact of the death of these ships, some Japanese authors make awkward statements today that the ships were sunk, de ... by planes and submarines of the Soviet Union fleet USA (?!).

Conclusion

Announcing April 5 1945 of the denunciation of the Neutrality Pact, the Soviet government had sufficient grounds to declare: "... Since then, the situation has changed radically, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, and Japan, Germany's ally, helping the latter in its war against the Soviet Union.. In addition, Japan is at war with the United States and Britain, which are allies of the Soviet Union. In this situation, the neutrality pact between Japan and the USSR lost its meaning, and the extension of this Pact became impossible ... "

It only remains to add that the overwhelming majority of the above documents were published in Japan back in the 1960s. Alas, not all of them were made public in our country. This publication in the "homeland", I hope, will give impetus both for historians and politicians, and to all Russians deeply interested in not so distant history, which now becomes the object of a fierce struggle for the minds and hearts of people.
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https://rg.ru/2016/06/28/rodina-iaponiia.html
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  1. Engineer
    Engineer 11 July 2016 16: 12
    +2
    "Russia should keep troops in Eastern Siberia in anticipation of a Russo-Japanese clash," Ribbentrop instructed the Japanese government in a telegram dated May 15, 1942. The instructions were followed rigorously.

    Yes, they didn’t follow other instructions before. so this attraction is more likely an excuse for Japan’s inaction on the part of an ally.
    the attack did not take place because Japan honestly complied with the terms of the neutrality pact. In fact, the reason was the failure of the German plan for "lightning war".

    And the failure and the memory of the collisions on Lake Hassan with the attacks of our heavy bomber aircraft so impressive the Japanese.
  2. Verdun
    Verdun 11 July 2016 16: 30
    +8
    "How to live further?
    Northern Territories
    Can't get it ... "
    Hokku.)) Apologize for the illegal abduction of the Kuril Islands? Something I don’t remember, Japan apologized to Russia for the illegal alienation of territories during the Russo-Japanese War. Or for the attack on the Varangian and Korean. Or for illegal experiments with biological and bacteriological weapons in areas bordering the USSR. I understand that by entering into an alliance with the axis countries in WWII, Japan was counting on victory and corresponding dividends. But war is a risk. And if he lost, then sign and live with it. Because the results of the war can be reviewed only by starting another war.
  3. esaul1950
    esaul1950 11 July 2016 16: 51
    +5
    Why not send us "brotherly Japan" to Japan's mom?
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 11 July 2016 17: 42
      -1
      Quote: esaul1950
      Why not send us "brotherly Japan" to Japan's mom?

      They don’t understand. Languages ​​are not trained.
  4. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 11 July 2016 16: 58
    +5
    Yes. This East touches me. One gathered on a tree, watching two tigers fighting in the valley, the other waiting on the shore for the enemy’s corpse to swim, the third one sat down under the tree and waits for the persimmon to fall into his mouth.
    Our philosophy is different: you won’t sink, you won’t. Without labor, you can’t take a fish out of the pond. And we are still lazy.
    Even the students in our joke know: "Che to think, to shake!"
  5. Basil50
    Basil50 11 July 2016 17: 51
    +4
    * Parenting * they are not allowed to admit their mistakes; they always have someone to blame. They justify their actions * with the * intentions * of others, just like in the old cartoon, when the only confirmation of the accusation is: * I see through the eyes *.
    It’s unpleasant to realize, but it seems that the arguments of reason for the Japanese mean nothing, they tenderly and selflessly love the Americans, hence the conclusion that the SOVIET UNION itself is to blame for the fact that now there will never be love, they didn’t destroy the Japanese and didn’t score * points * for respect and love, and since the * asshole * is remembering the defeat, they are frankly afraid of and * will not be able to * correct the situation * in the next war.
    They will always do provocations and dirty tricks, since pettiness and vengefulness are also at the basis of the * culture * of the Japanese.
    1. rpek32
      rpek32 11 July 2016 18: 51
      -3
      Quote: Vasily50
      They will always do provocations and dirty tricks, since pettiness and vengefulness are also at the basis of the * culture * of the Japanese.

      personal qualities do not need to be attributed to nationalities
      1. Basil50
        Basil50 11 July 2016 22: 13
        +3
        Among the Japanese, the most popular literary medieval heroes are those who, after many years, avenged their master. Today this story is played up in literature and cinema all the time. He has experience in dealing with the Japanese and he speaks only about one thing, they respect him only if they cannot subjugate or humiliate you.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  6. masiya
    masiya 11 July 2016 19: 17
    +4
    The East is a delicate matter, and what has been and will remain in history between us, you won’t get into the same water twice, relations between countries are also similar, which is relevant now, it is necessary to do it, and not look for analogies or solutions in the past .. The Japanese had half of Sakhalin after the Russo-Japanese War, so they can give it back too, they’d become our Kuril Islands, let it be better to throw American warriors, rapists and bandits with their bases, it will be easier for them, especially the Japanese self-defense troops far from frail, they will give odds to many neighbors, they can stand up for themselves if not more.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 11 July 2016 19: 37
      +4
      Quote: masiya
      The East is a delicate matter, and what has been and will remain in history between us, you won’t get into the same water twice, relations between countries are also similar, which is relevant now, it is necessary to do it, and not look for analogies or solutions in the past .. The Japanese had half of Sakhalin after the Russo-Japanese War, so they can give it back too, they’d become our Kuril Islands, let it be better to throw American warriors, rapists and bandits with their bases, it will be easier for them, especially the Japanese self-defense troops far from frail, they will give odds to many neighbors, they can stand up for themselves if not more.

      So thin that a hair is not visible. The Kuril Islands are the work of the United States, they set and promise support. Japan that would drive out the US base, but what do you mean, they trust in these bases, as the gentlemen of God. China is near, showdowns are coming. China has not forgotten anything and soon the Japanese fleet will mean nothing against the Chinese fleet. And at the same time, the first plague from China is Japan and the South Caucasus region for the presence of US bases.
  7. Igor V
    Igor V 11 July 2016 21: 29
    +3
    The issue is not fully covered without a mention of Khalkhin Gol. After the creation of Monzhou Guo, Japan's plans turned north and south. The northern plan is the capture of the Far East of the USSR. Here, whatever one may say, the most brilliant plan is the capture of a hundred-kilometer territory between Baikal and Mongolia. The Trans-Siberian Railway is cut, and the link between the Far East and the rest of the country collapses. The 6th Kwantung Army began implementing the northern plan in May 1939. The Soviet leadership knew about the vulnerability of the Baikal region, in the 30s they even began to build the BAM from the Taishet station, but the Great Patriotic War did not allow the construction to continue. After the war, there was no reason to fear for the "underbelly" - the closest neighbors were friends. Only in the late 60s, because of Khrushchev's short-sighted policy, the situation became so aggravated that they remembered about the BAM and began to build intensively. At the time of the Japanese attack on Mongolia, the USSR had a valid non-aggression and mutual assistance treaty with the latter. The USSR fulfilled its obligations, Mongolia also fulfilled its obligations throughout the years of the Second World War. This is an example of the "great" European states that have not fulfilled a single agreement on mutual assistance. And the Japanese were defeated at Khalkhin Gol, although not immediately, and this rivulet did not become the beginning of WWII. The Japanese are no fools, other things being equal, they preferred the southern expansion plan, keeping in mind the strength of Soviet weapons. This aspect should not be discounted either.
  8. Banderas
    Banderas 11 July 2016 23: 38
    +3
    But they will beg and threaten anyway ... Japanese.
  9. Logos
    Logos 12 July 2016 06: 53
    -4
    The Soviet attack on Japan is just as treacherous as the German attack on the USSR. And if you justify it by the fact that Japan held a powerful army on the borders with the USSR, then to exclude ambiguity and double standards, justify the German attack on the USSR by the fact that the USSR held a multi-million army on the western border.
    And the statement that the USSR attacked Japan allegedly for defensive purposes is especially ridiculous. After the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in anticipation of the close defeat of the US war, Japan was not at all up to a confrontation with the USSR

    To say that Japan was supposedly preparing to attack the USSR is purely reunionism. Rezun also claimed that the USSR was allegedly preparing to attack Germany, and therefore it was right to deliver a preemptive strike. In a good way, Stalin had a place on the Nuremberg bench for unleashing aggressive wars (Finland + Japan) alongside Nazi criminals
    1. Simpsonian
      Simpsonian 12 July 2016 08: 07
      +3
      Crap ... the neutrality pact was denounced in advance, even earlier it was announced that it would not be extended. The reasons for Japanese behavior were also explained why.
      After the "nuclear strikes on Hiroshima and Nagasaki," the Japanese naval forces were supposed to use a tank weapon on the US from the I-400 submarine to the entire depth of their territory, and the Americans could not have prevented this in any way. On the merits of the question, the USSR was simply saved by the entry into the war of the United States in 1945.
      Finland began to openly take sides on the German side in 1939, why did it rake. Now there again some are bored with being happily neutral. It was like more than 70 years old and nothing.
      1. Simpsonian
        Simpsonian 12 July 2016 08: 27
        0
        The Potsdam Declaration was still given to the Japanese to be read 2,5 weeks before the declaration of war, under it was the signature of the USSR ... She never announced it to anyone.
  10. Brigadier
    Brigadier 12 July 2016 07: 07
    +3
    Break the Logos banderlog!
    Than to bring all nonsense, go better to jump on the Maidan, remember how to warm up with jumps, for winter is coming, and Russia will not give you fuel for free!

    A donut hole for these macaques, not the islands! Stalin, in his turn, made only one mistake, not demanding in 1945. more territory, because at that time the defeated samurai knew that it was life-threatening to fight oneself ... Social humanism in action, ulcerate it in the stump ... No.
    1. Logos
      Logos 12 July 2016 07: 25
      -3
      for winter is coming, and Russia will not give you fuel for free!

      Russia never gave anyone anything for free. Under Yanukovych, Ukraine paid $ 450 for a cubic meter of Russian gas, now about 200, half as much. Interestingly, a dialogue with Moscow from a position of strength led to an almost twofold reduction in gas prices.

      only one mistake, not demanding in 1945. more territory

      In 1945, he could not demand anything from anyone, since America at the end of 1945 produced 1 atomic bomb per month, and the USSR - 0. Dialogue with the United States from a position of strength could end very badly for the USSR, because the US territory was inaccessible to Soviet tanks but the cities of the USSR are very reachable for US bombers

      Socialism in action

      Is Stalin a humanist? Rzhachno. However, the threat of retaliatory violence turns into a humanist any bloody dictator. USA is not Russian fists and Crimean Tatars
      A donut hole for these macaques, not the islands!

      How interesting it is to listen to racist statements from a representative of the people - "the winner of fascism". It will be no less remarkable to note that the United States did not wrest territory from Japan, but nobly helped the defeated enemy with the restoration of the economy, why now Japan is a rich and prosperous state and an ally of the United States
      1. Simpsonian
        Simpsonian 12 July 2016 07: 51
        +2
        It could very well, bacteriological weapons were tantamount to atomic ones before the advent of thermonuclear weapons, and in Detachment 731 several wagons of this Japanese shit were captured (the Americans had 0 wagons). Nazi Germany has even more nervous agents.
        1. Logos
          Logos 12 July 2016 08: 05
          0
          About "equivalent" - it is said too loudly. The methods of combating incurable infections were perfectly worked out on the example of the Spanish flu epidemic after WWI - the fight was carried out by quarantine methods and was generally successful. "Spanish flu" was incurable at that time and claimed millions of lives all over the world, but it could not significantly undermine the economies of developed countries. Bacteriological weapons were not used in WWII precisely because of their low practical value, and not on the basis of humanistic considerations
          But nuclear weapons proved to be very effective immediately after their appearance. To destroy an entire city, only one plane was enough, instead of carpet bombing involving hundreds and thousands of bombers
          1. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 12 July 2016 08: 10
            0
            You know, experts say so ... it's actually too soft. It became approximately equivalent only with the advent of thermonuclear warheads.
      2. Simpsonian
        Simpsonian 12 July 2016 08: 21
        0
        They nobly destroyed in the last six months of the war by bombing at least 2 million Japanese, and then after it they died out several more with hunger.
        In Japan, and now the tense situation with food because of what she continues to hunt whales.
      3. Outsider V.
        Outsider V. 17 July 2016 16: 04
        0
        Quote: Logos

        Russia never gave anyone anything for free. Under Yanukovych, Ukraine paid $ 450 for a cubic meter of Russian gas, now about 200, half as much. Interestingly, a dialogue with Moscow from a position of strength led to an almost twofold reduction in gas prices.


        Conversation from a position of strength is completely irrelevant here, do not flatter yourself.

        The increase in gas prices in 2010-2013 is associated with the peculiarities of pricing - the price of gas depends on oil prices, and oil prices increased significantly during that period. Then there was a sharp decline in gas prices for the same reason - oil fell in price. The dynamics are common for different groups of countries to which Gazprom sold gas (see the attached picture).

        PS. As for Russia and freebies: it is funny that a lot of people still accuse the leadership of the USSR of providing unnecessarily supportless assistance to the allied countries and satellites, supposedly because of this, the economy has overtaken.

        But now the freebie is over. Especially for you.
  11. Simpsonian
    Simpsonian 12 July 2016 07: 14
    +2
    Most of the Soviet courts were indeed sunk by the Americans, but it was clearly not they who stopped and arrested them. Also, most but not all epidemics were natural.

    In 1905-1945, the Japanese constantly violated the right to move Soviet warships from and to the Pacific Fleet, this alone is "casus belli".