Military Review

Flaming Turkestan. What led to the 1916 uprising of the year in Central Asia and what were its consequences?

128
A hundred years ago, in July 1916, a powerful popular uprising broke out in Turkestan. It was the height of the First World War, and the Turkestan uprising was the strongest anti-government action in the rear. The main reason for the uprising was the decree of Emperor Nicholas II on the compulsory attraction of male aliens to the rear areas in the front-line areas. In accordance with this decree, 480 thousands of men aged 19-43 years — representatives of the Muslim peoples of Turkestan were to be mobilized to build defensive fortifications and other structures. This measure was explained by the fact that there were not enough men from the European part of Russia to dig trenches, and Turkestan was, in the opinion of tsarist officials, a real “storehouse” of workers. In addition, among the officials, there was a widespread opinion that the Turkestans were more submissive. Perhaps, the example was played by the example of Russia's allies in the Entente — Britain and France, who actively used the natives of the African and Asian colonies both for auxiliary work and in combat units of the colonial forces. Note that before this, as is known, the non-ethnic population of the Russian Empire was exempted from compulsory conscription for military service.


Although the Russian army had units staffed by Muslims, only volunteers served in them - mainly representatives of the North Caucasian peoples and "Transcaucasian Tatars," as Azerbaijanis were then called. Of the Central Asians in the tsarist army, only Turkmen were famous for their valor and military skills. The tsarist officials could not think of anything better than how to assign a call for compulsory work on the eve of the holy month of Ramadan for Muslims. In addition, in the agricultural areas of Turkestan, agricultural work was in full swing and the peasants did not want to get off the ground to go to the front-line strip to dig trenches.

Flaming Turkestan. What led to the 1916 uprising of the year in Central Asia and what were its consequences?


The Turkestan uprising, which covered the territory of Kazakhstan and Central Asia and led to numerous victims, had several main reasons. First, the most important factor that made the uprising itself possible was the sociocultural contradictions that existed between the Muslim population of Turkestan and Russia as a whole. Recall that was the 1916 year. Many areas of Central Asia were conquered only forty years ago. The native population continued to lead a traditional way of life, was culturally influenced by the clergy and local feudal lords. Despite the fact that numerous Russian settlers rushed to Turkestan, primarily to the Kazakh steppes, and the tsarist government supported the colonists in every way, hoping to create loyalty centers among troubled natives with their help, there was a tough isolation between the indigenous population and Russian colonists. The Russian-Cossack population lived closed, not mingling with the locals, and the contacts were reduced, as a rule, to business communication. In the perception of the Turkestani, the settlers were strangers, invaders.

The second key factor that created the prerequisites for an uprising was the erroneous and ill-considered policy of the royal authorities. There was no systematic organization in the management of the Turkestan lands and a clear line in relation to the local population. The personnel aspect was also very important. On the ground, the government’s policies were implemented by no means the best representatives of the military and civil bureaucracy. Central Asia was considered to be a kind of place of exile, to which either people who had a punishment in the service went, or adventurers who hoped to get their hands. Rarely among the managers there were real patriots who thought not about their own well-being, but about the interests of the state. Even rarer shots were the officials, who were really interested in their way of life, history Turkestan, who knew at least one of the local languages.

At the height of the First World War, when ferment amongst the Turkestan population began, a frankly provocative position was adopted, in accordance with which the Turkestanians had to take off the headdress when they met with a Russian military or civilian official. Naturally, it offended many locals. Periodically, officials completely unreasonably attacked religion, even managed to prohibit the performance of the Muslim holy hajj to Mecca.

The third factor, which also played a crucial role in the preparation of the uprising, was the subversive activities of the Turkish agents. By the time of the start of the First World War, Pan-Turkic ideas became widespread in the Ottoman Empire. All regions with a Turkic-speaking or culturally similar Muslim population were included in the “Turkic world”. At that time, most of these regions were part of the Russian Empire — the North Caucasus, the Transcaucasus, the Volga region, Kazakhstan, and Central Asia. The Ottoman Empire and previously claimed the role of the main patron and protector of Muslims living in the Russian Empire - Russia acted in a similar way, taking care of the interests of the Christian population of Palestine and Syria, who were part of the Ottoman Empire.

The tsarist government was wary of the Muslim clergy, considering it a conductor of Ottoman influence. This was successfully used by the Turkish special services, which turned religious circles against the Russian authorities. The domination of Russia in Central Asia was presented as a temporary phenomenon, and preachers called on local Muslims to create a Sharia state under the auspices of the Turkish Sultan, the Caliph for all Orthodox. The Turkish and German agents acted in the neighboring areas of East Turkestan (now the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China), which was formally part of China, but was practically not controlled by the central authorities of the country. From East Turkestan propagandists penetrated the territory of the Russian Empire, it was carried weapon.



In these difficult conditions, the tsarist government continued to pursue a short-sighted policy, which led to a deterioration in the economic situation of the already poor people of Turkestan. Anti-Russian ideas found fertile ground precisely when the Turkestans felt the effects of tsarist politics on their stomachs. Thus, taxes on residents of Turkestan increased by three to five times. The sedentary Uzbek and Tajik population was forced to increase cotton picking. The nomadic Kazakhs and Kirghiz took meat, cattle, even warm sheepskin coats. The collection of taxes was accompanied by numerous excesses. Finally, the very strong indignation of the Turkestanians was also caused by the redistribution of the best lands in favor of the Russian colonists. Therefore, the decision that 250, thousands of Uzbeks and Tajiks, and 230, thousands of Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, that is, hundreds of thousands of families to be deprived of their breadwinners, will be called up for compulsory work in the front-line strip.

At the same time, blaming the Turkestan population in evading conscription in such a difficult wartime for the country is very stupid. Then, at the beginning of the twentieth century, overwhelmingly, the representatives of the peoples of Turkestan did not identify themselves with the Russian state, the war was alien to them, they did not know the history and geography of Russia, and even had no idea where they were going to be sent to work. Do not forget that the royal authorities have absolutely nothing done to explain to local residents the meaning of the decree on mobilization. Moreover, local officials acted rudely and brutally against the local population. The social factor also increased - rich Turkestanians were able to freely buy off the draft, so sending them to the compulsory work of the luminaries only for the majority of the poor people in the region.

On July 4 (old style) the first mass action against mobilization took place in Khujand. But in this case, the authorities did not find anything smarter than how to simply disperse the demonstration without drawing any conclusions for themselves. As a result, only in July 1916 there were 86 performances in the Fergana region, 26 - in the Syrdarya region and 20 - in the Samarkand region. 17 July 1916 authorities were forced to impose martial law in the Turkestan military district. However, it was too late. The uprising swept almost the whole of Turkestan.



With its short-sighted policy and unskillful actions, the tsarist government substituted, first of all, the Russian and Cossack population living in the region. It was the Russians and the Cossacks who became the main victims of the raging popular element. Since most of the men from among Russians and Cossacks by this time were called up for military service and were at the front, the settlements were virtually defenseless. The rebels, who were proclaimed by preachers and Turkish agents with extremist slogans, acted with extreme cruelty. They launched a real terror against the peaceful Russian-speaking population, killing and raping women, children and the elderly. Young girls and women, as a rule, preferred to be hijacked - in order to turn them into slaves-concubines in auls. The atrocities committed by the rebels against the Russian and Cossack population were indescribable.

To the credit of Russian settlers and Cossacks, it should be noted that they held to the last. To defend the settlements rose and old and young. By the way, when the rebels encountered real organized resistance, they retreated - even if a few dozen Cossacks opposed a thousand attackers. At the same time, if you read the testimonies of contemporaries, you can learn that many Kazakhs and Kyrgyz risked their Russian neighbors at the risk of their lives. And, at the same time, without the intervention of the troops, the uprising would most likely end up with the total annihilation of the Christian population in Central Asia.

In order to pacify the rebels of Turkestan, troops numbering thousands of soldiers and officers armed with artillery and machine guns were sent to 30. General-Governor of Infantry Alexey Kuropatkin (22-1916), a renowned Russian military leader, who, admittedly, was also a talented manager, in particular, was able to find a common language with the Turkestani, was appointed Governor-General of Turkestan 1848 in July. This was due to the peculiarities of his biography - almost the entire long military career of General Kuropatkin was associated with service in Turkestan. By the end of the summer of 1925, Russian troops managed to put down an uprising in almost all areas of Samarkand, Syrdarya, Fergana and other areas. Only in the steppes of Turgai a strong center of uprising remained - the Kazakhs revolted under the leadership of Abdulgafar Zhanbosynov and Amangeldy Imanov. In Turgay, the rebels managed to create even the authorities, electing Abdulgafar Zhanbosynov Khan, and Amangeldy Imanov - Sardarbek (commander of the troops).

The suppression of the uprising in Turkestan was extremely cruel. One can imagine the reaction of Russian soldiers and Cossacks, who entered the devastated villages and saw the tortured corpses of women, old people and children. The brutality of the Russian soldiers against the local population was thus a response to the atrocities that the insurgents committed. This is recognized by modern Central Asian historians - those of them who have not fallen into the swamp of nationalist demagogy. Thus, the Kyrgyz historian Shairgul Batyrbayeva writes: “Indeed, there was a harsh suppression of the uprising. But you can not be silent about the causes of this tragedy. When the punitive detachments sent to pacify the rebellion, saw the heads of Russian women and children seated on the forks, their reaction was appropriate. ” In total, thousands of civilians, mostly Russian women and children, were killed by the rebels at the hands of 3-4. 16 August 1916 Governor-General Alexei Kuropatkin reported to the Minister of War Dmitry Shuvaev about the death of 3478 Russian settlers. Human sacrifices were high on the other side. Although tendentious Soviet historians talked about the death of 100-150 by thousands of Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uzbeks during the suppression of the uprising, researchers who are more balanced in studying the issue say that about 4 thousands died from the side of the insurgents.

But the loss of the Turkestan population was really great - just not from the actions of the Russian troops. The harsh suppression of the uprising led to a new tragedy - the mass flight of Kyrgyz and Kazakhs to China - into the territory of East Turkestan. Tens of thousands of people fled to Xinjiang. The hard road through the mountains claimed many lives, and in Xinjiang, as it turned out, no one was waiting for the refugees. In order not to die of hunger, many families were forced to sell children to the Chinese.



The economy and demography of Turkestan was greatly damaged - after all, according to various sources, from 40 thousand to 250 thousand people fled to China. The royal decree on mobilization was not fully implemented, because of which the uprising began - only about 100 thousand people, not 480 thousand people, as originally planned, were called on to work. In addition, the uprising led to a further deepening of the rift between the Russian-speaking population of Turkestan and local peoples. It was difficult for the Russians and the Cossacks to forget the consequences of ethnic cleansing, and for the Turkestans, the rigid suppression of the uprising. Nevertheless, the new governor-general Kuropatkin did everything possible to smooth the consequences of the tragedy unfolding in Turkestan. He was working on the possibility of creating separate Russian and Kyrgyz areas, which would allow to solve the land issue and avoid direct clashes. Kuropatkin understood that in order to normalize the situation in the region, it was necessary not only to punish the insurgents who launched the genocide of the Russian population, but also not to allow mob and massacres of the Turkestanians by the avenging Russians and Cossacks. However, the February revolution that had begun did not allow to realize these plans. A new dramatic period began in the history of Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
Author:
Photos used:
iias.asia, http://rus-turk.livejournal.com/
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  1. apro
    apro 8 July 2016 06: 47
    +7
    It’s clear that the Russians are to blame, and that the mullahs and the bais sang that their national identity was such a cut and marauding while the Russian men were fighting on the fronts.
    1. sherp2015
      sherp2015 8 July 2016 09: 54
      +3
      Quote: apro
      It’s clear that the Russians are to blame, and that the mullahs and the bais sang that their national identity was such a cut and marauding while the Russian men were fighting on the fronts.

      Quote: V.ic
      I remember a quote from one local "cicero" saying: "they wanted the best, but it turned out as always."


      Surely, there were some British intelligence services.
      1. Mahmut
        Mahmut 8 July 2016 20: 01
        0
        Although there were units equipped with Muslims in the Russian army, only volunteers served in them - mainly representatives of the North Caucasian peoples and the "Transcaucasian Tatars", as Azerbaijanis were called then

        Doctors - Azerbaijanis were not taken into the tsarist army. They are good shepherds, farmers and traders. And the soldiers from them as from ... a bullet.
        1. Drummer
          Drummer 9 July 2016 16: 52
          +2
          Samedbek Sadikhbek oglu Mehmandarov, Ali-Aga Ismail-Aga oglu Shikhlinsky and Khan Hussein Nakhichevan look with bewilderment ...
      2. Mahmut
        Mahmut 8 July 2016 20: 08
        +1
        Surely, there were some British intelligence services.

        What kind of special services. The article clearly says "The king is to blame for everything - he did not explain his peaceful nature to the natives"

        "The sedentary Uzbek and Tajik population was forced to increase the cotton harvest."

        Yes, yes, somewhere I already heard it. The cotton business, Gdlyan and Ivanov - the growth of separatist sentiments. It seems that there is no king, but the jambs are the same.
    2. Alexey-74
      Alexey-74 8 July 2016 15: 48
      +4
      they lived in poverty all their lives, and now nothing has changed .... but they are independent (the question is from whom)
  2. V.ic
    V.ic 8 July 2016 07: 10
    +1
    I remember a quote from one local "cicero" saying: "they wanted the best, but it turned out as always."
  3. Serg65
    Serg65 8 July 2016 07: 11
    +9
    "The second key factor that created the preconditions for the uprising was the erroneous and ill-considered policy of the tsarist authorities. There was no consistency in organizing the management of the Turkestan lands and a clear line in relation to the local population."

    For the broad masses of people, the entry into Russia entailed many changes. They did not submit to the next eastern state, but to a completely different, foreign and inert power. As a result of accession, Russian immigrants began to settle on their land. Therefore, accession, even with positive consequences, proved to be a turning point and even stressful in the life of the people. This breaking of centuries-old foundations of life, combined with complete dependence on their feudal lords, served as the basis for the aspirations of the manapas, which raised the people to revolt.
    The new Russian citizens received from joining, in general, everything they wanted. However, it soon became clear that the new government is also oppressive, albeit not as ruthless as the tyranny of bygone times. As the modern historian V. V. Trepavlov emphasizes: “The need not only to enjoy rights and privileges, but also to fulfill duties as subjects, to exist under the conditions of the tough administrative mechanism of an autocratic state turned out to be an unusual, heavy and intolerable burden for many“ foreigners ”.
    There was a lack of consistency in the organization of management of Turkestan lands and a clear line in relation to the local population.

    Many researchers often raise the land question as the main reason for the uprising of the 16 year, but .... The Kazakh sultan Bek-Sultan Agadayev, entering into Russian citizenship, made the following commitments: “On the 1839 of June of 25 of the day, Sultan Bek-Sultan Agadayev with his subordinate a volost consisting of four hundred villages, expresses a heartfelt desire to enter into citizenship of His Imperial Majesty. Sultan Agadayev, being a member of the Ayaguz District, ASKES TO PLACE HIS NOSES TO PUT A POPULATION OF RUSSIANS THERE FOR WHICH HE GETS HIMSELF WITH HAYMOSES, AND FOREST AND BREEDERS to put them in a place, and.
    In December 1824, the biys of the Bugu tribe Koichibek and Musa Shirgalievs and Khodjibay Nushi sent a letter to the head of the Omsk region, SB Bronevsky, with "a declaration to become a Russian citizen." They wrote, having learned, “that in the subjects of the Sovereign Emperor the nomad camps of the Kyrgyz (Kazakh) FOR THE REMAINING OF THEM ARE SETTLEMENTS, THEN WE AND OUR PEOPLE WILL RECEIVE FOR GOOD. WE WISH THAT THE SAME Tranquility RESTORED IN OUR NOMAD NOMADS ".
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 8 July 2016 07: 45
      +8
      many Kazakhs and Kyrgyz hid Russian neighbors at risk for their lives

      “According to the stories of my ancestors, during the Kirghiz uprising in 1916, my great-grandmother was saved because a Kirghiz who worked for her warned her about the riot, and she hid in the reeds with her children for four days. Some of the villagers tried to escape in the estate of a local merchant, whose yard was like a small fortress - with a blank fence around. He opened the gates to the Kirghiz threats to burn the entire estate. All those who had taken refuge in the courtyard were killed. HERE ARE THE GRIMACES OF HISTORY: THE KIRGIZ SAVED THE RUSSIAN FAMILY, AND THE RUSSIAN HAS BEEN HAVING TO DEATH THEIR ONE VILLAGERS "(From the memoirs of Sergei Anatolyevich Medvedev. Issyk-Kul).
      The third factor, which also played a crucial role in preparing the uprising, was the subversive activities of Turkish agents. By the time World War I began, pan-Turkic ideas were widely spread in the Ottoman Empire.

      I would like to correct the author a little. The war was going on, Germany managed to oppose itself to almost the entire World Community. Material and human resources are running out. Based on this, the German General Staff was looking for new opportunities for victory. The main factor that fixed the Kaiser's gaze on Central Asia was the presence of 148 thousand German and Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war in the vastness of Turkestan. So in 1915, the German-Turkish "ethnographic" expedition began to work in Afghanistan, strong points were created on the border for the passage of Austrian and German prisoners of war who fled from Turkestan, where in turn Turkish emissaries of the "fighters for Islam" were transported. The plan, broadly conceived in Berlin, quickly turned into reality. Already during the uprising, the Germans began to blackmail the Russian emperor, a delegation consisting of several wealthy Afghans and led by an Indian Raja arrived in Tashkent, the capital of Turkestan. They brought a letter addressed to the Russian emperor and confidentially said that their goal was to propose, on behalf of the German-Turkish mission and the emir of Afghanistan, the conclusion of a secret treaty to fight the British in India. This visit seriously frightened England, which until now turns a blind eye to the presence of the Germans in Afghanistan. So, not everything is so smooth in the Danish kingdom!
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 8 July 2016 08: 17
        +4
        Tens of thousands of people fled to Xinjiang. The hard road through the mountains claimed many lives, and in Xinjiang, as it turned out, no one was waiting for refugees. In order not to starve to death, many families were forced to sell their children to the Chinese.

        It is significant that the main Kyrgyz buy-ins, the leaders of the uprising, took their families to China in advance, immediately after the arrival of troops to suppress the uprising. Kuropatkin on the 24 of August reported: “The Karakirghizas, through the sons of the late Shabdan Dzhantayev, are negotiating with the Chinese authorities to leave for China. The Chinese allegedly agreed to accept the Przhevalsky, Naryn and Tokmak Kyrgyz, provided that they are not fugitives, but a warrior. The latter circumstance is confirmed by the fact that the Kyrgyz are already sending their families and livestock to China. All Kirghiz, even Vernensky, call the rebellion a war. ” [RGIA, f. 1276, about 11, d. 89, l 118]. This information was also confirmed by data from China on the border crossing by the rebelled Kyrgyz. If the main, large parties of Kyrgyz refugees in Chinese territory appeared after the 20 of September, then some cases of border crossing from the Kyrgyz side were noted at the end of August. [(44), p. 92].
        Given this fact, it is worth mentioning the neglect, if not betrayal, of the interests of the people by the feudal elite. It consisted of the following. First, the rulers, using the discontent of the masses, raised the people to a rebellion that was doomed to defeat for the sake of their interests. In his submission from 10.09.1915 of the year, the Vernensky district prosecutor reported that “the culprits of rumors about the initiation of Taranchins against Russians are the volost governor and other influential Taranchins”. There are many such facts in the Kyrgyz volosts, when the manapas agitated the Kyrgyz for an uprising.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 8 July 2016 07: 53
    +4
    Ilya, wonderful .. I liked the article .. But ..However, the beginning of the February revolution did not allow to realize these plans. A new dramatic period began in the history of Kazakhstan and Central Asia... as they say, for the language, no one pulled you .. so we are waiting for the continuation ...
  5. knn54
    knn54 8 July 2016 08: 10
    +1
    In Turkestan, the tsarist system of governance SIMPLY failed: -the estrangement of the Russian administration of the region from direct local administration was left to the local, incompetent and extremely corrupt bureaucrats. Bribery, nepotism, and the simple universal human stupidity of the grassroots Asian bureaucracy only added fuel to the fire. The main thing is that the feedback between the Russian top administration and their Asian subordinates was broken: no one foresaw the reaction to mobilizing the population for work. - The corruptive influence of religious leaders on the minds has been lost. The authorities (having cut the clergy financially) did not take care to weaken their influence on the minds. - NOBODY explained to the population the intentions of the government: many of the rebels would have quietly obeyed the orders of the king, if not for PROVOCATIONAL rumors about total mobilization and sending to the front.
    But this does not honor the murderers who put whole villages to fire and sword.
  6. AK64
    AK64 8 July 2016 08: 46
    +3
    Although there were units equipped with Muslims in the Russian army, only volunteers served in them - mostly representatives


    Yeah. Azhnik is an integral division. It was called Wild. For the 1917th azhnik 1350 people.

    And "uprising" - well, so "the Englishwoman is naughty." Or will someone believe in the self-organization of the Kyrgyz? Just like that, rrrrraaaz - and suddenly the Kirghiz self-organized in auls. No, this money was paid, and nothing else
    1. Zymran
      Zymran 8 July 2016 08: 56
      +2
      Quote: AK64
      And "uprising" - well, so "the Englishwoman is naughty." Or will someone believe in the self-organization of the Kyrgyz? Just like that, rrrrraaaz - and suddenly the Kirghiz self-organized in auls. No, this money was paid, and nothing else


      The British, even at that time, no one thought to blame. Usually the blame was placed on German and Turkish agents.
      1. AK64
        AK64 8 July 2016 09: 49
        +1
        The British, even at that time, no one thought to blame.

        Guess they were not stupider than us. But at that moment Britain was, as it were, an "ally" in the war ... That is, in the case of a direct public statement, the question followed was "what about our ally?"

        Usually the blame was placed on German and Turkish agents.

        The Turks did not have "their" agents: the wrong country. (They didn't even have independence, that is, Turkey only seemed to be independent.) All "Turkish" agents were actually English.
        1. Zymran
          Zymran 8 July 2016 09: 56
          +2
          Ah, got it. Again, the Anglo-Saxons are to blame.
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 8 July 2016 10: 02
            +1
            Quote: Zymran
            Ah, got it. Again, the Anglo-Saxons are to blame.

            laughing Well, to some extent "YES", the British turned a blind eye to the German-Turkish expedition in Afghanistan while it did not concern them!
          2. AK64
            AK64 8 July 2016 10: 08
            +1
            Ah, got it. Again, the Anglo-Saxons are to blame.

            Yes, you don’t understand anything, nothing.

            Anglo-Saxons are something from the 9th or 10th century. And in the 20th they are English. And all kinds of espionage and other subversive activities were almost always their strengths. Over the past 500 years, not a single European country has demonstrated 10% of British spy efficiency.

            And this, by the way, slightly surprises me: why are the British such masters in this nasty business? One shamelessness, and even shamelessness, is not enough here.
        2. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 8 July 2016 13: 53
          0
          Quote: AK64
          All "Turkish" agents were in fact English.

          Still not so, namely Turkish with its ideology of pan-Islamism (rather than Ottomanism) + the actions of Austro-Hungarian and especially German intelligence.
          1. AK64
            AK64 8 July 2016 14: 18
            0
            Still not so, namely Turkish with its ideology of pan-Islamism (rather than Ottomanism) + the actions of Austro-Hungarian and especially German intelligence.


            My opinion is this: after the Young Turkish Revolution, Turkey actually lost its independence. Turkish intelligence services have become corny branches of British and German ones. Their army was corny commanded by the Germans --- who, by the way, and ... simply started a war against Russia in 1914, not really worrying about the opinion of the "Turkish government" on this matter.

            Until 1914, the "Turkish" Fleet was "supervised" (controlled) by the British: the Germans turned the tide by "handing over to Turkey" (and, in fact, simply raising the Turkish flag) on ​​Goeben and Breslau.

            But I'm too lazy to argue. Can be considered as "another opinion"
  7. Military Builder
    Military Builder 8 July 2016 08: 51
    +4
    In Kazakhstani history textbooks, this rebellion is described as a national liberation from the Russian colonialists, it is also mentioned
    The brutality of Russian soldiers in relation to the local population
    but about
    One can imagine the reaction of Russian soldiers and Cossacks, who entered the devastated villages and saw the tormented corpses of women, old people and children.
    not a word
    1. Zymran
      Zymran 8 July 2016 08: 55
      +2
      Most of the "women, children and old people" were killed in Kyrgyzstan. Specifically in the Przhevalsky district. Kazakhs mocked civilians much less.
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 8 July 2016 09: 02
        +2
        Quote: Zymran
        Most of the "women, children and old people" were killed in Kyrgyzstan. Specifically in the Przhevalsky district. Kazakhs mocked civilians much less.

        The most interesting thing, Zurman, is that after the release of Tokmok, most of the rebels moved to smash the Aulie-Ata Kazakhs in the lower reaches of the Chu River, and already the Russians had to protect the Kazakhs from the Kyrgyz!
        1. Zymran
          Zymran 8 July 2016 09: 18
          +2
          Quote: Serg65
          The most interesting thing, Zurman, is that after the release of Tokmok, most of the rebels moved to smash the Aulie-Ata Kazakhs in the lower reaches of the Chu River, and already the Russians had to protect the Kazakhs from the Kyrgyz!


          Interestingly, I have not heard about this. Is there a source?
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 8 July 2016 09: 39
            +3
            Quote: Zymran
            Interestingly, I have not heard about this. Is there a source?

            In early September, the rebels intensified in the area of ​​the 4 and 5 Chui resettlement sites. Their units began to appear again at the Pishpek - Verny postal tract. Calls for resistance continued to be heard. This is evidenced by the decisions of the governor of this period on the arrest of persons "inciting riots." Acting Governor of the Semirechensk Region Alekseev told Kuropatkin: “It is also necessary to mention that part of the population of the rebellious volosts (Pishpek Uyezd - B. M.) fled to the Balkhash steppes, where on the border of the region (with the Syr-Darya Oblast - B. M.) robberies of the Aulie-Ata Kyrgyz ”(Kazakhs - B. M.). [RGIA, f. 432, about.1, d. 69, l. 53].

            It can be assumed that carried away by the robberies of Russian villages, the Kyrgyz remembered their old rivals - the Kazakhs. But the other Kyrgyz neighbors, the Dungans, also got it. After suppressing the performance of the Przhevalsky Dungans, as the Russian consul in Kashgar reported, "the Kyrgyz could not miss a good opportunity not to rob the Dungans." [TsGA RUz, f. I-1, about. 31, d. 1205, l 1-4]. "In the Pishpek district, a Kurdish detachment scattered the flocks of Kyrgyz people and repelled 30 camels with looted peasant property." [RGIA, f. 1292, about 1, d. 1933, l 241]. To stop the robbery of the Aulie-Ata Kazakhs, "the sent detachment of Poltoratsky quickly pacified the robbers." [(31), p. 373].
            http://belovodskoe-muh.ucoz.ru/publ/o_vosstanii_1916_goda_v_quot_otchjote_turkes
            tanskoj_eparkhii_quot_chast_3_ja/1-1-0-133
            please hi
            1. Zymran
              Zymran 8 July 2016 09: 47
              +1
              Thank. Interesting. As for the Dungans, they seem to have also distinguished themselves by the murders of the Russian population.
              In general, the question is why exactly in Kyrgyzstan they dealt with Russians so cruelly? Probably due to the fact that the Kirghiz came to Russian citizenship later than the Kazakhs and were still "wild". There was simply not a large Russian population in Turkmenistan. The Uzbeks and Sarts were less warlike than the nomads.
              1. Serg65
                Serg65 8 July 2016 09: 58
                +4
                Quote: Zymran
                As for the Dungans, they seem to have also distinguished themselves by the murders of the Russian population

                Only the Dungans of the village of Mariinsky distinguished themselves by killing Russians; these Dungans were heavily tied to the smuggling of Issyk-Kul opium.
                Quote: Zymran
                In general, the question is why exactly in Kyrgyzstan they dealt so cruelly with the Russians?

                The "wild-stone" Kirghiz had very strong family ties, and if bai or manap said "Alga", then it means alga! And then they went into a rage ... rob, kill, no one will say a word.
                Quote: Zymran
                Uzbeks and Sarts were less warlike than nomads.

                By the way, Tokmak Sarts took an active part in the defense of the city on a par with the Russians.
                1. Zymran
                  Zymran 8 July 2016 10: 00
                  +2
                  Quote: Serg65
                  By the way, Tokmak Sarts took an active part in the defense of the city on a par with the Russians.


                  Some Kyrgyz also defended some Russian village. I saw at Broydo such data.
              2. garnik64
                garnik64 8 July 2016 23: 25
                0
                All the cities of present-day Turkmenistan were inhabited by Russians, Armenians, Turks, subjects of Persia, and then Turkmens. One city where mainly Turkmens lived was Geok-Tepe. The natives lived in the villages that surrounded the cities. In the 60s they began to move to the city en masse. I remember how there were skirmishes between city and aul ones.
          2. otto9966
            otto9966 19 August 2019 13: 19
            0
            He has no source ..... and it’s also written on the fence that Mao was Chukchi laughing
      2. xan
        xan 8 July 2016 11: 20
        +1
        Quote: Zymran
        Most of the "women, children and old people" were killed in Kyrgyzstan. Specifically in the Przhevalsky district. Kazakhs mocked civilians much less.

        I read somewhere that the Cossack administration decided to distribute weapons to Russian women for lack of men. But this led to rampant local revenge after the suppression of the uprising. I had to force to take weapons from a woman.
        1. Zymran
          Zymran 8 July 2016 11: 28
          +1
          Well, there were probably some incidents with the women. But generally there were men. Firstly, unfit for military service, and secondly, the first generation of immigrants to Turkestan was exempted from military service.
          Or the second, I don’t remember exactly, but some category of Russians was not called up for war. Serg65 will correct if that.
      3. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 8 July 2016 13: 55
        +1
        Quote: Zymran
        Most of the "women, children and old people" were killed in Kyrgyzstan. Specifically in the Przhevalsky district. Kazakhs mocked civilians much less.

        I agree - the Kirghiz in the bloody pogroms were noted more than all the others - by the way, recent events in the city of Osh show very little that little has changed (I recall that then the Kyrgyz were already cutting Uzbeks, there were almost no Russians left after the 90x events).
        1. otto9966
          otto9966 19 August 2019 13: 21
          0
          This you name is left ??? 500 Russians in Kyrgyzstan according to the latest census ...
  8. Basil50
    Basil50 8 July 2016 09: 33
    +1
    The author mentioning the reasons did not mention the main one. In Central Asia, more recently, the slave trade was the basis * of the economy *, all raided for the sake of slaves. But with the advent of RUSSIAN troops, the slave traders began to shoot, but the memory remained like those who traded people. In 1916, those appeared who brought money and weapons, and most importantly they promised that there would be nothing for it. In Xinjiang and Afghanistan, their own Kazakh Kazakhs sold their slavery, it is strange that most of the sold were boys and girls who were taken to the famous slave markets, and the rest * on their own * to * abroad * traveled, hungry and cold.
    Today they try not to mention the atrocities of the Kyrgyz Kazakhs, and in Asia they deny that the uprisings began precisely with the fact that the Russians were slaughtered. The fact that slave traders filled the markets of Xinjiang, Afghanistan, and of course Persia with European children do not mention either, all * cry * only for * innocently killed * Kyrgyz Kazakhs, and for the rest of the failed slaveholders.
    1. Serg65
      Serg65 8 July 2016 09: 48
      +2
      Quote: Vasily50
      The author mentioning the reasons did not mention the main

      Oh, Dmitry, there were many reasons and which of them is the main one known to God! For example, the uprising in Przhevalsky district was mostly provoked by Kyrgyz, Chinese and Dungan opium smugglers. Shortly before the uprising, a ban was imposed on the export of opium abroad due to the lack of morphine at the front and a lot of goods accumulated in the caches, and the border was tightly closed.
      1. Zymran
        Zymran 8 July 2016 09: 56
        +2
        In general, the main reason for the widespread uprising was the land issue - i.e. land acquisition in favor of Russian immigrants. This was recognized by local authorities themselves. The decree on mobilization was already the last straw breaking a camel's ridge.
        1. Basil50
          Basil50 8 July 2016 11: 56
          -4
          zoom.
          In Central Asia, RUSSIAN immigrants began to build oases, and RUSSIAN immigrants also began to plant gardens. Today, the dream of the Kyrgyz Kazakhs has come true, they have captured all the lands, and there are fewer oases every year. Already, deserts began to return with sands and dunes, not to mention locusts. Looking at the map of my native places I do not see either gardens or parks, and even roadside plantings there begin to disappear. By the way, the number of sheep also decreased markedly. So no need to lie. By the way, CULTURE in Central Asia was created by RUSSIA and the SOVIET UNION. It was ridiculous to read the * great * poets of Central Asia, but the translations were very bright and highly artistic without any stretch. Almost a joke, but a great work about the legendary HODGE IN THE MIDDLE was written by Leonid Vasilyevich Soloviev.
          1. Zymran
            Zymran 8 July 2016 12: 28
            +3
            Quote: Vasily50
            In Central Asia, RUSSIAN immigrants began to build oases, and it was RUSSIAN immigrants who began to plant gardens too


            Yeah. So Tashkent and Chimkent and other cities were empty and without trees, until the Russians came there and planted greenery.

            Quote: Vasily50
            It was ridiculous to read the * great * poets of Central Asia, but the translations were very bright and highly artistic without any stretch.


            As if you know the language to be able to read these poets in their native language. laughing

            Quote: Vasily50
            So no need to lie


            Here is a link to a report on the causes of the uprising, where the land issue is called the main reason.

            "The fact is that only the worst lands were left to the Kirghiz for use, all the same the best from them selected and transferred to Russian immigrantswho, instead of cultivating the land themselves and being cultural traders in the province, so to speak, found it more convenient and convenient not to work, but lease these lands to the same Kyrgyz or treat them with the Kyrgyz, hiring them for a beggarly fee. Thus, the picture was such that the Kyrgyz, having lost their best land, were paying money for it at that time..."


            https://books.google.kz/books?id=ELn7AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA157&lpg=PA157&dq=%D0%B2%D0%BE
            %D1%81%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5+1916+%D0%B7%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BB%D
            1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9+%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81&source=bl&ots=MxLWhi
            nYov&sig=eqP-l8RI6i5dPy-ZQYs_LjP0Z2A&hl=ru&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=%D0%B2%D
            0%BE%D1%81%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5%201916%20%D0%B7%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B5
            %D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8B%D0%B9%20%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D1%81&f=false
          2. nezvaniy_gost
            nezvaniy_gost 8 July 2016 12: 54
            +1
            that is, cities with 2500 years of history were created by RUSSIAN migrants?
            What are you stupid person? Then even the word "Russian" did not exist.
            1. ilyaros
              8 July 2016 13: 52
              +4
              But, for the sake of justice, the Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek nations then did not exist either - 2,5 thousands of years ago. And it was Iranian sedentary population. Plus Iranian-speaking saki in the territory of the present-day. Kazakh steppes. Parthians, Bactrians, Sogdians, Saks have a very distant relationship to the modern peoples of Central Asia. Approximately the same as the ancient Greeks or Scythians to the modern inhabitants of southern Russia or the Crimea. That is, of course, there are genetically among the Russian descendants of the Greeks or Sarmatians, and among the Central Asian peoples - the descendants of the Bactrians or Saks, but that's all. Central Asia spoke Iranian languages ​​- and now Turkic (except Tajik and Pamir). They professed Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism - and now Islam. And so on...
              1. Kasym
                Kasym 8 July 2016 15: 41
                +3
                Vasily 50. The irrigation system in Central Asia was before A.Makedonsky. I'm not talking about the system of irrigation ditches in that Bukhara, Samarkand or Tashkent. And the British paid gold for fruits from Central Asia. And are still considered the standard, because here is the birthplace of many of them because of the climate (apples, apricots, pears, etc.). hi
                1. AK64
                  AK64 8 July 2016 16: 14
                  0
                  And the British paid gold for fruits from Central Asia


                  visionaries ... storytellers ... They paid with diamonds, yeah.
                2. Basil50
                  Basil50 8 July 2016 16: 50
                  +2
                  kasymu.
                  You are absolutely right. But all that was irrelevant to the Türks. When the Turks * came * then the gardens disappeared and the irrigation system, like many peoples who lived in Central Asia. And the Turks did not build cities.
                3. The comment was deleted.
          3. kosta_cs
            kosta_cs 8 July 2016 13: 00
            +1
            Vasily50 - the land issue is not only land for "oases". For nomadic pastoralism, the land required much more than arable land. All the land in the Steppe was divided between the clans and God forbid any clan to drive the cattle out of their land. The tsarist government gave the Russian settlers the best land and mows, without understanding, without going into details, driving the locals away from the traditional ways of nomadism. And where then were those who were driven away? Squeeze out other births? Or go to graze livestock in salt marshes and deserts? This is what caused the jute (mass death of livestock) and the impoverishment of part of the local population. Which, of course, caused protest moods in the end. The mobilization decree and additional extortionate taxes just added firewood to the fire.
            1. Zymran
              Zymran 8 July 2016 13: 48
              +2
              Quote: kosta_cs
              Vasily50 - the land issue is not only land for "oases". For nomadic pastoralism, the land required much more than arable land.


              In fact, among the southern Kazakhs, as well as among the Kyrgyz, farming was already widespread. so the locals not only wandered, but cultivated the land. But in general I agree.
              1. kosta_cs
                kosta_cs 8 July 2016 13: 57
                +2
                My great-grandfather fought against Amangeldy Imanov in Thurgai and I judge according to family legends about those events. In our north, the land question was only from that angle.
                Well, about the South somehow it did not occur to me :)
              2. marshes
                marshes 8 July 2016 14: 05
                +1
                Quote: Zymran
                In fact, among the southern Kazakhs, as well as among the Kyrgyz, farming was already widespread. so the locals not only wandered, but cultivated the land. But in general I agree.

                Famine in the 20-30s, as we experienced in the Almaty region. they raised millet, and even when the Cossacks reconnoiter the area near Almaty, they write in reports about developed agriculture.
                My ancestors wandered a short distance in the summer to the mountains in the winter to the steppe.
                and the great-grandmother is deceased, she always kept a garden and my godfather is like an "Uzbek" everything in the garden is "struggling" laughing And such relatives.
            2. Mikhail Matyugin
              Mikhail Matyugin 8 July 2016 13: 59
              +2
              Quote: kosta_cs
              Which, of course, caused the protest mood in the end. The decree on mobilization and additional predatory taxes simply added firewood to the fire.

              As long as there were enough Russian regiments, everything was fine. But in the event of a big war, our ancestors received a "stab in the back" (using the well-known term).
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Semurg
          Semurg 8 July 2016 13: 03
          +4
          Quote: Zymran
          In general, the main reason for the widespread uprising was the land issue - i.e. land acquisition in favor of Russian immigrants. This was recognized by local authorities themselves. The decree on mobilization was already the last straw breaking a camel's ridge.

          Recently, amendments to the land code in the Republic of Kazakhstan almost broke the ridge of the Nazarbayev camel, although the NAS turned out to be more mobile and quickly vetoed. I remember that in our case they were looking for the trail of the Englishwoman, and they even shot a story about weapon caches and $ 150 for participating in rallies. So the story runs in a spiral up or down.
    2. nezvaniy_gost
      nezvaniy_gost 8 July 2016 12: 32
      -2
      did not plow, did not sow, did not raise cattle. Traded only slaves ..
    3. nezvaniy_gost
      nezvaniy_gost 8 July 2016 12: 34
      +1
      NOT RUSSIAN, but the colonialists .. Would the British or Japanese, cut them out.
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 8 July 2016 13: 40
        +3
        Quote: nezvaniy_gost
        Would the British or Japanese, cut them out.

        My friend, read about the Sepoy Uprising or the Easter Uprising in Ireland and you will understand that the Russian "colonialists" are just children!
        1. Zymran
          Zymran 8 July 2016 13: 52
          +1
          Quote: Serg65
          My friend, read about the Sepoy Uprising or the Easter Uprising in Ireland and you will understand that the Russian "colonialists" are just children!


          Well, for the sake of justice, you can read the testimony of Broydo, where the colonialists also did things quite comparable with the English.
        2. nezvaniy_gost
          nezvaniy_gost 8 July 2016 20: 29
          +1
          My friend, read about the Sepoy Uprising or the Easter Uprising in Ireland and you will understand that the Russian "colonialists" are just children!

          Slightly what you are trying to translate the arrows on the British, as if all Russian hereditary railroad in the eighth generation.
          The sepoys and the Irish themselves can speak for themselves and present to the British. Are you a sip?
          now we are talking about the Turkestan uprising. You are trying to imagine a case so that the innocent Russians were attacked by evil Kyrgyz, Kazakhs and Uzbeks. But the main question: what the fuck did the Russians in their lands?
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 9 July 2016 06: 07
            +2
            Quote: nezvaniy_gost
            You are trying to imagine a case so that the innocent Russians were attacked by evil Kyrgyz, Kazakhs and Uzbeks. But the main question: what the fuck did the Russians in their lands?

            Well, firstly, the Kazakhs and most of the Kyrgyz people in Russia entered voluntarily, fleeing just from the evil Uzbeks. What the fuck did the Russians in their lands? On the lands of the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz just fell the fuck of evil Uzbeks! And on the lands of the Uzbeks? So it was not necessary to be evil and tyranny the neighbors! hi
      2. Simpsonian
        Simpsonian 9 July 2016 16: 35
        0
        Were the British or the Japanese, they would have slaughtered you as Indians, even without considering your past "exploits".
    4. Basil50
      Basil50 8 July 2016 12: 53
      +3
      Ek hooked up! Just do not lie. Cities in Central Asia began to be built only after the arrival of RUSSIAN TROOPS. The Türks destroyed the cities that were built in antiquity and built villages on the ruins. In some places, the irrigation system built in antiquity was preserved, but the Turks were unable to preserve even this, and the desert grew annually.
      1. kosta_cs
        kosta_cs 8 July 2016 13: 16
        +1
        Vasily50 - go tell a story or something ... Although, if a person can only think in stereotypes, then he is basically uneducable. For example, the troops of Bekovich-Cherkassky, according to your logic, stormed a handful of villages on the ruins? Have Kokand, Bukhara, Samarkand, Shymkent, Taraz and other cities also been built by Russians? Especially to have something to capture ... yeah.
      2. Basil50
        Basil50 8 July 2016 13: 22
        +1
        Hey * Türks *, you do not make a claim to TURAN. Do you even remember where you came from in Central Asia? And when did this happen? And who allowed your ancestors to gain a foothold in Central Asia, remember? Do not be like the Bulgarians, do not.
        1. kosta_cs
          kosta_cs 8 July 2016 13: 44
          +2
          Ostap suffered ...
          Quote: Vasily50
          Hey * Türks *, you do not make claims on TURAN

          This is generally what and how does it relate to previous posts?

          When and where did we come from, we remember very well

          Quote: Vasily50
          And who allowed your ancestors to gain a foothold in Central Asia, remember?

          Let me guess, in your opinion, probably, the troops of the Russian princes came — they dispersed the Mongols, Saks, Sassanids, Pithecanthropes, Chinese and Dzungars (horses and people mixed in heaps, so to speak), and then they brought the unwashed Central Asians, taught them to piss while standing and left, forgetting about them for a couple of centuries, so that later there would be someone to conquer in the 17-18 centuries. Accidentally not an adherent of Fomenko? I did not write too hard for your understanding?
        2. Basil50
          Basil50 8 July 2016 13: 47
          +2
          The responses of the Kyrgyz Kazakhs prompted this thought. All these peoples became very freedom-loving and independent only because they had never encountered the colonialists. In both Americas, as well as in other colonies, the local elementary were cut out, even those who helped in the colonization of fellow tribesmen. This happened in all colonies of the British and other Europeans. So no need to dress in the clothes of the sufferers. All the same you will not hide.
          1. Basil50
            Basil50 8 July 2016 14: 10
            +1
            Yeah, with the Kazakh flag, even the name * of the benefactor * doesn’t know * and there, in the argument *. Claim your own Wishlist. As soon as you touch other people's interests, you will get an answer and he may not like it.
        3. The comment was deleted.
      3. The comment was deleted.
    5. The comment was deleted.
  9. alebor
    alebor 8 July 2016 11: 58
    +1
    I liked the article as a whole, the author tried to take a balanced position, trying to reflect the point of view of both the authorities and the rebels.
    But what surprised, in the article, Russians and Cossacks are constantly divided. It is interesting, but the rebelled Turkestans also separated one from the other, and did not consider the Cossacks to be Russian?
    1. Parsec
      Parsec 8 July 2016 12: 22
      +2
      Quote: alebor
      But what surprised, in the article, Russians and Cossacks are constantly divided


      A Cossack is a person who has a military rank and does not pay a poll tax.
      From the point of view of the then administrator, it should be considered separately - this is a high-availability mobresource.
    2. Semurg
      Semurg 8 July 2016 12: 54
      +2
      Quote: Vasily50
      zoom.
      In Central Asia, RUSSIAN immigrants began to build oases, and RUSSIANS also began to plant gardens

      Well, it turns out that we’ll cut down the last garden and then erase the trace of the Russian migratory wave in Central Asia. In the meantime, take the return wave of Gastes from Central Asia.
      1. marshes
        marshes 8 July 2016 13: 09
        +2
        Quote: Semurg
        Semurg

        Salam Alekum.
        By the way, at the expense of orchards, apples have already gone from you, not counting melons and tomatoes.
        Last year, from a train before reaching Taraz, I saw huge plantings of apple trees, orchards revive where there were none at all.
        PYSYA, half-smoked turkey ham from Shym, this is something. Your production and processing is healthy in your SKO.
        1. Semurg
          Semurg 8 July 2016 13: 19
          +2
          Aleikum as salam. Yes, the last two, three years, the gardens began to plant intensive and greenhouses thanks to the Jewish brothers for the technology and seed. Around the noise planted forest belts previously planted simply trees that were not quite lips, but recently fruit trees began to plant what is right. And turkey der gut
          1. marshes
            marshes 8 July 2016 13: 28
            +2
            Quote: Semurg
            . And turkey der gut

            Germans? or all the same Poles.
            The other day they celebrated, in short bought sprats, local with South Kazakhstan and you yourself know where, there are no Baltic ones. laughing So with Shima it’s a quality, whole little butter, and so on ... but others are terrible.
            I have new friends with Shima again, they rented two greenhouses in the suburbs, on melons and flowers they didn’t go up badly. Our locals were already lazy in the region. Someone living in the suburbs. They earn money while plowing oralmans or Kyrgyz with Uzbeks, but the Chinese not seen yet.
    3. kosta_cs
      kosta_cs 8 July 2016 13: 03
      +1
      Separated, yes. The attitude towards the Cossacks was much worse. About how to the Nazis in the Second World War. And there were reasons for that.
      1. Zymran
        Zymran 8 July 2016 13: 50
        +3
        Quote: kosta_cs
        Separated, yes. The attitude towards the Cossacks was much worse. About how to the Nazis in the Second World War. And there were reasons for that.


        But this is not entirely true. There is a saying "The devil I know is better than the stranger." The Cossacks were that very familiar. Those. they usually spoke the local language, knew the traditions and peculiarities of the psychology of the natives.
        The immigrants, on the other hand, were completely alien in the region, and conflicts arose precisely with them.
        And by the way, vigilantes from immigrants were unlimited more than combatant Cossacks.
        1. kosta_cs
          kosta_cs 8 July 2016 14: 04
          +2
          Quote: Zymran
          Those. they usually spoke the local language, knew the traditions and characteristics of the psychology of the natives.

          and, accordingly, they knew better the terrain, the tricks, and could predict the actions of the locals. In all subjugating campaigns, the Cossacks played the role of guides and beaters. As my grandfather told about his great-grandfather: if there were a dozen Cossacks in a detachment of a hundred regular soldiers, they tried to destroy them in the first place. Avoid, so to speak.
          1. Zymran
            Zymran 8 July 2016 17: 30
            +2
            Well, let’s say this - relations with the Cossacks were bad, but with immigrants it was even worse.
            And since the Cossacks surpassed even regular soldiers in the ability to conduct combat operations in the steppe, this is true.
        2. AK64
          AK64 8 July 2016 14: 10
          +1
          Cossacks were the same friend. Those. they usually spoke the local language, knew the traditions and characteristics of the psychology of the natives.
          The immigrants, on the other hand, were completely alien in the region, and conflicts arose precisely with them.


          Incidentally, in Siberia, the situation is the same: "evil" Cossacks quite calmly got along with the Buryat-Khakass. But the peasants who came in large numbers ... For some reason, they considered it necessary to treat the Buryats / Khakas with contempt.
          This is still noticeable.
          1. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 8 July 2016 17: 28
            +1
            In my opinion, no. It would also be interesting to learn about "fascism" and "WWII", from the descendants of those who heroize the actions of those who, during this rebellion, went and killed women, old people and children in Russian houses while the men went to fight at the front.
            Then when these "national poets" were shot in 1937, they are now still recorded as victims of Stalinism.

            The article about the role of British intelligence is not written, nor about the fact that the bandits had British weapons and even a stylish uniform made of British cloth, which was captured by the Cossacks after the suppression of a huge amount, she lay in warehouses for a year and a half and then became ... Red Army.
            1. Zymran
              Zymran 8 July 2016 17: 45
              +1
              Quote: Simpsonian
              The article about the role of British intelligence is not written, nor about the fact that the bandits had British weapons and even a stylish uniform made of British cloth, which was captured by the Cossacks after the suppression of a huge amount, she lay in warehouses for a year and a half and then became ... Red Army .


              Bullshit. (with)
              1. Simpsonian
                Simpsonian 8 July 2016 19: 31
                -2
                What else can you do? On the back, lying under the policeman, didn’t you try to crawl into the American embassy right after leaving the sealed yellow taxi? bully

                In 1917, two revolutions "happened" at once, in which the British intelligence gave money even more than the German General Staff, at the same time that form came in handy ...
                1. Zymran
                  Zymran 9 July 2016 09: 06
                  +1
                  Quote: Simpsonian
                  What else can you do? On the back, lying under the policeman, didn’t you try to crawl to the American embassy right after leaving the sealed yellow taxi? bully


                  Jackets so love to have fun?

                  Quote: Simpsonian
                  In 1917, two revolutions "happened" at once, in which the British intelligence gave money even more than the German General Staff, at the same time that form came in handy ...


                  Old hamsters are such hamsters ... Where are the facts about captured English weapons and military uniforms? No.
                  1. Simpsonian
                    Simpsonian 9 July 2016 16: 22
                    0
                    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_SjQAbnM3U

                    There are facts like the form itself - but of course we have never seen it.

                    By padded jacket did you mean what?
                    1. Zymran
                      Zymran 9 July 2016 21: 00
                      +1
                      There is no form of either facts or English weapons. They didn’t even find a single spy, although they tried.
                      1. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 10 July 2016 04: 44
                        0
                        Everything is a "road", the Red Army soldiers then walked in it ... Just as the advance of the Russians into the Central Asian steppes and deserts began after British officers were noticed near Orenburg leading the raids of the Khivans and those who joined them ...

                        Once again - by padded jacket did you mean who?
              2. The comment was deleted.
            2. kosta_cs
              kosta_cs 9 July 2016 07: 36
              +1
              Dear Simpsonian, in times of troubles, many are killed, both involved and innocent. You see only Russian women, old people and children, and you don't want to see the destruction of the local population. Ok, everyone is rooting for their team, as they say. In addition, in the North we did not have ethnic cleansing; there was mainly a war with regulars and Cossacks, since the metropolis was nearby and the troops from there were "like 2 fingers on the asphalt"
              Now
              Quote: Simpsonian
              about "fascism" and "WWII

              Amangeldy Imanov held out until the revolution and joined the Bolsheviks. My great-grandfather fought in the Civil War on the side of the Soviets. And after his sons, my grandfather's older brothers fought in the Second World War against the Nazis. One went through the whole war, was wounded, decorated and returned home, the second was considered missing for a long time, but 4 years ago, thanks to the guys from Memorial, we found documents about his fate (captivity and concentration camp in Majdanek). See pictures
              My grandfather did not fight, because at 41 he was 14 years old, but spent the whole war in the Labor Army, forged Victory in the rear, in 86, he and the Veteran of Labor were equated with a war veteran.

              Summary: no need to throw in shortcuts, the same story for different people looks different. Someone sees only the killings of the settlers and believes that the punitive actions were fair, someone sees the oppression and hopeless situation of the local population, which led to a social explosion, and then to harsh repressive measures.
              1. Simpsonian
                Simpsonian 9 July 2016 16: 31
                0
                Destruction of civilians by whom? Check?

                The one who fought for the Reds in the civilian fought against the Russians, and what your poet-national hero with a bunch of bandits did was not a war but just a massacre. For what, as a completely odious figure, he was later shot by Stalin.

                That is, a rebellion under the threat of being drafted into the tsarist "Trudarmia" and the subsequent massacre of the defenseless is good, but the war for Leiba Trotsky and then participation in his Trudarmies is also good? fool
      2. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 12 July 2016 11: 08
        0
        Quote: kosta_cs
        The attitude towards the Cossacks was much worse. About how to the Nazis in the Second World War. And there were reasons for that.

        I wonder which ones? I’m quite seriously speaking.
  10. nezvaniy_gost
    nezvaniy_gost 8 July 2016 12: 30
    +2
    IN PERCEPTION OF TURKESTANIANS, the settlers were strangers, invaders.


    But actually it certainly was not so.)))
    1. Simpsonian
      Simpsonian 8 July 2016 17: 40
      +1
      The author would write his scribbles better about Latin America, or revisit the film "Horde" once again.
  11. miru mir
    miru mir 8 July 2016 12: 44
    +2
    that is, hundreds of thousands of families losing their breadwinners, was the last straw for patience for local residents.
    And the families of Cossacks and Russians, whose men fought on the fronts, they mean they did not remain without breadwinners ?!
    1. kosta_cs
      kosta_cs 8 July 2016 13: 09
      +2
      Quote: miru mir
      And the families of Cossacks and Russians, whose men fought on the fronts, they mean they did not remain without breadwinners ?!

      The population of Central Asia did not identify themselves with RI. And the 1st World War for them was a completely foreign war. It’s about the same as if the French have now forcibly raked digging trenches in Mali.
      1. miru mir
        miru mir 8 July 2016 13: 22
        0
        So it seems that they themselves asked for Russian citizenship.
        1. marshes
          marshes 8 July 2016 13: 39
          +1
          Quote: miru mir
          So it seems that they themselves asked for Russian citizenship.

          Not all, western and northern and Kyrgyz, only the Sultan used to pester them there. Southern Kazakhs were on their own.
      2. ilyaros
        8 July 2016 13: 58
        0
        for many Central Asians, I think, World War I was like for us the war of the Tutsi and Hutu in Rwanda. There were many who wanted to go there?)) Maybe some kind of mercenaries for very good money and out of "love of art", but these are always single people ...
        1. King, just king
          King, just king 8 July 2016 17: 01
          +1
          Wishing ... So after all, they did not take into the army. THEM (basmachi and spirits), simply, were NOT drafted into the army.
  12. Serg65
    Serg65 8 July 2016 14: 14
    +7
    I read komenty how simple it is! You are bastards, no, you are bastards - which is even easier!
    In fact, Central Asia of the second half of the 19 century was a very twisted knot of interests of England, China and Russia. The accession of Turkestan to Russia was a political factor and by no means an economic one. The debit loan from expenses and incomes converged only in the 1906 year. Statements by some participants in the discussion that the Russian colonialists robbed the local population to the left and to the right, to put it mildly incorrect! The first Russian settlers were given 30 tithes of land per owner, while the local settlers were given 60 tithes per cab. At the same time, manpas and bais began to lease their ancestral lands to the same Russians for rent and took the money away, as a result, poor relatives were left with nothing. The Russian peasant paid 30 rubles of tax per year, the nomad was exempted from the tax for three years, subsequently the tax was 7 rubles + manap fees for that, bribes, case of manap cattle, etc. Acceptance of citizenship of another state entails the implementation of laws and the structure of the social system, right?
    1. Semurg
      Semurg 8 July 2016 15: 20
      +6
      Quote: Serg65
      I read komenty how simple it is! You are bastards, no, you are bastards - which is even easier!
      Acceptance of citizenship of another state entails the implementation of laws and the structure of the social system, right?

      That you just noticed. and it must be added that this rule applies to all, without exception, that in the 20th century that at 21. And the construction of cities, hospitals with the enjoyment of culture and education does not entail exemption from the laws and social systems of the states where you decide to live.
  13. miru mir
    miru mir 8 July 2016 18: 04
    +1
    Recently, someone intensively raises this topic in Kyrgyzstan. Urkunis an occasion to light CA. And few people get into the reasons ...
    1. Zymran
      Zymran 8 July 2016 18: 13
      +1
      Just 100 years from the day of the event
      1. miru mir
        miru mir 8 July 2016 18: 27
        +2
        Only for some reason only the topic of the death of the Kyrgyz people on the passes is raised, and the death of the Cossack and Russian women and children at the hands of these very Kyrgyz people is silent ...
        1. marshes
          marshes 8 July 2016 18: 42
          +1
          Quote: miru mir
          , and the death of Cossack and Russian women and children at the hands of these very Kyrgyz is silent ...

          Sholom, and what among the Cossacks and the Jews met? Do you need a purely Jewish question?
          1. miru mir
            miru mir 8 July 2016 18: 47
            +1
            Alehem. As for the Jews in the Cossacks, not in the know. Why would a Kazakh ask a purely Jewish question? laughing
            1. marshes
              marshes 8 July 2016 19: 06
              +1
              Quote: miru mir
              As for the Jews in the Cossacks, not in the know.

              Perhaps, judging by the play something about Odessa, the son served somewhere with the main son. This is from the Odessa Tales by Isaac Babel.
              Quote: miru mir
              Why would a Kazakh ask a purely Jewish question?

              Purely out of self interest. laughing
              1. miru mir
                miru mir 8 July 2016 21: 46
                0
                I didn’t read Babel. Everything is possible laughing
                1. marshes
                  marshes 8 July 2016 21: 58
                  +1
                  Quote: miru mir
                  I didn’t read Babel. Everything is possible

                  What’s under your 40s, my brother-in-law’s mother flew in for the summer, there is murderous humidity in Ashdot from the Mediterranean. In the winter and in Eilat ... Don’t be byaky, do visa-free. Who doesn’t like to refuse at the airport.
                  1. miru mir
                    miru mir 8 July 2016 22: 09
                    +1
                    Hot, there is such a thing. Is it difficult to straighten out a visa or something?
                    1. marshes
                      marshes 8 July 2016 22: 35
                      +1
                      Quote: miru mir
                      . Is it difficult to straighten out a visa or something?

                      no, purely from the principle, they’ve made yours for six months for investment attractiveness.
                      I’m planning this winter myself. We have a problem in our family, we can’t tolerate winter if we didn’t fly south in the winter. EGYPT, the United Arab Emirates, India, Thailand and China already came from Australia three years ago through Turkey to Irusalim for a day refused ... Although Australia N. Zelandia had an open visa to Germany. They didn’t explain, maybe there were a number of Middle Eastern countries and Africa in the passport. Now it’s new, 10 years old, abroad.
                      1. miru mir
                        miru mir 8 July 2016 22: 44
                        +1
                        Hehehe, what principal laughing In winter, there is nothing to do on the Red Sea. Go to the Dead. And in two weeks I’ll go diving in Eilat ...
                      2. marshes
                        marshes 8 July 2016 23: 03
                        +1
                        Quote: miru mir
                        . Go to the Dead.

                        Yes, damn it, there are no problems with supporting and skin.
                        Girls, nephews, had a great time coming off for the May holidays, so I had to force them to remove part of the photos from the social networks. It was hard for me to force me to go to sea for a year. laughing Only a photo with a blue I'm in touch. laughing Though not a "seal". Problems at work and plus finances, at the moment there are already four, if that.
                        Quote: miru mir
                        And in two weeks I’ll go diving in Eilat ..

                        For I see, as a last resort, I dived for amphoras in Turkey. laughing
                      3. miru mir
                        miru mir 8 July 2016 23: 10
                        +1
                        And what does the problem have to do with it. It’s cool there in winter. Every year I go there every winter, relax there, quiet and grace ...
                      4. marshes
                        marshes 8 July 2016 23: 29
                        +1
                        Quote: miru mir
                        And what does the problem have to do with it.

                        With mud, there is no reason to smear, if something is in the CIM, the center of the center. medicine. The teeth, stomach and back were cured.
                        Quote: miru mir
                        Every year I go there every winter, relax there, quiet and grace ...

                        Well, I'll try, somehow. Now in the brain is Talavi laughing Ashdot, Irushalim and Eilat. They recommended that I rent a car, if anything. and from North to South.
                        In short, if anything, I’ll study you. laughing the eldest niece on demolition, will go to the woman. Well, this is closer to October.
                        There is a desire to stay here and there for half a year. But I earn money here. How it goes.
    2. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 12 July 2016 11: 22
      +1
      Quote: marshes
      and what among the Cossacks and Jews met?

      It is strange that the Israeli comrades are not in the know. But there was (well, there is, although very few) such a kind of Judaism as karaism. So, Karaite Jews served very well in the army of the Russian Empire and other states from ancient times.
      1. miru mir
        miru mir 12 July 2016 11: 37
        0
        Does literature on this issue exist? It would be interesting to read hi
  • Kotyara Fat
    Kotyara Fat 8 July 2016 20: 46
    0
    Sometimes, reading about the national question in the Republic of Ingushetia at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, I ask myself, Which side did the last Romanov play on? Where he just did not shit! Finns, and those got it. The completely loyal peoples of Central Asia brought to the uprising ... It is just right to recall Lavrov-DB! And the internal politics of the Empire? The surplus then with whom they launched? And the situation, excuse me, the proletariat? No, dear, in a strong state, the Bolsheviks do not start with the Social Revolutionaries. You can, of course, say, What about the king? And with everything! With all the cap, the sailor broke his finger, the cap is to blame, he ran aground, too! So it is in the country! Ministers - why the hell did he keep it? Generals are fools - why not set aside? The shells were over, where did I look, why didn’t I control? And to clean snow or chop wood and the janitor can! It is necessary to WORK continuously! Everyday! The country is huge. Then there will be no revolutions!
    1. marshes
      marshes 8 July 2016 20: 54
      +1
      Quote: Kotyara Bold
      - On which side did the last Romanov play? G

      What kind of blood was there, German. By searching, there is a photo where the emperor, emperor and emperor. Russia, Great Britain and Germany, and they are relatives to each other. And the Russian peasant or someone else, died for their Wishlist.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • King, just king
    King, just king 8 July 2016 21: 50
    0


    Bro! Nicolas and Zhorzhik!
    1. marshes
      marshes 8 July 2016 22: 15
      +1
      Quote: King, just king
      Bro! Nicolas and Zhorzhik!

      There are even cooler, there in three, but the faces are the same. The Germans .... laughing
      and there are people who believe in power from God, how many people they grind ...
      1. The comment was deleted.
  • Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 8 July 2016 22: 37
    0
    It is difficult to find, for the author, a worthy epithet (nasty ji? laughing )! wassat
    interest-place-goal-time
  • Cosmonaut
    Cosmonaut 8 July 2016 22: 48
    0
    Quote: marshes
    Quote: Kotyara Bold
    - On which side did the last Romanov play? G

    What kind of blood was there, German. By searching, there is a photo where the emperor, emperor and emperor. Russia, Great Britain and Germany, and they are relatives to each other. And the Russian peasant or someone else, died for their Wishlist.

    Without going into the genealogy of the above, the Russian peasant and his good neighbors lived well, until all sorts of plumes climbed !!! "Everything is transient, but music is eternal!" (C) Maestro
    1. marshes
      marshes 8 July 2016 23: 06
      +1
      Quote: Cosmonaut
      Russian peasant and his good neighbors lived well, until all sorts of plumes climbed !!! "

      What did 1914 give up? The redistribution of markets, so RI didn’t give up, didn’t have anything, and it fell apart.
  • Faust
    Faust 9 July 2016 00: 01
    +1
    Quote: Kotyara Bold
    The surplus then with whom they launched?


    Under the interim government.

    With all the cap, the sailor broke his finger on the ship, the cap is to blame ...


    You have reasoning at the kindergarten level. There is an article about self-mutilation in combat conditions, from a gold coin to execution. If the cap is kind, it will allow you to serve further with a broken finger.
  • Nursultan
    Nursultan 9 July 2016 04: 57
    +4
    Comrades !! The article is thought out and objective !! Both sides are to blame, and the intelligence of Turkey and Germany worked! This is a war, they succeeded !! But do not forget that during the Patriotic War !! Yes, and for us it was and will remain Patriotic !! Every second from the male population of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan went to the front, and voluntarily !! Because there was an ideology, there was equal socialization and a fair state (this is a different issue). EVEN THERE WAS NO HINT TO GO OR DO NOT GO!
    EVERYTHING WILL RETURN TO ITS CIRCLES !!!
    WE WILL BE ONE !! And when we are ONE WE ARE UNBEATABLE !!!!!
    1. King, just king
      King, just king 9 July 2016 10: 19
      -2
      "WE WILL BE ONE !! And when we are ONE WE ARE INVINCIBLE !!!!!"

      Are they united? Yeah. "Russians don't leave, we need slaves" ...
      It was? - It was. That's when we Russians forget how you Kyrgyz-Tajiks-Uzbeks with the heads of Russians (Slavs) played football in the 90s, then we will be united. NEVER!!!!!!!!!!!! Napalm would be to you, but the rotten Pyano-Jewish (not Jewish, but Jewish) in power was.
      1. miru mir
        miru mir 9 July 2016 12: 12
        +2
        In Kyrgyzstan in the 90x Russian goals were not cut ...
      2. Drummer
        Drummer 9 July 2016 17: 44
        +1
        With the heads of the Slavs in football ... I’m crying. It is stronger than a crucified boy in panties of pearls.
        1. King, just king
          King, just king 9 July 2016 20: 01
          +1
          Nothing, cry. We, the Slavs, will win back ... no, so our children.
        2. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 12 July 2016 11: 32
          0
          Quote: Drummer
          The heads of the Slavs in football.

          Can you refute this?

          Read again what is written - the author is absolutely accurate.
          They launched a real terror against the peaceful Russian-speaking population, killing and raping women, children and the elderly. Young girls and women, as a rule, were preferred to be stolen - to be turned into slave-concubines in the villages. The atrocities committed by the rebels against the Russian and Cossack population were indescribable.
  • Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 17 July 2016 12: 52
    +1
    The article shows very clearly that tsarist Russia was a prison of peoples. And only the national policy of Lenin - Stalin allowed the creation of a world state uniting all these peoples.
  • Timur Abramov
    Timur Abramov 24 November 2016 23: 28
    0
    And all because of the stupidity of Nicholas II. I read for a long time how the Governor General sent reports to Petersburg that the level of banditry had increased, riots were planned, and silence from St. Petersburg in response. The tsarist government did not react, even when the uprising had already begun. Nicholas II reacted only when several tens of thousands of Slavs had already been slaughtered.
  • otto9966
    otto9966 19 August 2019 12: 29
    0
    Good day to all. I will give the reasons for the uprising and some statistics on the Turkestan Territory for 1916 about which the author either preferred to remain silent, or only mentioned from afar:

    1. One of the main taxes levied on a Kyrgyz cattle breeder was the so-called “kibitochny lodge”. From 1913 - 1916 this tax increased 15 times ......

    2. The landlessness of the Kyrgyz in Semirechye due to the seizure of their land by Russian immigrants. So, by 1916, 6% of the Russian population in the Semirechensk region occupied 57,7% of the lands suitable for cultivation, and 94% of the local population occupied 42,3%. An average of 3,17 dessiatins per Russian peasant in Turkestan, and only 0,21 dessiatines per indigenous person, i.e. 17 times less.
    17 times less ... 17 times ... 17 times more land received by Russian immigrants than every local ...
    Someone else wants to justify the royal power ....?

    3. The author gave an example of the defenselessness of the migrants here, and so I will give the data - before the 1916 uprising, 43% of the peasant migrants had rifled firearms transferred to them by the local authorities. The question is for what ....?

    4. I especially want to note the fact that the Muslim population of Central Asia, who were citizens of the empire and served by the Russian emperor, was not intentionally called up for military service in the army (due to the fact that only Orthodox can serve in the army), who were considered Gentiles and foreigners, that is, people of the second varieties. The tsarist government did not come up with anything else how to simply oppose Russian immigrants to the indigenous Muslim population ...

    5. The last straw was the call for rear services - what the authorities expected from the peoples in respect of which the tsarist power criminally massively takes away the land and gives it to "its own". Divides citizens into whites and foreigners, outright chauvinism ... Strangles with taxes and extortions. Denies the right to serve in the army.

    Here is what the Russian eyewitness writes about the atrocities of punishers -
    "August 13, 1916 mass murder of Kyrgyz in the village of Belovodskoe, Pishpek district, Semirechensk region
    V. D. Leonsky “Autonomous city of Belovodsk. From father’s diaries. ”
    “... So the Russian Belovodsk inhabitants drove the Kyrgyz for two days and all concentrated them in the same room. In total, about six hundred people were arrested by the Kyrgyz. The guardhouse was very small, which could fit no more than 40-50 people standing or sitting close to each other, the rest of the arrested were sitting here on the threshold of the guardhouse on the ground. Unarmed people were killed like cattle several .... 600 people in a few hours, a bloody conveyor ....
    After the end of the execution, the volost authorities realized that they acted illegally and decided to hide the ends. Now they were sent to all ends of the tithes for carts and for workers with shovels. Hastily began the removal of the bodies of the dead. They loaded the carts, however horrible, and as much as the strength to take the horses. So the corpses drove all night. The corpses were taken out and also thrown, as it were, into the deep moat of the former fortress. The moat was four kilometers from the scene, and from Kushnerivskaya Street with half a kilometer. The corpses were bombarded with a thin layer of earth, as a result of which predatory animals fed on them.
    Subsequently, the deputy governor of Turkestan, Folbaum, allegedly came to investigate the incident in Belovodsk. The volost leadership was summoned to Pishpek, and this was the end of the matter. So 600 people died without a trace and, in my opinion, no less than 90% of innocent people. Without a trace - I think because they were not even rewritten by the names of where they came from. When they were buried, only their relatives and friends knew about it. To restore their names and subsequently no one tried, was not interested, both the heads of the volost and the population of Belovodsk tried to forget this shameful fact ... ”
  • otto9966
    otto9966 19 August 2019 12: 48
    0
    Author, you need to call a spade a spade ... Not volunteers, but only a few exceptions were called up to the army from Central Asia ... For the reason that only the Orthodox could serve in the army. The rest were people of the 2nd grade ..... Only the Tekin Cossack Regiment received the right to participate in the 1st World War. A drop in the sea...