Military Review

“White” and “colored” armor ... (part one)

Until now, we mainly talked about the combat properties of medieval knightly armor and only casually talked about their artistic decoration. It is time to pay attention to their aesthetics and, above all, their color. For example, “white” knight armor was called if it was made of armor from pieces of polished steel, which made them look “white” from afar. The knighthood of Europe went to this type of armor for a very long time, but their appearance marked a real revolution in military affairs. But the main reason that brought them to life was, first of all, the lack of a tradition of horseback archery.

“White” and “colored” armor ... (part one)

The easiest way to finish gothic armor was to decorate strips of cut-through copper or brass with the edges of each piece. Such scalloped strips were fairly simple to manufacture, weighed a little, but gave the armor an elegant and elegant look.

That is why the knights didn’t need high mobility in the region of the neck and shoulder girdle, which is why, in the foreground, they had exactly security, not mobility. But in the East, where the bow all the time was the main weapons the rider, chain-lamellar armor and open-faced helmets continued to work for a very long time. Moreover, this weapon is very different from the new armor of soldiers of Western Europe.

A 16th century Turkish rider's armor from the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul. As you can see, his armament differed from Western Europe only in that it gave him the opportunity to shoot a bow. It was convenient to decorate small plates by tapping.

K. Blair, a well-known British historian and gun expert, called the time from 1410 and by 1500 the year “a great period in stories knightly protective weapons ", because he believed that although the armor of the very high quality was made by the gunsmiths and later, nevertheless, they never again combined such high craftsmanship in their products with an understanding of the material with which they now mostly worked . Jewelry in the armor of this era played a minor role, and the master focused on perfecting their form, and as a result, people in this armor were justly called "steel sculptures". Later, on the contrary, the decoration passed any measure.

Well, it all started with the fact that the 11th century gunsmiths learned how to forge helmets from sheet metal. Prior to this, helmets were segmented, although in the East this technique has been skillfully used for many centuries. To do this, a sheet of iron of the desired thickness in the form of a disk was red-hot and was given a cup-shaped form with blows of a hammer, and only then it was treated completely with a hammer, chisel and files. Later, helmets began to be stamped altogether, which increased their durability, cheapened production and allowed for uniformity. Already in the 16th century, skullcap masters reached such a level of perfection that by the end of this century, or more precisely by the 1580 year, they could forge not only the parietal helmet, but the crest up to 12, from a single sheet of metal, see that for manual work, this is a fantastic result. Also at the beginning of the 11th century, Italian blacksmiths learned how to craft round metal embossed rondash shields from one sheet of metal, only this indicates not so much their craftsmanship as about the fact that at that time the dimensions of the iron products being processed did not matter much. In any case, it is known that in the 12th century the city of Pavia was famous for the production of one-piece helmets.

Siege helmet covered with engraved ornaments. Italy, approx. 1625. Metropolitan Museum, New York.

In this regard, such English historians as David Edge and John Padok came to the conclusion that by the middle of the 15th century, two centers (and two different schools) were formed, producing all-metal armor: the first in northern Italy, in Milan, and the second - in the north of Germany, in Augsburg. Of course, there were many different local productions that focused on one or the other of these centers, and copied popular samples.

Tombstone brass plate (breaststroke) by William Bagot and his wife Margaret. Church of sv. John, Baginton, Warwickshire, 1407. As you can see, on the deceased there is typically “transitional” knightly armor - there are plate details, but the torso closes the short heraldic Jupon, so you cannot see what is under it. But the chainmail barmitsa on the helmet is perfectly visible.

Such a famous British historian, as D. Nicole, in his work “The French Army in the Hundred Years War” cited an excerpt from an essay by the unknown author of the book “Military Costumes of the French in 1446”, which gives the following description of the equipment of those years. “First of all ... in preparation for the battle, they wore full white armor. In short, they consisted of a cuirass, shoulder pads, large braces, armor for the legs, military gauntlets, a salad with a visor and a small chin that covered only the chin. Each warrior was armed with a spear and a long light sword, a sharp dagger suspended to the left of the saddle, and a mace. ”

Typical knight in gothic armor. 1480 - 1490 Ingoldstadt, Germany, Bavarian Military Museum.

It's funny, but in England at that time they didn’t feel their inferiority at all because they didn’t do their armor. The lack of production, we can say, was simply noticed, since both the most notable of the British lords and the gentry — the gentry then ordered armor on the continent. For example, the effect of Sir Richard Byuchamp, Earl Warwick, referring to 1453, shows him in the Italian "armor" of the most "latest model".

Chainmail from flat riveted rings.

Chainmail from flat, perforated and round riveted rings.

Beginning with the early Middle Ages, among the gunsmiths, armourists occupied a very important place. Although the chain armor was still worn by Roman legionnaires, the production of this type of armor in Western Europe, in fact, was created anew. The rings for chain mail at that time were made of forged, flattened wire, the rings of which were joined by cold riveting. In the later chain mails of the 14th and 15th centuries, one of the rings was already soldered, and the other was riveted, and it was for this reason that they were distinguished. Later all the rings just riveted. The historian Vendalen Beheim, for example, indicates that the drawn wire was not even used for making rings even in the 16th century. Well, in the 1570's, the chain mail has finally ceased to be used, and this once highly respected craft has disappeared forever. That is, it did not disappear at all, but the former mass character was gone forever.

Ring cloth of round riveted rings with a diameter of 7 mm.

Chainmail from flat riveted blued rings.

Since we are talking about the "colors" of armor, it should be noted that the chain mail gleamed "like ice", that is, they also had the appearance of "white metal", but not everywhere. In the East, it was customary to weave copper rings in them and thus create intricate patterns in chain mail. It is difficult to say how much it reduced their strength, but it was so, and such chain mail reached our time and were also known in Russia, where the “Pansyrs of chain mail with a copper valance” were mentioned. Known were also chain mail of blued rings.

And it was just the abandonment of the chain mail that led to the search for more advanced forms of protective armor, which came in the first half of the 15th century. It all began again with the improvement of protection for the head, that is, with helmets. A helmet appeared, called the salle, sallet or salad (which is more usual for Russian-language spelling), which was especially popular with the gunsmiths of Germany.

Sarcophagus with the grave effect of the Spanish knight Don Alvaro de Cabrero the Younger from the church of Santa Maria de Belpuig de las Avellanas in Lleida, Catalonia. The knight's neck is protected by a stand-up metal collar-burner, and his legs are already protected by armor. It is also obvious that under his clothes metal plates are riveted, which give out the heads of rivets. Unfortunately, he doesn’t have a helmet on his head, and how he looked is unknown. Mid 14th century

D. Edge and D. Paddock called the year - 1407, when it appeared, and not just anywhere, but in Italy, where it was called Selata. And only then through France, Burgundy, did he get to 1420 from Germany, then to England, and after that he became very popular in Europe everywhere.

Typical German sallet: weight 1950 g .; the weight of the precursor of bevor 850 g. Both items are novelties: the price of sallet is $ 1550, the bevore is $ 680.

Germanic helmets had a nazatylnik in the shape of an elongated tail; among the French and Italians, they more resembled the bell. And again, they both had no decorations. Their main "decoration" was the polished steel itself. Only about 1490 of the year did the so-called “black fat” become known, with foreheader, which came forward at an acute angle. But they called him black because of their color (for some reason they were painted black or was it blackened?), Although such helmets were often covered with colored fabrics. As a "color helmet" visually combined with brilliant "white armor", the story is silent. But "mods" who wore "such" existed. Moreover, horseback warriors of ignoble origin used helmets of this type, for example, horse archers used by the French, and not too rich and noble "knights of one shield", and even ... the infantrymen-infantrymen.

The simplest Italian salle, 1450 - 1470's. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, USA.

This is exactly the “black sallet”, and the knight’s, with a rising visor. Germany or Austria, 1505 - 1510 Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, USA.

Another black sallet, about. 1490 - 1500 The so-called "salm from Ulm", and not at all black, and incomprehensible as combined with "white armor." South Germany, Historical Museum, Vienna.

The story of a helmet bascinet or “bundhugel” (“dog's helmet”) is very funny. At first it was just a cheap cap comforter, similar to a tophelm bucket. Then he began to stretch upward and at the same time sink to the neck and temples.

Bascinet and visor to him, possibly France, approx. 1390 - 1400 Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, USA.

The bascinet of the 14th century, replica. 1.6 mm steel. Royal Arsenal in Leeds, England.

For comparison, the Germanic bascinet from the Metropolitan Museum in New York. Everything is simple, functional and no decorations!

It remained to attach to him the visor, which in the end was done in the same XIV century. And the visitor not only rose, but was removed from it entirely. For its characteristic shape, the helmet was called the “dog muzzle”, primarily in Germany. It was very functional and came in a period when the armor was still not decorated. Therefore, its main decoration was polished, although, according to Henrik Senkevich’s novel “The Crusaders”, the German knights were fastened to these helmets by magnificent peacock-sultans of feathers.

A shot from the film "Crusaders". As you can see, helmets on knights look like real ones, but otherwise this is pure fiction! Poles were too lazy to sew "caps" and to knit also chain mail headdresses and barmitsa. And besides, plastic is immediately visible! Breastplates and helmets - typical dyed polystyrene!

Here in the 2005 movie of the year “Joan of Arc” directed by Luc Besson, the armor is basically the same as it should be, and the helmets are worn on the head with balaclava.

By the way, in this 1960 movie of the year you can see that the armor of knights is reproduced outwardly and reliably, but very much too primitive. And the most amazing thing is that the helmets of the knights in it are worn on the head without a chainmail hood and a barmitsa loose on their shoulders. But, judging by the effigy, the latter could even be worn with solid-forged "white armor" just in the 1410 year, and ... you can imagine how vulnerable such protection was for the "all-metal knight." That is why, by the way, the same bascinet soon turned into a “big bascinet”, which differed from the usual only in that when with a “dog muzzle”, instead of a chainmail mailweaver, our necklace of metal plates was attached, which was attached with straps to the cuirass!

"Big bascinet" from the Army Museum in Paris. OK. 1400 - 1420

The most perfect in this regard was the helmet of the arm, which also appeared around the same time, and which had a rising visor and ... a very complex system of connecting all its parts into a single whole. But these helmets had already been decorated with embossing and often resembled anything, not only the helmet itself, but the form in this case has only an indirect relation to the “color”.

Exceptionally lush armor of George Clifford, the third Earl of Cumberland (1558 - 1605). Here you can’t even name all the finishing technologies! Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Another thing is that in very purely metal armor it was not fashionable to walk very quickly and, apparently, even indecently - the situation repeated with respect to all-12th-century armor that wrapped the figure of a warrior like a glove. But now both armor and, in particular, helmets began to be covered with expensive fabrics, often embroidered with gold threads and even decorated with precious stones.

(To be continued)
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  1. quolta
    quolta 13 July 2016 06: 04
    1. yegor_k
      yegor_k 13 July 2016 08: 21
      It will be informative if you find out when the first rolling mills appeared ....

      And so the rzhaka - "Well, it all began with the fact that the XNUMXth century gunsmiths learned to forge helmets from a metal sheet" From a sheet of metal! Where did they get it in their eleventh century ???
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 13 July 2016 09: 26
        Where, where, forged, where else? And you can manually forge a sheet if you didn’t know, without a rolling mill, for example anatomical cuirasses of Spartan hoplites, there were no rolling mills, and there were full-fledged cuirasses of two sheets of metal.
        1. Chiropractor
          Chiropractor 13 July 2016 14: 27
          Quote: cth; fyn
          without a rolling mill, for example anatomical cuirasses of Spartan hoplites, there were no rolling mills, and there were full-fledged cuirasses from two sheets of metal.

          That is generally an unobvious thing.
          You are replacing cause and effect. Deduction and induction.
          No mills - no rolled metal - no cuirass.
          There are cuirasses - there is a rolling metal - there is a rolling mill.
          1. cth; fyn
            cth; fyn 13 July 2016 15: 43
            I just showed that without it it is possible to produce large plates, using an example. Bronze is not steel, but the lorika of the segment was also made without a rolling mill, and it is certainly made of steel. And how to ignore medieval armor from large plates that appeared before the rolling mill? We just can’t ignore them, and if the mill was not there, the plates were forged, well, or with the help of alien technologies like on RenTV ;-)
      2. Kenneth
        Kenneth 13 July 2016 09: 33
        An article about the history of armor and not the history of metallurgy
        1. Chiropractor
          Chiropractor 13 July 2016 14: 19
          Quote: Kenneth
          An article about the history of armor and not the history of metallurgy

          Well, very vain. For a long time I have been struggling for knowledge to be given in a complex, interconnected manner.
          For example, in vain they divided physics with chemistry and their history. In vain did they share the general history and the history of the economy - the reasons for the hatred of the British towards RI in the light of food exports would be understandable.

          Well, it’s completely in vain that the history of metallurgy is taught in physics for two lessons.
          Call me anyone - at least a Fomenoid, at least someone else (although I do not share Fomenko’s beliefs), but forging iron rectangular sheets for a blacksmith is not convenient !!! It is convenient for logistics - transportation and storage. So, there were already technological ties and competition between iron producers.
          But what kind of competition, if there was only screaming iron before the beginning of the 19th century ??? !!
          You will receive a piece of crippled iron from which you can forge a knife, or an hatchet, or part of the armor - maximum! That’s why armor was expensive - wherever you find iron, find it - not everyone will melt it, but not everybody will melt it. Let me remind you that in Europe a blacksmith was considered to be Satan's assistant, and they did not kill him just because without him there would be no one to forge a plow and harrow. The miller has a similar story, by the way.

          And about stamping in the 12th century - this is generally no way. Ask the numismatists - when did they start stamping the coin? Do not mint, namely stamping? And a coin is more valuable than a piece of iron.

          By the way, in the blacksmith circles "the phenomenon of the disappearance of anvils" has long been revealed - there is no anvil older than three centuries. Nowhere. Therefore, the question arose - was there a boy? The anvil is about 5 years old. Here the deposits should remain, right?
          And from what forge? You cannot make rail out of critical iron.

          So if they ask me about the armor of hoplite, then I am inclined to think that it was made simultaneously with the armor of Maximillian. When exactly - it is up to you to decide, each of you has its own chronology.
          But the history of ancient Greece in technology largely coincides with the Renaissance. And for sexual licentiousness. And the development of the fleet. And the phalanxes of the Swiss infantry look like.
          1. Kenneth
            Kenneth 13 July 2016 14: 48
            After your statement that until the beginning of the 19th century there was only screaming iron, you can safely be called a science fiction and your other text should not be considered.
            1. yegor_k
              yegor_k 15 July 2016 09: 59
              Still, I suggest that you familiarize yourself, do not take anything on faith, check the facts.
        2. yegor_k
          yegor_k 15 July 2016 09: 55
          Unfortunately, history is written by historians, and the history of a particular industry is written by engineers. Historians are illiterate, so they do not care what this iron hat is made of - black steel or copper, and by what technology.
      3. gaura
        gaura 13 July 2016 10: 11
        Well, and where to go from knowledgeable people who say that everything about history is lying to them. After all, we were not there, how do we know ..
        1. Chiropractor
          Chiropractor 13 July 2016 14: 42
          I invite you to the forge.
          Dame forge a nail.
          4-sided, as round in cross section you will not succeed.
          Dame to take with me.
          You will glance at him and occasionally indulge in the joys of analysis.
          1. Kenneth
            Kenneth 13 July 2016 15: 17
            It is amazing how a person who knows how to harness a horse and ride it a hundred meters is ready to consider himself a coryphaeus in the history of horse breeding, veterinary medicine and the tactics of Scythian cavalry.
      4. Cat
        Cat 13 July 2016 20: 31
        Kirichny production. Almost all the first factories in the Urals made sheets of iron with the help of a "kiritsa" hammer, which was set in motion by water from dams.
        Previously, the hammers were knocked out of the blank on the anvil. The most ancient images and figures date back to 280 - 220 BC.
        And you are about the XNUMXth century, not serious.
  2. EvgNik
    EvgNik 13 July 2016 06: 45
    I would not want to wear such a "suit". And the photos, as always, are excellent.
    1. Imperialkolorad
      Imperialkolorad 13 July 2016 07: 07
      Quote: EvgNik

      I would not want to wear such a "suit". And the photos, as always, are excellent.

      Here you want to live from the category - not so heated.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 13 July 2016 07: 57
    Here in the 2005 movie of the year “Joan of Arc” directed by Luc Besson, the armor is basically the same as it should be, and the helmets are worn on the head with balaclava...Therefore the film looks like .. "The Crusaders" .. I watched .. but somehow I felt some kind of fake, but the film is exciting .. like the books of H. Senkevich .. Thank you, Vyacheslav ... we are waiting for the continuation ..
    1. kalibr
      13 July 2016 17: 33
      When I looked at the boy, I immediately made myself the same helmet from papier-mâché. And ... personally made sure that the neck is bare. I didn’t understand then that bluffing ...
  4. Knizhnik
    Knizhnik 13 July 2016 08: 16
    Polished smoothness is necessary for slipping on impact, this is obvious. Regardless of whether it is an arrow that has already become a parable in the languages ​​of a horse archer, or on foot, or a sword, spear, etc.
    If a respected author became more familiar with production technology, many questions would disappear by themselves. It would be worth remembering about corrosion protection, for this a coating was needed. From this point of view, the content of steel armor polished to a mirror shine in the field became a big problem.
    1. Kombrig
      Kombrig 13 July 2016 08: 43
      Quote: Knizhnik
      It would be worth remembering about corrosion protection, for this a coating was needed. From this point of view, the content of steel armor polished to a mirror shine in the field became a big problem.

      This can be a problem only for modern reenactors, where the owner of the armor himself brings it into proper shape, but when you have a dozen or so "gnomes" under your command, keeping the armor shining and fragrant ceases to be a problem))), about the fact that blows slide off better from polished armor ..... look at the armor of reenactors after a buhurt that is polished, that all the armor is painted in dents.
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 13 July 2016 09: 30
        Often, and not only armor, by the way.
      2. Knizhnik
        Knizhnik 13 July 2016 10: 03
        Dents can not be avoided, no matter how polished laughing
        And dozens of gnomes are not just plain armor, not every knight could afford not only on a military campaign, but even at home.
    2. Parsec
      Parsec 13 July 2016 14: 23
      Quote: Knizhnik
      From this point of view, the content of steel armor polished to a mirror shine in the field became a big problem.

      Polishing is just one of the corrosion protection methods.
      1. Knizhnik
        Knizhnik 13 July 2016 14: 52
        Of course. When there is an opportunity. But in order for the product to have some kind of primary stability, burnishing, paint coating, etc. were used.
    3. kalibr
      13 July 2016 17: 36
      I only do that since 1995 of the year I get acquainted with technologies, metallography, analysis results and other rubbish. Everything that English-speaking historians and experts in the field of weapons have written about it I have.
    4. Svidetel 45
      Svidetel 45 13 July 2016 22: 24
      By the way, the polished surface of the steel product is much better resistant to corrosion than not polished.
      1. ver_
        ver_ 14 July 2016 08: 49
        ..and what is the worse bluing? ..
        1. Kombrig
          Kombrig 3 August 2016 22: 39
          Quote: ver_
          ..and what is the worse bluing? ..

          It erases quickly ....
          1. Cat man null
            Cat man null 3 August 2016 22: 46
            Quote: Svidetel 45
            By the way, the polished surface of the steel product is much better resistant to corrosion than not polished

            Quote: ver_
            and what is worse about bluing? ..

            Quote: Kombrig
            Quote: ver_
            ..and what is the worse bluing? ..

            It erases quickly ...

            - and where did you start, if you look carefully?
            - so it turned out that bluing is erased quickly. And polishing "erases" slowly, it turns out laughing
            - if you remember that no one bothers polishing the part before you burn it, then you’ll get a break in the template belay
  5. Fei_Wong
    Fei_Wong 13 July 2016 09: 01
    Most of all, what amazed me and still does not get tired of amazing in human nature itself - this is how high peaks of skill can be achieved by a professional who knows and loves his job, despite the primitiveness of the tools and materials available to him. Indeed, even the age in which he lives is unimportant - and since the Stone Age, archaeologists have brought to us many masterpieces, which, simply remaining within the framework of those primitive technologies, is simply impossible even now (and even using modern methods and technologies is very difficult).
    Verily, patience and labor will grind everything.
    1. ver_
      ver_ 15 July 2016 02: 41
      ... there was an incentive. Like the Stradivarius violins ..
  6. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 13 July 2016 09: 32
    Is there a first picture in high resolution? It would be good wallpaper, but 800x500 is not the best for them
    1. kalibr
      13 July 2016 20: 58
      Alas, I do not. Only this one. And where did he get it, forgot to note ...
  7. saygon66
    saygon66 13 July 2016 11: 20
    - And how much did the armored personnel earn with our money?
    - The armor of the Earl of Cumberland is just "hi tech" ... If we take modern SIBZ, similar to the medieval ones in terms of security (given the weapons used), the price is simply prohibitive - not every armored personnel carrier costs so much ... smile
  8. Glaaki
    Glaaki 13 July 2016 13: 31
    Great article, extremely interesting photos, thanks for the work.
  9. Free wind
    Free wind 13 July 2016 14: 39
    Look at the armor of the Saracens, all the same, the chest is protected by armor rather than chain mail, chain mail is much easier to break out of the bow and really does not hold thrashing hits very well, therefore chain mails were not so popular, and not because it was not fashionable to shoot from the bow. And the material for chain mail is cheaper.
    1. Svidetel 45
      Svidetel 45 13 July 2016 22: 46
      The reason for the greater popularity of chain mail in the East is the use of lighter weapons, in contrast to heavy straight swords in the West, such as sabers, and chain mail is less protected from less effective stabbing and chopping sabers.
  10. pepelaz
    pepelaz 13 July 2016 14: 44
    “White armor” is an all-plate armor made of polished steel, sparkling in the sun, and for some reason seemed “white” from a distance ...

    After such an author as a historian, it is difficult to take seriously.
    1. cth; fyn
      cth; fyn 13 July 2016 15: 54
      Edge, Padd, Blair aren't serious historians? Cheerfully, Shpakovsky wrote material on their basis and, therefore, accusing Him of bias, you accuse these venerable historians of world renown.
      1. kalibr
        13 July 2016 17: 46
        Yes, really, Andrey! You’ll open comments like that and don’t even understand whether they’re kidding you or seriously writing.
        "After such an author as a historian, it's hard to take it seriously." I have 80 percent of the material transferable, from pine to pine, as they say. And everywhere it is written that way. Open White armor on Google and it will be there too ... But nevertheless, we write, demonstrates, so to speak, our own mind and knowledge. And I don't mind, but check a little bit before ...
        1. pepelaz
          pepelaz 14 July 2016 18: 38
          "so called white armor" is not a historical term.
          There are a couple of references in semi-artistic works.

          "so called white armor" is a phenomenon that is being actively promoted in runet.

          With surprising perseverance, Russian-language sites are multiplying with a copy of the text for an article by Shpakovsky.

          Outraged by the attempt to define the phenomenon through a fulgar-literal perception.

          "White Armor - Any piece of white armor."
          Yes, but "white weapon" - any weapon of white color.
  11. Toyvo
    Toyvo 13 July 2016 14: 52
    Interesting article, thank you.
    In continuation:
    Distortion of history Part 1 Armor

    Distortion of history. Part 1.1. Armor.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 13 July 2016 20: 30
      Severely comrade printed. It is a pity that nonsense.
      1. kalibr
        13 July 2016 20: 55
        I have something with sound, it’s not coming, so I can’t listen.
  12. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 13 July 2016 15: 46
    Another wonderful material of respected Vyacheslav Olegovich! Many thanks to the author!
  13. Denimax
    Denimax 13 July 2016 15: 59
    Something is doubtful that fabrics on armor began to be worn because of fashion, some practicality is needed. Perhaps they began to do this in the Crusades. One can imagine how bare metal warms up under the scorching sun. By the way, chain mail was cleaned of rust in sand barrels, which were rotated with a collar. Such a prototype of a washing machine.)
    1. marshes
      marshes 13 July 2016 16: 22
      Quote: Denimax
      By the way, chain mail was cleaned of rust in sand barrels that were rotated with a collar. Such a prototype of a washing machine.)

      Here, one example was given that not only sand, sandblasting, but wooden "cubes".
      in life and now, a sand drum, on a K62 lathe, fasteners for a cable with fiber optic. Burrs were disposed of in this way and prepared for electroplating.
  14. marshes
    marshes 13 July 2016 16: 00
    A familiar blacksmith, now in work. Demand went to the knightly armor, yes on the ground floor, yes next to the fireplace laughing I heard from him that the Chinese are doing the same thing.
    the last work was his huge desk made of 10-16 mm steel, trimmed with beech and oak, these were my CNC blanks and green leather. The hiding place from the attackers. laughing Yes, some elements of the decor acid etched, rust.
    That's when a lot of money.
    And he saw what he had done before, the usual pipe, steel profile, etc., he would beat off the appearance of forging with a hammer.
    Although the master is not bad, about ten years ago he made one gate, forged with an element of forging. So his neighbor wanted to order something similar. The customer immediately, a forge, warned that it wouldn’t be pleasant to the neighbor that if that demolishes this gate.
  15. Mwg
    Mwg 13 July 2016 18: 42
    History .... damn ....
  16. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 13 July 2016 18: 47
    it would be interesting to know about antique armor in more detail yes ..a thanks for the article interesting
    1. kalibr
      13 July 2016 20: 52
      There was a series of articles about Rome and the Etruscans. About Greece is being prepared. A series of 2-3 articles will be launched in two weeks.
  17. Denimax
    Denimax 13 July 2016 22: 03
    "and also knit chain mail headbands and aventails."

    I remember this lack of inventory in films. The first time I saw chain mail in the film "Trees grow on the stones." And so all the time there were coarse bundles of wool, which resembled chain mail in their external structure.

    "or" Bundhugel "(" dog helmet ")". It doesn't look like a literal translation. There can be a Bund and a riot and a Hugel and a Kugel. Four different words: union, color, hill, ball. Nothing to do with the dog.)
    1. kalibr
      14 July 2016 08: 02
      It was because of a mistake in the translation of this word that the term knight-dogs was born. Marx originally meant the "knight-alliance". There was even a revolutionary Jewish organization Bund - "Union" with which the Bolsheviks collaborated. But ... they translated it like a dog, and that's how the knight-dogs were born with a reference to Marx himself!
  18. Vasily V
    Vasily V 15 July 2016 22: 18
    The cool thing is that there is no armor with impact damage. Or is it all ceremonial? In the Hermitage, in the "knight's hall", there is an exhibition of armor that Nicholas II ordered from German gunsmiths for the entourage. And where are the real, combat ones? Even in the photo of the armor shown in the article, they look like a remake of a different period.
  19. pooop
    pooop 9 August 2016 15: 59
    Author, shields separately, if possible. The article is good.