Widely known as the most closed

Israel’s special forces have gained a high reputation in the world, which is based on a long and successful experience of using special forces in constant armed struggle, which the Jewish state throughout stories its existence leads with its Arab neighbors and terrorists. Maximum information about the most secret divisions is collected in the forthcoming book of the Center for the Analysis of Strategies and Technologies “Between Peace and War: The Strength of Special Operations”.

The formation of the special forces in Israel began with the creation of the group of paratroopers "Tsankhanim" (a platoon, then a company staff, later deployed in the 890 paratrooper battalion) as part of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Infantry Brigade "Golani". In the 1 – 1951 years in the IDF there also existed a so-called 1952 subdivision (of company staff), focused on fighting Arab rebel and sabotage groups. In 30, under the leadership of Ariel Sharon, an 1953 subunit of up to 101 people, which is considered to be the first full-fledged Israeli special forces unit, was created specifically for holding armed actions outside of Israeli territory.

Widely known as the most closedSoon it was merged with the 890 Airborne Battalion, headed by Sharon. In 1956, together with the newly formed 88 territorial territorial parachute and 771 regional reserve battalions, the 890 served as the basis for the deployment of the 35 infantry brigade (actually parachuting, bearing the appropriate name Parachute). It was she who for a long time remained the basis of the special purpose units of the AOI.

From the end of the 50-x in the combined arms brigades of the Israeli army began the formation of reconnaissance ("Palsar"), which, although intended to solve the traditional tasks of military intelligence, in Israeli conditions also actually carried out sabotage and "raider" actions. The further development of these companies in the elite and most active IDF brigades (Parachute, Golani, Givati, Nahal) to the beginning of the 2000-s led to their evolution into special-purpose battalions (Gadsar). Several separate special purpose battalions were created. Some of them were combined into the 89 commando brigade "Oz", the creation of which was a stage in the development of the Israeli special forces.

In 1957, the Sayeret Matkal (General Staff Intelligence, also known as the 262 or 269th unit) unit of the special-purpose central command subordinate to the British SAS was created, focused on conducting reconnaissance and sabotage operations outside of Israel. Their special forces appeared in the Navy (13th flotilla) and the Air Force ("Shaldag" - "Kingfisher") of Israel.

After the major terrorist attacks of the beginning of 70-x, counterterrorist struggle became one of the main tasks of the special forces units in Israel.

Israeli special forces are divided into the so-called outer circle (“intervention forces”) - they include “Sayeret Matkal”, 13 fleet, YAMAM - elite units oriented to reconnaissance, sabotage and antiterrorist actions, including abroad, and "internal", which includes the "military" units of special purpose of the IDF, intended for reconnaissance and actions in the border and occupied territories.

Forces of the "outer circle"

"Sayeret Matkal"

This unit is under the direct authority of the IDF General Staff and is involved in the implementation of the most difficult tasks both abroad and inside Israel. Subordinate to the Chief of the Military Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff (AMAN).

The data on Sayeret Matkal are classified, but it is believed that the number of units does not exceed 200 people. All military personnel have parachute training and several military specialties. Presumably, the unit consists of a command section, three combat units, a special detachment for operations at sea (including as a swimmer) and a supply group.

It is alleged that the training of personnel in Sayeret Matkal is the most intensive among all parts of the Israeli special forces. The selection is initially carried out among volunteer recruits and training by special methods takes about two years. The first four months on the basis of the Parachute Brigade is a standard course of a young fighter, then three-week classes in a parachute school, then training directly at Sayeret Matkal for 18 – 19 months, which ends with a march of 120 kilometers, which is a kind initiation to get the red beret.

Upon completion of the course and testing, the fighter signs a contract for at least another year (in addition to the year of his regular service). Thus, getting into "Sayeret Matkal", a soldier serves four years instead of three years. However, almost everyone further extends the contract, so that the part is completely professional.

13 Flotilla

The 13 of the Israeli Navy flotilla (Xytum 13) is the oldest Israeli special forces formation. Along with submarine reconnaissance and sabotage operations, the main forms of application of the 13 fleet are the landing from the sea of ​​reconnaissance and sabotage groups, as well as the seizure of ships. Given the constant involvement of the flotilla (in recent decades) for operations in the Gaza Strip, it is believed that at present land operations prevail in the list of the main tasks of the activities of the unit.

The 13 fleet is divided into three specialized groups (“Plow”) of the company’s equivalent — the most numerous “raid” (“Plow of Khapotsim”) for ground and antiterrorist actions, surface actions (on boats), and combat swimmers. There is also a training squad. Flotilla is deployed on the naval base "Atlit" near Haifa.

The recruitment and training of 13 fleet personnel is similar to the Sayeret Matkal - volunteers are also selected among draftees. Their training includes a six-month infantry course based on the Nahal Brigade, a three-week parachute school course, a three-month preparatory special-purpose course (with emphasis on sea training and swimming), and a monthly diving training course, followed by a basic 12 – 13 month-month training course directly in the 13 fleet. Here they are already distributed in specialties and in three specialized groups of the flotilla. After that, a contract is concluded with a fighter of one and a half years (in addition to the main three-year term of fixed-term service). Thus, the initial service life of a fighter in a unit is 4,5 of the year.


A special unit (5101-e) of the Israeli Air Force created from reservists "Sayeret Matkal." Initially, his main task was advanced aviation guidance and target designation, then the main task was the rescue of the crews of the Air Force on the enemy’s territory, as well as the traditional anti-terrorist fight for Israeli special forces. As a result, "Shaldag" is a kind of "departmental" special forces of the Air Force, not too different from "Sayeret Matkal." It is deployed at the Palmachim airbase. The training course for fighters "Shaldag" takes 22 month, because it includes the study of navigation, advanced aeronautical and target designation, intelligence in the interests of the Air Force.


YAMAM is an acronym for “Special Central Unit” or “Special Police Unit”. This is the “main” anti-terrorist unit in the country (like the “Alpha” in Russia or the GSG-9 in the Federal Republic of Germany). The current strength is about 200 people.

Formally, the YAMAM specialization is the release of hostages, but in fact it is used to perform a wide range of tasks.

According to Israeli sources, YAMAM closely interacts with the Israeli security service Shabak and currently actually plays the role of its direct force instrument.

In service in YAMAM go under the contract. A candidate can be any member of the army, police and border service under the age of 25, who served at least three years in combat units and completed a course of section commanders. The contract is signed for three years with the right to extend for several terms. All applicants undergo an intensive training program for a period of 13 months.

Ariel Sharon went to the AOI from the corporal to the general. He headed the division "101", which became the prototype of "Sayeret Matkal." Many spetsnaz operations led personally. Among the soldiers enjoyed unquestioned authority and great popularity.

Ehud Barak Ehud Barak commanded the Sayeret Matkal special forces, was one of the main developers of the commando raid on Entebbe. At the age of 37 he received the rank of brigadier general, in 1971 he was appointed to head the General Staff of the IDF.

Moshe Yaalon Moshe Yaalon made "Sayeret Matkal" a brilliant career, the time when he commanded the special forces is called one of the most prosperous. In 1995 he was appointed head of military intelligence. Three years later - Commander of the Central Military District. In 2002, he was the head of the headquarters of the IDF.
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  1. 0
    July 9 2016
    which ends with a march of 120 kilometers, which is a kind of initiation for receiving a red beret.
    And how many of our nettle runners?
    1. +4
      July 9 2016
      They don’t do more than 120km, they decided that it doesn’t make sense anymore, they reduced it to 90km.
    2. +1
      July 9 2016
      Quote: Corporal
      And how many of our nettle runners?

      The main tests are carried out in one day and include a march of at least 10 km, followed by overcoming the obstacles of SPP in extreme conditions, testing preparation for the assault on tall buildings, acrobatics and hand-to-hand combat.
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. +3
    July 9 2016
    Uv. The author, where did you get this "Wikipedia data" from? You have not just small, not accurate, but simply completely incorrect data about some units and about the methods of selecting soldiers there, etc. Yes, of course, there are things you cannot know about, but there are also quite good reliable and reliable sources in the public domain ... Similar Delitan opuses copied apparently from the "wiki" have no place on the respected VO site. Best regards, your Akira.
    1. 0
      July 12 2016
      Quote: Kurasava
      you are not just petty, not accurate, but simply completely incorrect information about some units and about the methods of selecting soldiers there, etc.

      I fully agree! The article is extremely weak and clearly does not correspond to the level of topwar.ru
  4. 0
    July 9 2016
    What is not interesting about public articles about special forces is the fact that not a single self-respecting state will tell about the system of their training and preparation of various kinds of magazine hooks. And for the sim, I hasten to take my leave ...
  5. 0
    July 9 2016
    I have always been attracted by the hand-to-hand combat system of Israeli specialists. Called Krav Maga. The one where EVERYTHING is allowed. True, there are sections even in Moscow. But I think this is a profanation. This is not a sports system at all. like our combat sambo, but with gouging eyes and opening ... well, you know.
  6. +1
    July 9 2016
    Quote: Mountain Shooter
    This is not a sports system at all. like our combat sambo, but with gouging eyes and opening ... well, you know.

    Well, why are you talking if you don't know? BS was primarily developed for law enforcement officers in the first third of the 20th century and only secondarily (since the 90s) is the "sports system".
    Moreover, even in sporting events groin kicks are allowed (for obvious reasons, athletes do not use this)
    As for "gouging out the eyes and opening ..." if someone taught such a person within the framework of Krav Maga or others, you would not like the training.
    1. +1
      July 9 2016
      you would not like training

      I don't really understand the applied meaning of this. For special forces, hand-to-hand combat skills are secondary. It can be assumed that two enemies met in a desert area, both ended up without knives, without pistols and rushed at each other to squeeze out their eyes .... Fizukha goes to endurance and maximum control of his body. And to allow contact with the enemy with bare hands, then the priority is to cut down in a split second. And then, grab him by the head, look for his eyes there and start pressing ... maybe this is how they teach the Palestinians to "talk"? There are no tapiks in the Israeli army ...
  7. 0
    July 9 2016
    All this is good, but the fact is that Israel never declassifies data on the management and strength of its intelligence.
  8. +1
    July 13 2016
    I cannot comment on the accuracy of the article - the special services keep their secrets well. I talked a lot with the Israelis - they willingly chat about their exploits if they served in combat units such as Golani, but never listened to anyone who would blab out that he served in "Yechida 101", Shimshon or Duvdevan ... But about Krav Maga I can say - the system is right. No fools - to win and survive. In addition to tough techniques and an emphasis on physical training, the tactics and psychology of contact combat are studied. If anyone has not tried it, I highly recommend it.

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