The Indochinese wars and the division of the country into two parts became the direct consequences of the French colonial policy in Indochina and the stubborn unwillingness of the West to allow the creation of a socialist orientation in Southeast Asia. But if in Korea, the Americans and their allies succeeded in dividing the country and preserving it in a divided state so that the DPRK and the Republic of Korea are now full-fledged and militarily strong states, in Vietnam this model did not work out. And above all, because the patriots of North Vietnam did not think of their country divided into two parts, despite the fact that the southern part would be in fact a semi-colonial country under the American "external control".
The victory of the Vietnamese Communists in the Indochina Wars is a real feat that would be very surprising if we do not take into account the heroic past of the Vietnamese people. After all, the history of Vietnam is the history of periodic military incursions of the Mongols, the Chinese - and each time the Vietnamese patriots defeated the superior enemy forces. This happened during the two Indochina wars. Of course, Soviet assistance and support from other socialist countries played a role in the victory of the Vietnamese in the national liberation war, but nevertheless, Soviet military assistance cannot be considered a decisive factor in ensuring the victory of the DRV over South Vietnamese and American troops.
The assistance of the Soviet Union, China, the DPRK to Vietnam was serious. But at least it cannot be compared with the assistance that the United States and its allies provided to South Vietnam. After all, the United States sent huge contingents of land forces, air force and navy to Indochina - and this is not counting the fact that the army of South Vietnam was fully equipped and trained by the Americans. In addition, the armed forces of a number of countries - allies of the United States, primarily South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, were sent to Vietnam. So the vital role in the victory was played by the morale and patriotism of the Vietnamese people, who did not want to see foreign oppressors on their land, dictating their conditions to the Vietnamese.
The creation of an independent socialist Vietnam is rooted in the national liberation struggle during the Second World War. It was then that the Vietnamese patriots who fought against both the French colonialists and the Japanese invaders forged the statehood of their country in battle. 19 August 1945, the national liberation uprising won in Hanoi, and August 25 in Saigon. Emperor Bao Dai 30 August publicly abdicated, and on September 2 1945 in Hanoi, at a rally that brought together thousands of people 500, Ho Chi Minh announced the Declaration of Independence. The entire Democratic Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed throughout Vietnamese territory.
However, the proclamation of an independent state, and even led by the Communists, was not part of the plans of France, whose leadership hoped after the Allied victory over Japan to regain control over East Indochina. Not recognized the DRV and the British military command. 6 March 1946, the government of Ho Chi Minh was forced to sign the “Ho-Santeni Agreements” with France, under which France recognized the sovereignty of the DRV, and the DRV agreed to remain in the French Union. But these agreements have come to naught. Already in November-December 1946 between the armed forces of the DRV and France, the first clashes occurred, which caused the actual cancellation of the Franco-Vietnamese agreements. 18-
19 December 1946 of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Indochina decided to start a "war of resistance" throughout the country. Thus began the First Indochina War, in which the Vietnamese partisans opposed the French colonial forces and the armed forces of the puppet "State of Vietnam", created by the French in the south of the country. The war lasted for about eight years, during which time the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which had the support of the Soviet Union and other socialist countries, finally managed to take shape and strengthen in the north of Vietnam. In turn, the United States of America actively supported the State of Vietnam and France. However, the massive offensive of the Vietnamese People’s Army forces put the French army in Indochina on the brink of total defeat. In the spring of 1954, French troops suffered a crushing defeat at the battle of Dienbienfu, which went down in history as the greatest victory of the troops of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam during the First Indochina War.
After the defeat at Dienbienfu, the French leadership was finally firmly established in the opinion that it was necessary to stop the hostilities in Indochina. In July, 1954 signed agreements on the restoration of peace at the Geneva Conference. The Geneva Agreements provided for the proclamation of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia as fully independent states. In Vietnam, it was planned to hold general elections, at which the further political fate of the country was to be decided. Before the election, the country's territory was temporarily divided into two halves along the Benhai River. However, the idea of holding a general election scared the United States of America. The American special services were aware that the Vietnamese Workers Party (formerly the Communist Party of Indochina) enjoys wide support from the working population in the south of the country, so elections can lead to the establishment of a legitimate communist regime in Vietnam. The victory of the communists in Vietnam, according to American analysts, would contribute to the further strengthening of communist influence in all countries of Southeast Asia. Recall that after the Second World War, the Communists were active not only in Vietnam, but also in Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
The United States did not like “Communist expansion” in the Asia-Pacific region, so the Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed in 1955 in the south of the country, the first president of which was Ngo Dinh Ziem. South Vietnam became the springboard of the anti-communist movement in Indochina, its armed forces and political administration system were formed with the direct participation of the United States. In the end, the communist leadership of the DRV came to the conclusion that it was necessary to regain control over the entire territory of Vietnam by armed means. Moreover, the very fact of the proclamation of the Republic of Vietnam in the south and the refusal to hold general elections violated international agreements in Geneva.
The decision to liberate South Vietnam by armed means was made in 1959, and on December 20, 1960, at the Congress of Patriotic Forces, held "in one of the liberated areas of South Vietnam", the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NFUY) was created. His program called for the liberation of the territory of the Republic of Vietnam and the reunification of Vietnam. 15 February 1961, all the armed forces that were part of the NLFYU were merged into the National Liberation Army, which turned into a military wing of the front. In South Vietnam, a guerrilla war began against the pro-American regime, as a result of which the Viet Cong, as the NLF was called, managed to establish control over large territories. So, by 1965, the NFLUV controlled at least 30% of the territory of South Vietnam. The guerrillas received comprehensive assistance from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In turn, the US stepped up assistance to South Vietnam, and then directly intervened in the armed conflict in Vietnam on the side of the South Vietnamese government.
To enter the war, the United States used the provocation of August 2, 1964, known as the Tonkin incident. According to the American version, North Vietnamese boats allegedly fired at the American destroyer Maddox. This was a formal reason for the US armed forces to enter the war in Vietnam. American aviation launched a systematic bombing of the territory of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and an impressive army group was deployed to South Vietnam, which was to participate in the war against the guerrillas of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam on the side of the troops of the Republic of Vietnam. Thus began the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam War, which became one of the most significant events in the history of the second half of the twentieth century. The Vietnam War had a huge impact on political life in the United States and Western Europe, led to the intensification of left and left radical movements around the world. American troops suffered tremendous losses in Vietnam. Of course, they can not be compared with the losses of the Vietnamese partisans and the civilian population, but still they look extremely impressive.
For eight years, the US ground forces, marines, fleets and aircraft fought in South Vietnam. During this time, 58 307 was killed by American soldiers and officers, 303 614 US Army soldiers were injured of varying degrees of severity. The army of South Vietnam lost a dead 440 357 people (according to American sources), about 1 million South Vietnamese soldiers were injured. Serious losses suffered and the allies of the United States. So, in Vietnam, 5099 soldiers of South Korea, 500 Australian soldiers, 350 soldiers of Thailand, 37 soldiers of the army of New Zealand died. On the part of the DRV and NFLUV, according to Vietnamese data, 1 million 100 thousand people died, according to American data - 444 thousand people. Another 1 thousand people accounted for China, 16 man lost in the Soviet Union in Vietnam.
In the end, large-scale defeats and growing military spending, as well as a significant intensification of the anti-war movement, forced the United States of America to begin withdrawing troops from the territory of South Vietnam. In November, 1968 of the year in the US presidential election was won by Richard Nixon, who advocated the end of the Vietnam War in an "honorable world." The new American leadership has begun to implement the concept of "Vietnamization", that is, the transfer of responsibility for certain zones to the troops of South Vietnam. This policy aimed to ensure the withdrawal of US troops from the country. However, the process of the withdrawal of US troops lasted three years. 27 January 1973 was signed by the Paris Peace Agreement, by which American troops left Vietnam, and by 29 March 1973, the process of withdrawing American units and subunits that remained in Vietnam was completed.
But the withdrawal of American troops did not mean the cessation of hostilities. Now the United States sought to fight North Vietnam with the hands of the army of South Vietnam, which, by the way, numbered more than a million servicemen. However, without the support of American troops, the South Vietnamese army gradually lost its position and lost control over large areas. After the Paris Agreement, American aviation stopped the bombardment of the famous “Ho Chi Minh Trail”, the troops of North Vietnam safely redeployed units to help the NLFV partisans. At the beginning of March 1975, the forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam launched a large-scale offensive on the territory of South Vietnam. The offensive lasted two months, and the South Vietnamese army was unable to resist the onslaught of the North Vietnamese troops and partisan formations. One of the main reasons for the failures of the army of South Vietnam was the low morale of the soldiers.
In fact, the South Vietnamese army without American allies was unable to protect the territory of the Republic of Vietnam from the North Vietnamese troops. In 11: 30, 30 on April 1975, the DRV troops entered Saigon. The Vietnam War ended in a complete victory for the Communists. For the United States of America, the victory of the communists in the countries of Eastern Indochina (and the communist governments came to power in Laos and Cambodia) was one of the strongest blows to American influence in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. The actions of the North Vietnamese troops and the South Vietnamese partisans showed that the United States is not an absolute force and is also capable of losing the war.
The liberation of the territory of South Vietnam became the foundation for the subsequent unification of the country into a single state. The creation of a united and independent Vietnamese state, which was planned immediately after World War II, was delayed for thirty years. The bloody war led to millions of casualties among Vietnamese civilians and military personnel of the opposing sides. But the main thing is that Vietnam was able to unite, having won its independence and authority in the hardest and very long war. Today Vietnam is one of the dynamically developing states of Southeast Asia, pursuing a balanced economic policy.