Military Review

Bombed dragon

49
Bombed dragon


80 years ago, 26 June 1936, for the first time, the Fokke-Wulf FW-61 took to the air - the first helicopter in the world to be used in practice. It happened four years before the start of flight tests of the first successful Sikorsky helicopter, so everything is clear on the question of priorities. In 1937-38, FW-61 broke all previously established helicopter records. In particular, he rose to a height of 2640 meters, four times overlapping the result achieved by the Soviet TsAGI-1EA helicopter. The maximum speed was 122 km / h, and the maximum range was 230 km.

The machine achieved such impressive results with a low-power motor in just 160 horsepower, working through a sophisticated gear system on two bearing rotors mounted on truss consoles on the sides of the fuselage. There was another small propeller in the nose, but it served only to cool the engine, playing the role of a fan. Due to their relative bulkiness, helicopters of such an aerodynamic scheme were not widely used, however, the Mi-12 helicopter, the largest in the world, was built according to this scheme, and now it is used in convertiplanes.

The success of FW-61 prompted its developer, aircraft designer Heinrich Focke, to create a much larger machine capable of carrying a solid load. Such a machine, called the “Focke-Ahgelis” FA-223, for the first time took off 3 August 1940. The change of the index was due to the fact that in 1937, Fokke, together with Gerd Ahgelis, founded a new company in Delmenhorst, specializing exclusively in helicopters. It was the first helicopter building company in the world.

FA-223, equipped with a nine-cylinder star-shaped engine "Bramo-Fafnir" in 1000 hp, could carry in a closed cabin five passengers with luggage, or - as many paratroopers with weapons. In the transport version, its payload reached a ton. The speed was 180 km / h, the range with a load was 700 km, the ceiling was 4900 meters. Even for post-war helicopters such data looked quite decent, and in 1940, there was nowhere else in the world anything like that. For an impressive and slightly eerie appearance, the helicopter was called “Drache” - “Dragon”.

The command of the Luftwaffe was delighted with the flight characteristics of the FA-223. Already in 1941, the company signed a contract for the supply of 100 copies of the helicopter in military transport, search and rescue, and anti-submarine patrol variants, as well as in the version of a night bomber. To fulfill such an order, the company had to significantly expand production. By the summer of 1942, a new plant was built in Delmenhorst, immediately proceeding to the assembly of helicopters. However, a month later he was razed to the ground by British bombers. Together with the factory workshops, 13 of almost finished "Dragons" were destroyed.

Without losing heart, Fokke restored the company and in 1943 it managed to produce 18 cars. Their military tests were quite successful, so the order was increased to 400 copies. However next year aviation Allies again to the ground destroyed the workshop and several dozen helicopters on the assembly line. By that time, the Germans were no longer up to them, and therefore no funds were allocated for the restoration of the plant.

At the end of 1944, there were plans to start the production of FA-223 in the occupied Czech Republic. Production documentation, some components and several engines were sent to the Avia factory in Prague. But until the end of the war work there has not begun. But in the post-war period, the Czechs assembled two "Dragons" and introduced them into their Air Force under the designation VR-1. These were the first Czechoslovak helicopters.

“Dragons” performed well at the front, however, plans to use such a machine to evacuate Mussolini had to be abandoned due to technical problems. But one of the "Focke-Achgelis" in February-March 1945 of the year was used to communicate with Danzig, landing right on the streets of the city besieged by Soviet troops. In these raids through two front lines, he simultaneously set a world distance record for rotary-wing vehicles. To reduce the risk of air defense flights were carried out in the dark.

Due to their small numbers, German helicopters, of course, did not play a prominent role in the war. However, if it were not for the successful work of the Anglo-American bombers, the picture could have been a bit different.



The first flight of the FA-61 made without the fuselage skin.





FA-61 on trial.



Rehearsal of a demonstration flight at Berlin's Deutschlandhalle indoor stadium.



Preparing for flight prototype FA-223.



FA-223 cab with a machine gun.



FA-223, captured by the Americans at the end of the war.



VR-1 - Czech copy of FA-223.



FA-223 in standard for these machines gray-green color.
Author:
Originator:
http://vikond65.livejournal.com/499339.html
49 comments
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  1. RuslanNN
    RuslanNN 2 July 2016 06: 59
    +12
    Interesting article. I did not know about the use of turntables by the Germans, thanks to the author.
  2. Kaiten
    Kaiten 2 July 2016 07: 16
    +4
    It would be interesting to know if these machines had a skew apparatus. If it was, then it really is helicopters, if not, it is still gyros.
    1. corporal
      corporal 2 July 2016 07: 32
      +7
      Quote: Kaiten
      It would be interesting to know if these machines had a skew apparatus. If it was, then it really is helicopters, if not, it is still gyros.

      And how did he fly without a pushing (pulling) screw?
      So with a swashplate.
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 2 July 2016 08: 37
        0
        Quote: Corporal
        And how did he fly without a pushing (pulling) screw?
        So with a swashplate.

        I have no objections about the swashplate, but about the pulling screw, pay your attention to the nose of the device in Figures 2, 3, 4, 5. If everything is in order with vision, then you can see the presence of an engine. Those. the original version with an engine in the bow and a pulling propeller, but in the rest of the pictures there is no engine, this makes it possible to install a machine gun. But the alignment is changing, and it is necessary to manufacture a new fuselage. What we see in the first pictures and at the end are different "vehicles heavier than air".
        1. M0xHaTka
          M0xHaTka 2 July 2016 15: 42
          +7
          Chukchi is not a reader. Chukchi writer! The text says black in Russian - a small propeller in the nose served to cool.
          1. V.ic
            V.ic 2 July 2016 15: 55
            0
            Quote: M0xHaTka
            Chukchi is not a reader. Chukchi writer! The text says black in Russian - a small propeller in the nose served to cool.

            Comrade ittelman, point to the "small propeller in the nose" looking at the extreme photos, pli-i-z!
            1. Bayonet
              Bayonet 3 July 2016 06: 24
              +2
              Quote: V.ic

              Comrade ittelman, point to the "small propeller in the nose" looking at the extreme photos, pli-i-z!

              This is a completely different machine - the FA-223, and the engine in the bow had an FA-61.
              1. V.ic
                V.ic 3 July 2016 06: 48
                0
                Quote: Bayonet
                This is a completely different machine - the FA-223, and the engine in the bow had an FA-61.

                You just confirm my comment above:
                Yesterday, 08: 37 ↑
                "What we see in the first pictures and at the end are different" vehicles heavier than air ".
        2. Bayonet
          Bayonet 3 July 2016 06: 21
          +2
          Quote: V.ic
          Those. the original version with an engine in the bow and a pulling screw,

          After all, the article clearly says: "There was another small propeller in the nose, but it only served to cool the engine, playing the role of a fan." There was no pulling screw.
          1. V.ic
            V.ic 3 July 2016 07: 04
            -1
            Quote: Bayonet
            After all, the article clearly says: "There was another small propeller in the nose, but it only served to cool the engine, playing the role of a fan." No pulling screw there was no.

            They also write on fences ... Use your brains, dear: this propeller cooled the engine by blowing the fins of the cylinders, the water flow is directed to the engine, summing up with the oncoming air stream. Pulling or pushing is determined by the location of the propulsor (i.e. propeller) relative to the center of mass of the apparatus. Here he is clearly ahead, so the screw was PULLING. Clearly explained to you?
    2. V.ic
      V.ic 2 July 2016 08: 27
      +8
      Quote: Kaiten
      It would be interesting to know if these machines had a skew apparatus

      Take a close look at the figure with the caption "VR-1 - Czech copy of FA-223", it is clearly seen that above the hubs of both main rotor there are some cylindrical devices from which thrust to the blades goes (one per blade). This is the swashplate. One for HB.
      1. pimen
        pimen 2 July 2016 09: 10
        +2
        how quickly they got to the swashplate. For example, I would first try the tail (horizontal) screw, or a small rotation of the carrier beam
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 2 July 2016 15: 56
          +2
          Quote: pimen
          how quickly they got to the swashplate. For example, I would first try the tail (horizontal) screw, or a small rotation of the carrier beam

          Would suggest better screw differential pitch module ...
          1. pimen
            pimen 2 July 2016 16: 18
            +1
            Damn, I don't even know such words. However, even with a single-screw scheme, I would start by turning the entire screw block (on the universal joint) (well, it's easier). If we talk about the swashplate, then it would not be bad to "align" the blades in lateral projections
            1. V.ic
              V.ic 3 July 2016 12: 58
              +1
              Quote: pimen
              damn, I don’t even know such words

              In the course of the blade / we take the direction of rotation clockwise / against the incoming air flow to create a lifting force, (+) the angle of attack of the blade / in the range from "six" to "twelve" /, on the opposite blade stroke from 12 to 6 hours blade attacks d. (-).
              Quote: pimen
              However, even with a single-rotor scheme, I would start by turning the entire screw block (on the cardan shaft) (well, it's easier).

              Yes-ah-ah-well ... You imagine a "top", ie gyroscope with one degree of freedom? Not just a "top", but pulling on itself some tons of cargo with a decent
              speed? Well, what kind of gimbal is necessary to have to change the position of the "top"?
              Quote: pimen
              If we talk about the swashplate, then it would not be bad to "align" the blades in lateral projections

              Didn't understand your idea = "breaking the cone" or what? So on the blades of the HB, modern blades have an element, by bending which all the blades of the HB are brought to a cone of rotation / with permissible errors, of course /. To provoke a flutter of the blades, during testing, additional weights are hooked on them to reject a potentially dangerous blade and ensure that there is no flutter in one set of NV blades.
              1. pimen
                pimen 3 July 2016 15: 33
                0
                Quote: V.ic
                Yes-ah-ah-well ... You imagine a "top", ie gyroscope with one degree of freedom? Not just a "top", but pulling on itself some tons of cargo with a decent
                speed? Well, what kind of gimbal is necessary to have to change the position of the "top"?

                and why would this force of the actuators to rotate the axis of the screw untied from the gearbox (for example, a cardan), be much greater than for skewing the blades on the axis?
                Well, okay, the swashplate coupled with an adjustable pitch can still be tolerated with 2- or 3-blade propellers, but with 5, 6, 7 ... yes, with the coaxial?
                On account of the alignment of the blades in the lateral projections, it was understood that the blades in a position perpendicular to the axis of motion could have an angle of attack close to zero. However, technically this is hardly feasible even with multi-blade screws (mileage of the bearing of the blade angle of attack drive along a curved plate?)
                1. V.ic
                  V.ic 4 July 2016 06: 48
                  -1
                  Quote: pimen
                  skew machine, coupled with an adjustable pitch, you can still endure with 2- or 3-blade propellers, but at 5, 6, 7

                  The Mi-26 Mi-26 helicopter was first shown publicly in 1981 at the La Bourget air show. ... appointment. Heavy transport helicopter. The number of blades. Main rotor - 8 Tail rotor - 5.
                  http://mostinfo.su/177-vertolet-mi-26-opisanie.html
                  Any more questions?
                  1. Fat
                    Fat 4 July 2016 14: 51
                    0
                    [quote = V.ic] More questions will be?
                    [quote] There will be! The closest to the FA-223 according to the "Superheavy" scheme Mi-12 (B-12), 1968-73 "Homer" (NATO classification) ... Purpose: transportation of ICBM elements. Bearing blades: 2x5. A record of more than 44 tons at a height of about 2300 meters (I don’t remember exactly) The program was considered ineffective. In the opinion of "VIKI" there were enough heavyweights available at that time ... The purpose of the Mi-26 - the Energia-Buran program with its military components, after 35 years of "ellipsis" is pointless. Both the 223rd and the V-12 have similar engineering solutions and there is nothing particularly tricky, and the step towards a tiltrotor is quite logical (with the development of technology) ... These machines (223 and 12) are underconverter aircraft. And 61 is no longer a gyroplane, but not yet a helicopter ...
                  2. pimen
                    pimen 4 July 2016 21: 03
                    0
                    I want to make excuses, I didn’t minus. But essentially - right
    3. v-zk
      v-zk 2 July 2016 09: 21
      +5
      All photographs of the FA-223 show that the swashplate is installed, although unusual - it is located on top of the screw. Traction is clearly visible.
    4. alpamys
      alpamys 2 July 2016 11: 10
      +2
      Quote: Kaiten
      It would be interesting to know if these machines had a skew apparatus. If it was, then it really is helicopters, if not, it is still gyros.

      and photos to consider laziness, traction on the axes do not resemble anything?
    5. dauria
      dauria 3 July 2016 10: 41
      +1
      If it was, then it really is helicopters, if not, it is still gyros.


      Strange, thought the gyroplane is a rotor operating in autorotation (self-rotation) mode. Only preliminary disconnected promotion is possible. Traction - pushing or pulling screw. Hanging is a mode for gyroplane not available in principle. Only a short jump after forced promotion. (If there is one)

      Here is a clear helicopter. Swashplate is just a way to control the cyclic step, and not a sign of a helicopter gyroplane.
      On very light homemade helicopters, it is extremely rare, but balanced control and the inclination of the rotor axis are allowed. (as with some gyros)
  3. venaya
    venaya 2 July 2016 07: 27
    +2
    Conceptually, a similar helicopter construction scheme is very suitable for creating an aircraft that is more advanced in terms of efficiency, called hereinafter "tiltrotor". It is just the installation of an additional wing of an aircraft type, which makes it possible to significantly reduce the required energy consumption of the helicopter engines for maintaining the apparatus in the air, which, even with a large area of ​​helicopter propellers, is able to significantly increase the possible flight range or the size of the payload. A similar scheme for a tiltrotor was already developed in the 50s at the Yakovlev Design Bureau, but due to the greater novelty of the concept and other difficulties under Khrushchev, work in this area was stopped due to lack of funding. The Americans have quietly refined this concept and now their tiltrotors are widely used in military aviation. For our country, such devices are even more relevant, in view of the vast sparsely populated territories of our country, which can also be of great economic importance in civilian applications.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 2 July 2016 18: 57
      +3
      The tiltrotor has the characteristic differences that its propeller must work both as a carrier during takeoff and as a pulling one in cruise mode. Therefore, he works poorly everywhere, but the Americans managed to find a middle ground and make their own "Osprey".
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 2 July 2016 07: 49
    +7
    The fate of one "Dragon" is interesting: to rescue 17 people caught in an avalanche on Mount Blanc, the helicopter flew over almost all of Germany. Unfortunately, due to the destruction of the rotor, the car fell down, and although it landed on the wheels, the helicopter turned over and the crew died.
    Although the "Dragon" was especially effective in rescue operations, it was not actually used for such tasks, it was used for transport. One "Dragon" was ferried to England by a German crew, becoming the first helicopter to cross the English Channel.
  5. V.ic
    V.ic 2 July 2016 08: 40
    +3
    Pay attention to the picture No. 4, where an uncle with large stripes holds the device by the tail wheel dutik. Could this be Goering? It’s suitable for complexion.
    1. alpamys
      alpamys 2 July 2016 11: 14
      0
      Quote: V.ic
      Pay attention to the picture No. 4, where an uncle with large stripes holds the device by the tail wheel dutik. Could this be Goering? It’s suitable for complexion.

      he is
      1. V.ic
        V.ic 2 July 2016 15: 58
        -3
        Quote: alpamys
        he is

        So the eggs do not seem to shine ...
  6. Yarik
    Yarik 2 July 2016 08: 50
    +2
    V.ic (7) RU Today, 08:40 PM New
    Pay attention to the picture No. 4, where an uncle with large stripes holds the device by the tail wheel dutik. Could this be Goering? It’s suitable for complexion.

    And stripes to the guys from BAO seem to be at a loss. laughing
  7. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 2 July 2016 09: 44
    +9
    An amazing "flash" of engineering ideas in Nazi Germany was, IMHO, associated with the massive arrival of talented youth in science and technology, and MASSIVE state support for new developments. In the USSR it is the same. The war "sifted" these ideas - through the toughest "sieve", came out of the war with a big leap in REALIZED engineering solutions. In no way do I justify the war, but the fact that it "moves progress" much faster than the free market is, in my opinion, a fact.
    1. Kaiten
      Kaiten 2 July 2016 12: 12
      +5
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      An amazing "flash" of engineering ideas in Nazi Germany was, IMHO, associated with the massive arrival of talented youth in science and technology, and MASSIVE state support for new developments.

      I think this is due to the fact that during the Reichver, when the German army was greatly curtailed both quantitatively and financially, stupid careerists, who are always many in any army, left it. There were really enthusiasts. At the time of the Reichswehr, the army was extremely small, but this was offset by the high level of training of personnel. By the time the Wehrmacht was formed, these people already had high ranks and were able to ensure the development of promising types of weapons.
    2. alpamys
      alpamys 2 July 2016 13: 35
      +3
      Quote: Mountain Shooter
      An amazing "flash" of engineering ideas in Nazi Germany was, IMHO, associated with the massive arrival of talented youth in science and technology, and MASSIVE state support for new developments. In the USSR it is the same. The war "sifted" these ideas - through the toughest "sieve", came out of the war with a big leap in REALIZED engineering solutions. In no way do I justify the war, but the fact that it "moves progress" much faster than the free market is, in my opinion, a fact.

      parasites were thrown out of the chairs and the process started, the same Einstein sat in the Berlin Patent Office and slowed down the projects.
      1. pimen
        pimen 2 July 2016 13: 41
        +1
        Einstein's beautiful. Although, as a theorist ...- but by the way, it could even be
        1. V.ic
          V.ic 2 July 2016 16: 05
          +1
          Quote: pimen
          Einstein's beautiful. Although, as a theorist ...- but by the way,

          ... but, by the way, has he tested it a lot for practical use? Either to promote the private theory of relativity (stolen from Lorentz and Poincare), or the general ... However, he did not write anything worthwhile in either one ... But the GENIUS, for all times and peoples, is the most, the most, the most ...
  8. Forever so
    Forever so 2 July 2016 09: 58
    0
    Given that seriously helicopter construction began at the beginning of the century, in principle, there was nothing complicated for Fokke. Summarized all the achievements, especially very successfully the Soviet helicopter flew off. Using the cross-sectional scheme, the author simply avoided solving many issues. Had he taken a single-rotor and the dragon would have sat on the ground.
    1. pudelartemon
      pudelartemon 2 July 2016 13: 22
      +3
      Where such confidence? With engineering in Germany, then it was all right. Do not mix ideology and science.
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 3 July 2016 06: 33
      +2
      Quote: Forever so
      Had he taken a single-rotor and the dragon would have sat on the ground.

      Fl.282 Hummingbird is a lightweight German reconnaissance synchroopter helicopter with an open cockpit developed in the prewar years in Germany by Anton Flettner on the basis of a single-seat helicopter Fl.265.
  9. geolive77777
    geolive77777 2 July 2016 11: 43
    0
    Interesting stuff! Thanks to the author.
  10. Gato
    Gato 2 July 2016 12: 09
    0
    practical

    "Dragons" performed well at the front

    the picture could be a little different.

    Only vague doubts torment me?
  11. pudelartemon
    pudelartemon 2 July 2016 13: 18
    +7
    It is a pity that the author did not mention another helicopter - Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 - it was used on a submarine. It was developed in Germany at the beginning of World War II. At the beginning of 1942, Focke-Achgelis received an order for a small single folding gyroplane. The first flight took place in 1943 year. Created by order of the Navy for use during combat campaigns of submarines, which had a limited view. A distinctive feature of this unit is the lack of an engine. Launched towards the wind, the apparatus could rise to a height of 150 m, which provided a target detection range of 40 km, compared to 8 km from the deck of a submarine. The submarine towed it with a cable like a kite, the observer contacted the watch on the bridge by phone.
    Fa.330 The Bachstelze (Wagtail) was built on the Weser Flugtsoigbau near Bremen. In total, about 200 devices were built.
    Few documents have been preserved about the actual use of this gyroplane, but it is known that Fa 330 was not popular with divers, as it delayed urgent diving. It was first tested in action by a U-177 submarine in the desert region of the South Atlantic near the African coast in April-May of 1943. More intensively used in the Indian Ocean. So the U-861 submarine launched this gyroplane during patrols in Madagascar.
    1. alpamys
      alpamys 2 July 2016 16: 02
      +1
      Quote: pudelartemon
      wagtail

    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 3 July 2016 06: 51
      +2
      Quote: pudelartemon
      It is a pity that the author did not mention another helicopter - Focke-Achgelis Fa 330

      It was not a helicopter, but a towed gyroplane!
      When using a 150 m cable, the gyroplane gained a height of 120 m, which provided a target detection range of 40 km, compared to 8 km from the deck of a submarine. Communication with the telephone PL. For an emergency descent, the pilot could drop the propeller and open the parachute mounted on the propeller strut. After dropping the belts, the gyroplane fell into the sea, and the pilot descended by parachute. With a normal decline, the Fa.330 sank to the deck, and the screw was locked by the brake. Take-off from a submarine had certain restrictions on the strength of the wind. The minimum airspeed (ground speed plus wind speed) was 35 km / h, and the maximum was 80 km / h. If the wind was normal, then the boat stood against the wind and set off. Using the starter or cord, the rotor was unwound (the pulley is visible in the photo), the revolutions of which increased from the oncoming flow. Then the rise was carried out.
  12. Des10
    Des10 2 July 2016 15: 47
    +7
    What about FL282? In 1943, they were quite successfully used for escort convoys in the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. More than 20 pieces.
  13. bionik
    bionik 2 July 2016 18: 17
    +2
    The Fa 223 V14 (DM + SR) helicopter evacuates the propellers and motor of the injured Do 801 BMW 217 ML-Sternmotors in May 1944.
  14. bionik
    bionik 2 July 2016 18: 23
    +3
    American captured German helicopter Fletter Fl. 282 "Hummingbird" (Flettner Fl 282 Kolibri) on the basis of the US Air Force Freeman Field (Freeman Field).
    Flattner fl. 282 was the first mass-produced helicopter in the world. The machine was mainly used in Kriegsmarine, as a means of reconnaissance and adjustment of artillery fire. Only 24 aircraft were produced, since the manufacturing plant in Munich was destroyed by the Allied aircraft.
    After the war, machine designer Anton Flettner emigrated to the United States, where he continued his professional career as chief designer at Kaman Aircraft.
    This instance of Fletter Fl. 282 Hummingbirds are housed at the US Air Force Museum in Dayton.
  15. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 2 July 2016 19: 00
    0
    Interesting material, respect to the author.
  16. ZIS
    ZIS 2 July 2016 22: 59
    0
    A very interesting article, (for me personally) used to think that Americans used helicopters for the first time in the Korean War, but no Frito escho in WWII. Although it seems somewhere slipped that the Americans either tested or used during the 2nd World War.
    1. alpamys
      alpamys 3 July 2016 00: 52
      -4
      Quote: ZIS
      A very interesting article, (for me personally) used to think that Americans used helicopters for the first time in the Korean War, but no Frito escho in WWII. Although it seems somewhere slipped that the Americans either tested or used during the 2nd World War.

      while you were digging the black sea, we built helicopters.
  17. aba
    aba 3 July 2016 21: 34
    0
    About how many wonderful discoveries
    Prepare the spirit of enlightenment
    And the experience of the son of errors difficult,
    And genius, the paradoxes friend
    And the case, god inventor ...
    (C)

    The article is actually very interesting! For myself, I learned a lot from the history of aviation. Yes, many probably too.