22 June marks 75 years since the beginning of World War II. In modern Ukrainian school textbooks, this day is now called the start of the “two totalitarian regimes” clash for the enslavement of a free and democratic Europe, and the heroes who fought with the two occupation regimes for the liberation of Ukraine — members of the OUN-UPA. But all these books, newspapers, TV shows can not overshadow archival documents and human memory - almost every family in Ukraine has the scars of that terrible war: graves on graveyards, yellowed triangles of field mail, darkened orders. What is the baggage of "merit" in the fight against Nazism OUN "heroes"? Why do the Kiev authorities today call them the true liberators, while banning the Victory Banner as an occupational communist symbol?
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In 1939, the population of Western Ukraine met the Red Army with bread and salt. Over time, there began the repression of the NKVD. Only in the literature, they are silent about their reason and their role in provoking the OUN.
During the preparation of the German aggression against Poland, Hitler's intelligence flooded the country with its agents, mainly the OUN people. They had to paralyze the resistance of the Poles to the Germans. Influential Ounovec Kost Pankovsky, who during the Second World War was the deputy head of the so-called. of the Ukrainian Central Committee of Vladimir Kubievich - one of the initiators and inspirers of the creation of the SS division “Galicia”, in his work “The Rocky of the National Occupation” (1965, Toronto) writes that on the eve of the attack of the Hitlerites on Poland “the OUN wire planned to raise an armed uprising in the rear Polish troops and formed a military detachment - "Ukrainian Legion" under the command of Colonel Roman Sushko. " After the occupation of Poland, the Nazis invited them to work in the "Ukrainian police", intended to fight the Polish resistance.
The activity of the Ukrainian police in Poland’s terens [space] was highly appreciated by the German hosts. Therefore, shortly before the attack on the Soviet Union, the fascists began mass training from the OUN staff of police personnel for the future occupation regime in Ukraine. The leaders of the OUN for the money of Hitler's intelligence created in the Hill and Przemysl school "Ukrainian police". They were headed by officers of the Gestapo Muller, Reader, Walter. The same school was created in Berlin. At the same time, German military intelligence launched training for espionage and sabotage activities in the USSR. In a special camp on Lake Chiemsee (Germany), Ukrainian nationalists trained saboteurs, and in the Quintzgut military training center - spies (TsGAOOU, f. 1, op. 4, d. 338, l. 22).
After September 1939, the activities of the nationalist underground became more subtle. During the reunification of the western regions of Ukraine with the Ukrainian SSR, the leadership of the Krakow Wiring of the OUN instructed their underground units not to show themselves hostile towards the Soviet servicemen, to save personnel, preparing them for future active operations against the USSR. They should also collect weaponUsing the collapse of the Polish army, penetrate the local and party authorities. For example, a former member of the Lviv executive secretary, A.Alutsky, for example, managed to get into the office of one of the district executive committees of Stanislavsky [from 1962, Ivano-Franskovskaya] oblast and even achieve election as a deputy to the National Assembly. Fearing possible exposure, at the end of 1939 he fled to Krakow. The authorities of the Soviet Union revealed only in the Stanislav region 156 OUN, introduced into the village committees.
The Ounovo leadership began to organize acts of sabotage and terror in Western Ukraine. According to incomplete data, in the second half of 1940 they carried out 30 terrorist attacks, and in the run-up to the German attack on the USSR in just two months of 1941, they were 17 (GDA SSU.F.16, op.39, l. 765). Thus, the instructor of the Stusivsky District Committee of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) was killed in the Ternopil Oblast I. Rybolovko, the Prosecutor of the Monastery District Doroshenko and other Soviet and party workers (USBU archive in Ternopil Oblast, d. 72, t. 1, l. 1). In July, 1940, in Lviv, a grenade was thrown at a cinema hall during a movie. As a result of the explosion, 28 people were injured (GDU SBU.F.16, op.33, bp 23, l.765).
The same actions, as well as acts of sabotage, were organized in many western regions of Ukraine. In addition, the Germans demanded that the leaders of the OUN step up the organization of an armed uprising, which would serve as a pretext for a war against the USSR. Preparation for it, as one of the leaders of the Abwehr Colonel E. Stolze testified in Nuremberg (Militaryhistorical Journal, 1990, No. 4), was directly led by his subordinate officers, Dering and Market.
The link between Stolz and Bandera was provided by Riko Ardent. 10 March 1940 in Krakow, a meeting of the OUN leadership team was held, at which the following action plan was developed: 1. To prepare and in the shortest possible time to transfer to the territory of the Ukrainian SSR the leading personnel of the OUN to create headquarters in Volyn and Lviv to organize an armed uprising. 2. In a two-month period, examine the territory, have a clear understanding of the presence of rebel forces, weapons, supplies, the mood of the population, the presence and location of Soviet troops (Ternopil District, 1, op. 1, d.2, l. 125-127) .
The trusted members of the organization visited the OUN underground in the Soviet territory. Among them was a member of the central wire, as well as Abwehr agent A. Lutsky (Bohun). Being detained in January 1945, he testified that “the main task set before the wire was to prepare by the end of the summer of 1940 throughout the territory of Western Ukraine an uprising against Soviet power. We conducted urgent military training of OUN members, collected and concentrated weapons in one place. Provided for the seizure of military strategic objects: mail, telegraph, etc. Made up the so-called. the black book is a list of the workers of the party and Soviet organs, local activists and workers of the NKVD, whom they had to destroy immediately when the war began ”(GDA SSU.F.16, op.33, f. N.23, l.297).
Lutsky showed that “if the uprising provoked by us in Western Ukraine continued for at least several days, Germany would have come to our aid.” The same testimony was given by his deputy, Mikhail Senkiv. Well, just like the "call for help" of the Sudeten Germans! However, in the summer of 1940, at the direction of Canaris, the preparation of an armed uprising was removed from the agenda, since Germany was not yet fully ready to attack the Soviet Union.
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With the beginning of the war against the USSR, the OUN marching groups followed the advancing German units. “Ukrainian integral nationalists,” notes Canadian historian O. Subtelny, “enthusiastically welcomed the German attack on the USSR, considering it as a promising opportunity to establish an independent Ukrainian state” (Subtelny O. Ukraine,. History. Kiev. 1993, p. 567).
In the Ounh brochure titled “For Ukrainian state power”, which is a review of the reports of a number of ringleaders of territorial underground organizations of Bandera, it was recorded: “Before the start of the German-Soviet war, OUN, in spite of its incredible difficulties, organized a network of underground fighters in the villages who ... in general In some districts of the Ternopil Oblast, armed insurgents launched rebel groups and disarmed many military units. In general ... our militants attacked all cities and villages of the region before the arrival of the German army there. ”
Ukrainian nationalists committed similar crimes on the territory of Lviv, Stanislav, Drohobych, Volyn and Chernivtsi regions. So, 28 June 1941 in the city of Peremyshlyany in Lviv region, several OUN gangs attacked small detachments of the Red Army and individual vehicles, which evacuated women and children. The militants perpetrated cruel reprisals against Red Army soldiers and defenseless people. The same gang helped the Nazis capture Peremyshlyany. In the area of the village of Rudka, a division of the fascist army ran into the courageous resistance of the Soviet troops. The Nazis asked for help from the OUN, and those, as stated in this brochure, took an active part "in high-profile battles." Nationalists also actively acted in the Volyn and Rivne regions.
The atrocities of the OUN gangs are reported in the report of the headquarters of the South-Western Front of 24 on June 1941: “In the Ustlug area, enemy sabotage groups disguised in our uniform operate. Warehouses are burning in this area. During 22 and in the morning of June 23, the enemy landed troops on Hirov, Drogobych, Borislav, the last two were destroyed ”(GDA SSU, d. 490, t. 1, l. 100).
The leaders of the OUN sent to Ukraine, following the advancing units of the fascist army, several so-called marching groups. These units, by definition of the OUN "guides", were "a kind of political army", which included nationalists who had experience of fighting in the deep underground. The route of their movement was agreed in advance with the Abwehr. Thus, the northern marching group of 2500 people moved along the route Lutsk - Zhytomyr - Kiev. Average - 1500 of the OUN residents - in the direction of Poltava - Sumy - Kharkov. South - as part of 880 people - followed the route Ternopil - Vinnitsa - Dnepropetrovsk - Odessa.
The activity of these groups was to fulfill the functions of an auxiliary occupation apparatus in the seized territory of the republic: they helped the Nazis to form the so-called Ukrainian police, city and district councils, as well as other organs of the fascist occupation administration. At the same time, the group members established contacts with various kinds of criminal elements, using them to identify the local underground and Soviet partisans.
From the very beginning of its existence, the aforementioned bodies of self-government were under the authority of the Hitler occupation authorities. Available in the archives of Ukraine materials confirm this.
For example, in the directives of the Reich Commissar of Ukraine Erich Koch, under No. XXUMX “On the attitude of military units to the Ukrainian population,” stresses: “The created Ukrainian national local administrations or district administrations should be viewed not as independent administrations or authorized by higher authorities, but as trusted for communication with German military authorities. Their task is to carry out the orders of the latter ”(TsGAOOU, f. 119, op. 1-1, item. 14, l. 115 — 73).
Grief-historians in modern Ukraine are trying to convince its inhabitants (the young generation in the first place) that it was the OUN-UPA fighters who defended the population of the Ukrainian SSR from invaders. I will briefly remind HOW they did it.
In punitive operations against the civilian population, military units were used, formed mainly of OUN soldiers specially trained for this purpose: the Konovalets legions, the Ukrainian Legion and others. Particularly "famous" the notorious "Nachtigall." One of the founders of the OUN, the Melnikist Bogdan Mikhailuk (Knish), in his brochure “Riot of Bandera”, published in 1950, wrote: “They (Bandera. - MB) called him with a loud name“ Legion ”, and the Germans“ Nightingale ” because his task was to go behind the German troops, to sing Ukrainian songs and create friendly moods for the Germans among the Ukrainian population. ” How did the “nightingales” create “friendly moods for the Germans”?
Already in the first hours of the occupation of Lviv, massacres began on its inhabitants, accompanied by torture. To this end, special teams were formed from the formed auxiliary police and legionnaires who were engaged in the liquidation of local government officials, Poles and Jews. During the period of 1 4 1941 July, with the participation nahtigalevtsev in Lviv were destroyed outstanding Polish scientists and intellectuals - Academician Soloviev, Professor Bartel, Boi Zhelensky, Seradsky, Novitsky, Lomnicky, Domasevich, Rentsky, Weigel, Ostrovsky, Manchevsky, Grek, Krukovsky, Dobzhanetsky and others (Alexander Korman. From the bloody days of Lviv 1941, London, 1991).
The terrible situation in the Nazi-occupied territory turned out to be Jews, in which the fascist ideology of Dmitry Dontsov mechanically transferred the German practice of complete physical elimination. Witness of the mass murder of Jews in Lviv in the first days of the war became known throughout the world fighter against Nazism, Simon Wiesenthal, whose mother-in-law was killed in this city just because she was lagging behind a column of other tribesmen who died at the hands of bandits a little later.
The massacres of Jews in Lviv were truly described by Julian Schulmeister in his book Hitlerism in the History of Jews, which was published in Kiev in 1990.
Here are some excerpts from eyewitness recollections of the mass crimes of fascism, published in Schulmeister’s book.
Testimony of F. Friedman: “In the first days of the German occupation, from June 30 to July 3, bloody and brutal pogroms were organized. Ukrainian nationalists and organized Ukrainian police (auxiliary police) began to hunt Jewish residents in the streets. They broke into apartments, grabbed men, sometimes the whole family, not excluding children. ”
Testimony of Janina Hesheles: “Yellow-blue banners are flying. The streets are full of Ukrainians with sticks and pieces of iron, screams are heard ... Not far from the post office there are people with shovels, Ukrainians beat them, shout: "Jews, Jews! .." On the street Kollontai guys beat Jews with brooms, stones. Leading to the prison "Brigid" on Kazimirovka. On the boulevard they beat again ... "
Testimony Rubinstein: “The next day, the Germans, along with the Ukrainians, arrange a pogrom. Then about three thousand Jews were killed ... ”
Testimony of Ukrainian Kazimira Porai (from the diary): “What I saw on the market today could have happened in ancient times. Perhaps wild people did this ... Near the Town Hall, the road is covered with broken glass ... Soldiers with SS emblems that speak Ukrainian, torture and mock the Jews. Forced to sweep the area with their clothes - blouses, dresses, even hats. They put two trolleys, one at the corner of Krakowska street, the other on Galitskaya street, forcing the Jews to collect glass and carry it with their bare hands to the carts ... they beat them with sticks and pieces of wire. The road from Galitskaya to Krakow is covered with blood that flows from human hands ... ”
Nakhtigalevsky executioners tortured thousands of innocent Soviet citizens in Zolochiv and Ternopil, Satanovo and Vinnitsa, other cities and villages of Ukraine and Belarus, where the Abwehr unit was held. Bloody orgies and mass executions of these executioners were also committed in Stanislav. There, in the early days of the Nazi occupation, 250 teachers, doctors, engineers, and lawyers were destroyed.
The nationalists dealt with the Jewish population especially cruelly. In the first months of the occupation of the western regions of Ukraine, the Ounites, along with the Nazis, organized “crystal nights” - they shot, killed, and burned in Lviv, Ternopil, Nadvornaya tens of thousands of Jews. In Stanislav alone, from July 1941 to July 1942, the Hitlerites, together with the OUN, destroyed 26 thousands of Jews, which was confirmed in Münster (Germany) at the trial of the former head of the security police and SD in Stanislav G. Krieger in 1966 (Cherednichenko V. P.Nacionalism against Nationalities K., 1970, p. 95).
For the armed struggle with the Belarusian partisans, the Nachtigall battalion at the end of October 1941 was recalled from the front and merged into one formation with the Roland battalion - the so-called Schutzmanshaft battalion. In the middle of March, the 1942 of the 201 th Schutzmanshaft battalion led by the OUN major Abwehr major Yevgeny Pobigushchy and his deputy Hauptmann Roman Shukhevich were transferred to Belarus. Here he became known as the division of the 201 police division, which, together with other brigades and operational battalions, acted under the rule of the Obergruppenführer SS Bach-Zalewski.
What was the “fighting valor” of the Runner and Shukhevych, as well as the whole Shuttsmanshaft battalion, said in the book of the famous Ukrainian researcher V.I. Maslovsky “They fought against Ukrainian Ukrainians in the rocks of the Other Party Day” (M., 1999). “He said that“ he is ready to do it, ”writes the author,“ he is responsible for everything else, ”he said. the operatives “Bolotyan the Lihomanka”, “Trikutnik”, “Cottbus” and the Youngs ”(C. 27). There are dozens of burnt farms and villages, an uncountable number of ruined lives of Belarusian citizens on their “battle score”.
Ukrainian policemen left their bloody trail on the Ukrainian land, destroying the Volyn village of Kortelis and the 2800 of its inhabitants to the ground, about which Vladimir Yavorivsky, now a Byutov poet who earned the status of heroes for these executioners, wrote in his time in the book “Vognennі Korteliсиi”.
Until now, for researchers is terra incognita the role of Ukrainian nationalists in the tragedy of Babi Yar. In the Soviet period, this was done for the sake of the friendship of nations, contemptuously called the former singer of this very friendship, Vitaly Korotich, vulgar. Today's "historians" are trying to "black dog to wash off white."
September 20 1941 Kiev was occupied by the Germans. And a few days later the future participants of the bloody action in Babiy Yar - the 4 sunder command led by the sadist Paul Blobel, two punitive Ukrainian police battalions under the command of B. Konik and I. Kedyumich arrived in the city. As well as the infamous “Bukovinsky Kureen” under the guidance of the fancier Peter Voinovsky, who had already distinguished himself by bloody pogroms, executions and looting on his way to Kiev in Kamenets-Podolsky, Zhmerinka, Proskurov, Vinnitsa, Zhytomyr and other cities. By September 26 in Kiev gathered over 2 thousands of policemen and SS officers (A. Kruglov. The Holocaust Encyclopedia. K., 2000, p. 203).
It is a lie to claim that the UPA was created to fight the German occupiers. French researcher Alain Guerin directly pointed out that the UPA is a product of the long-term activity of the German intelligence service (Geren A. Gray Cardinal. M., 1971).
It was created entirely on the Hitler model. Most of its leaders were trained by the Nazis in special military reconnaissance and sabotage schools in Germany on the eve of the war. Many were given the rank of Abwehr. For example, the commander of the UPA Klyachkivsky (Savur) had the rank of senior lieutenant of the Abwehr and at the same time was a member of the central line of the OUN. Ivan Grignoch (Gerasimovskiy) - the captain of the Abwehr, at the beginning of the war, the chaplain of the Nachtigall battalion, then the official in the Rosenberg department, and since February 1943 - mediator in the negotiations between the commands of the UPA and the German occupation authorities. Negotiations on the interaction of the UPA and the German troops against the Red Army were conducted by Alexander Lutsky (Bohun), the senior lieutenant of the Abwehr, a member of the main headquarters of the UPA, the commander of the UPA "West-Carpathians"; Vasily Sidor (Shelest) - the captain of the Abwehr, the commander of the company of the Schutzmanshaft battalion, "famous" in Belarus, then the commander of the UPA "Zapad-Karpaty" (after leaving Lutsky); Pyotr Melnik (Khmara) - commander of the company of the SS division "Galicia", commander of the UPA in the Stanislav region; Mikhail Andrusyak (Rezun) - lieutenant of the Abwehr, served in Nachtigall, commanded a detachment in the Stanislav region; Yuri Lopatinsky (Kalina) - senior lieutenant of the Abwehr, a member of the central wire of the OUN, a member of the General Staff of the UPA. The heads of the security service of the UPA were, as a rule, former members of the Gestapo, gendarmerie, and auxiliary Ukrainian police. All the abovementioned and many other leaders were awarded the German Orders for Eastern peoples.
The fascists not only formed the UPA, but also armed it. This was done by the abvercommand-202.
According to incomplete data, 700 mortars, about 10 thousand machine guns and light machine guns, 26 thousand machine guns, 22 thousand guns, 100 thousand grenades, 80 thousand mines and shells, several million cartridges, radio stations, portable machines were handed over to the UPA for armament by the UPA. and etc.
A typical example of the interaction of the OUN-UPA with the German troops is the fact that the 13 January 1944 of the German garrison in Kamen-Kashirsky of the Volyn region was replaced by UPA troops. He left 300 rifles, 2 ammo box, 65 outfit kits, 200 laundry pairs and other equipment.
In March, 1944, partisans of AFFyodorov’s compound, in repelling an UPA armed attack on one of the detachments, seized a document confirming the connection of the warriors with the Germans. Here is its content: “Friend Bogdan! Send 15 people to us in Kuren who will work on the construction of the bridge. 3 March 1944, I agreed with the German captain Oshft that we will build a bridge for the crossing of the German troops, for which they will give us reinforcements - two battalions with all the equipment. Together with these battalions 18 March with. We will clear the forest from the red partisans on both sides of the Stokhod River and give free access to the rear of the Red Army for our UPA detachments that are waiting there. At the talks, we stayed for 15 hours. The Germans gave us lunch. Glory to Ukraine! Commander of the smoking house Eagle. 5 March 1944 of the Year "(Miroslav Berdnik. Pawns in someone else's game. Pages of the history of Ukrainian nationalism. 2010).
Cooperation of the UPA with the Germans was not a single fact, but encouraged from above. Thus, the Commander-in-Chief of the Security Police and the SD in Ukraine, Brigadenführer SS and Police Major-General Brenner 12 February 1944 directed his intelligence services in the western regions of Ukraine to the fact that due to successful negotiations with the Ukrainian Insurgent Army near the villages of Derazhnoye, Verba (Rivne region. - M. B) The leaders of the UPA pledged to send their intelligence officers to the Soviet rear and inform the 1 department of the combat groups stationed at the headquarters of the German armies "South" about the results of their work. In this regard, Brenner ordered to allow UPA agents with captain Felix’s passes to move freely, to prohibit weapons from withdrawing from UPA members, and to use identification marks (spread fingers in front of the left hand) when the UPA groups met with German military units (TsGAVOVU). 4628 (Ref. 1, d. 10, p. 218 — 233).
When Soviet troops defeated the UPA grouping in the Rivne region in April, 1944 captured 65 by German servicemen who were part of the UPA structural units. This fact is mentioned in the collection of documents "Internal Troops in the Great Patriotic War 1941 — 1945”. It also contains a statement by a German prisoner of war about the links of the command of the German Wehrmacht and the UPA in the joint struggle against the Red Army and the Soviet partisans.
Alain Geran in the book "The Gray Cardinal" answers the question: did Bandera kill the Germans, and if they did, then under what circumstances? Yes, they killed, Geren writes, but only because of a misunderstanding or when they were disposed of as a “unmasking material.” The fact is that quite a few German soldiers were seconded to units of the UPA. Caught surrounded by Soviet troops, Bandera in some cases destroyed their allies in order to cover the traces of German-Ukrainian cooperation. By misunderstanding, if the means of identification did not work, for example, when the Germans took the Bandera in disguise as the Red Army, the Germans were mistaken for enemies.
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Historians-falsifiers, offering a Ukrainian-centric concept of the history of the Second World War, and the leadership of Ukraine are trying to whitewash both the OUN and the UPA by hook or by crook. At the same time, they strive to take away the Victory Day from the Ukrainian people. And in the place of the common for the people sacred symbol, they strive to establish the symbol of oblivion - the poppy, so that later on people infested with poppy infusion should impose evil false worships, which filled the Ukrainian land with the blood of its citizens.