Military Review

Day of partisans and underground fighters

33
Today in our country one of those holidays is celebrated, which emphasizes the role of the people in the liberation wars that have ever been unleashed by the enemy against the Russian (Soviet) statehood. We are talking about such a holiday as the Day of the partisans and underground fighters. This is a relative new date in the calendar of military holidays. It appeared in 2009 year on the basis of the presidential decree "On Amendments to Article 1-1 of the Federal Law" On Days of Military Glory and Memorable Dates of Russia ". It was this change in the Federal Law that gave the Day of the partisans and underground fighters who made a huge contribution to the Victory in both the Great Patriotic War and the World War 1812, the official status.


The official entry into force of the law occurred on January 1 of the year 2010.

Day of partisans and underground fighters


And today, the Day of partisans and underground fighters in Russia is celebrated for the seventh time. Ceremonial and memorable events primarily take place in those regions of Russia in which the partisan movement was most developed, and in the territories of which, at one time occupied by the enemy. These are Bryansk, Smolensk, Kursk regions, other regions of the country.

In the Bryansk region today, representatives of delegations gather not only from other regions, territories and republics of the country, but also from Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, to recall the invaluable feat that was accomplished by the partisan movement and the entire Soviet people.



Information Agency TASS cites the statement of the Deputy Governor of the Bryansk region Alexander Korobko:
Celebrations in honor of the Day of partisans and underground fighters will visit delegations from the regions of Russia, as well as the Slavic states - Belarus, Ukraine, Gagauzia and Transnistria of the Republic of Moldova. At a joint celebration that will unfold on Partizan Square in the center of Bryansk, we once again recall that together defeated fascism, pay tribute to the memory of the feat of our ancestors.


Among the ceremonial and commemorative events - historical reconstruction on Partizanskaya glade. This is a memorial complex located a few kilometers from Bryansk on the Snezhet River. At this place in September 1941 a general gathering of partisan detachments of the Bryansk region was held. The memorial was opened in 1969 and today consists of many architectural and historical objects that tell about the feat of arms of partisans and underground workers during the years of World War II.

The central monument of the memorial is the Wall of Memory. It was discovered exactly 30 years ago - in the 1986 year. Its authors - A. Kobilinets and A. Vinogradov. On the wall of red granite carved more than 8 thousands of names of those who fell in battles for their homeland partisans.



From the poem of the machine gunner of the partisan brigade named after E. Kravtsov Fyodor Kostin:
There is a forest glade near Bryansk,
What a thousand in our land,
But only this name is Guerrilla
In memory of those who fell for their land.


During the historical reconstruction, its participants will tell the guests of the event about the activities of the Bryansk partisans, and then, according to local media, the rally will start, during which participants will visit the parking lot of one of the partisan detachments.



Since 2007, the exposition of military equipment has been opened on the Guerrilla Meadow.



Why is the Day of the partisans and underground fighters celebrated in our country precisely on June 29? The reason is that on that very day 75 years ago the directive of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (B) issued. This directive prescribed the creation of partisan detachments that would fight the enemy in the territories they occupied. From the directive text (form 4, op. 11, d. 68):

In the areas occupied by the enemy, create guerrilla groups and sabotage groups to fight enemy army units (...) to create intolerable conditions for the enemy and all his accomplices, to pursue and destroy them at every turn, to disrupt all their activities.

The directive defined the main tasks of the partisan movement:
The main tasks of the partisan actions are: the destruction of the enemy’s rear, the destruction of his headquarters and other military institutions, the destruction of railways and bridges, the arson and explosion of warehouses and barracks, the destruction of enemy personnel, the capture of prisoners or the destruction of representatives of the German authorities.

From the 10 directive clause:
The governing bodies of the partisan movement, the commanders and commissars of the partisan detachments, along with the combat work, develop and conduct regular political work among the population, clarify the truth about the Soviet Union, about the merciless struggle of the Red Army and the entire Soviet people against the fascist invaders, about the inevitable death of the bloodthirsty occupants. Expose the facts of false German propaganda, foster hatred and bitterness towards the German invaders. To this end, organize the publication of newspapers, leaflets and other printed materials in the occupied territory.

The Supreme High Command of the Red Army demands from all the leading bodies, commanders, political workers and fighters of the partisan movement to launch a struggle against the enemy in its rear (...), to beat the fascist invaders continuously and mercilessly, without giving them a breather. This is the best and most valuable assistance to the Red Army.

Joint actions of the Red Army and the partisan movement, the enemy will be destroyed.
People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR I.Stalin


In the same Bryansk region, the Day of partisans and underground fighters attaches such great importance (and from a historical point of view this is more than justified) that, by the decision of local authorities, the territory of the 29 region of June is declared a day off. On the territory of Bryansk region alone, during the Great Patriotic War, 27 partisan brigades operated, 139 partisan detachments, the total number of which exceeded 60 thousand people. The partisans terrified the occupiers, as evidenced by the numerous memoirs of German soldiers and officers, including those published in the Western press.

To counter the guerrillas, the command of the German army decided to create the so-called ägdkomando (literally "Hunters"), who actually used the same partisan tactics. They tracked the movement of partisan wagons and columns, struck at partisan sites.

In March, 1942, the German command due to large losses in manpower and in military equipment (not to mention the infrastructure facilities) decided to create a special anti-partisan body. We are talking about the Special Staff "R" - Sondershtab "Russia", whose tasks included: collecting data on the partisans and the local residents who come into contact with them, carrying out terrorist acts against the commanding staff of the partisan movement and its main activists. Police structures (policemen) from the local population were actively involved in the work of the Special Staff "P". It was on the policemen that the main punitive work was assigned to their own countrymen, who helped the partisans in the fight against the enemy.

As a result, neither the command team nor the special headquarters helped the German fascist pack to conquer the Soviet people. Thanks to the well-established cooperation of partisan detachments and underground organizations with parts of the Red Army, the Nazi ridge was broken. After reaching the borders of the USSR, the overwhelming majority of the representatives of the partisan brigades joined the ranks of the regular army and drove the enemy all the way to Berlin.
Photos used:
http://partizanpolyana.ru, yansk.ru, ВКонтакте
33 comments
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  1. Andrey K
    Andrey K 29 June 2016 07: 06 New
    20
    The idea of ​​a holiday is good. Partisans really made their huge contribution to the defeat of the Nazi hordes good
    Take, for example, that in the zone of action of some partisan formations of the Nazis with their minions there was no spirit at all. Collective farms worked, the vertical of Soviet power functioned good
    And as far as the activity of the partisans violated the logistics of the Wehrmacht, you can read from the whining reports of the invaders negative
    1. Alena Frolovna
      Alena Frolovna 29 June 2016 07: 27 New
      13
      Very accurately about the guerrilla war, Leo Tolstoy said back in World War 1812:

      "The club of the people's war has risen with all its formidable and majestic strength ..."

      And Denis Davydov after the Victory added:

      But since the enemy is fierce
      We dare to resist
      My first duty, sacred duty -
      To rise again for the motherland ...

      So our people rose a quarter and a century later and waved this club so that the fascist thief was more afraid of the partisans than the soldiers of the army.

      Honor and glory to all partisans and underground fighters. And how can one fail to recall the guys from Molodaya Gvardiya again.
      Member of the headquarters of the underground Komsomol organization "Young Guard" Vasily Ivanovich Levashov:

      - When we went to the operation, in a group or alone, we assumed that we might not return home. They assumed, but believed - and how they believed! - that we will return ...

      We in Krasnodon did not at all think that any of us would take Berlin. But we believed in the coming Victory, and with every step we took, from the leaflet to the explosion of the mine, we brought it closer.
      1. Tatyana
        Tatyana 29 June 2016 09: 12 New
        +8
        Glory to the Russian and Soviet heroes of the partisan movement

        See "The Bryansk Forest Noisily Noisy - Songs of the War Years - BEST PHOTOS - Partisans."


        The severely Bryansk forest was noisy.
        Words: Sofronov A.
        Music: Katz S.

        The severely Bryansk forest was noisy
        Blue fogs came down
        And the pines heard the surroundings
        How they walked, how the guerrillas walked along the path.
        And the pines heard the surroundings
        How they walked, how the guerrillas walked along the path.

        And a formidable night on the enemies
        They raided the fascist headquarters.
        And the bullets loudly between the trunks
        In the oak forests of Bryansk whistled.

        In the forests, there is no salvation for enemies
        Soviet grenades are flying
        And the commander shouts after them:
        "Smash, smash the invaders, guys"!
        And the commander shouts after them:
        "Smash, smash the invaders, guys"!

        The severely Bryansk forest was noisy
        Blue fogs came down
        And the pines heard the surroundings
        How they walked, how the guerrillas walked with victory.
        And the pines heard the surroundings
        How they walked, how the guerrillas walked with victory.
        1. grandson of the hero
          grandson of the hero 29 June 2016 10: 17 New
          13
          The Partisan Republic of Belarus congratulates you on this occasion.
          I will also accept your congratulations - the grandson of the Hero of the Soviet Union, the first Komsomol partisan awarded this Great Award. (Grandfather’s brother).
          I am proud of Belarus - a partisan region. I am proud of the partisans of our great homeland. Immense bagodarnost you guerrillas and underground. Eternal memory to the fallen ...
          1. Altona
            Altona 29 June 2016 10: 43 New
            +5
            Quote: Hero's grandson
            The Partisan Republic of Belarus congratulates you on this occasion.

          2. Nicholas C.
            Nicholas C. 29 June 2016 10: 43 New
            +4
            The first feeling that the article evokes is bewilderment. In the Bryansk region they know their partisan history. A lot of work is devoted to the preservation of historical memory. The white search movement is seriously developed.

            Tens of thousands of partisans were not just sitting in the forest, but creating problems for the invaders. Such that, the Nazis had to lead against them MILITARY operations are almost continuous, using also tens of thousands of personnel (divisions, including tank divisions). Several Magyar divisions were used here on a permanent basis. That's really a beast. Worse than the Germans. An animal in the sense that these "civilized" people burned down villages with people alive because partisan families lived there, or because some occupant was killed near the village, or the village is too close to the forest, to the areas controlled by partisans, with the current Soviet regime, or for the fact that there is something for looting ... The combat value of the policemen in anti-partisan actions was minimal. But to show where the families of partisans live - they are. If only because the Magyars would not rob and burn their own. And that was the case when Magyars grabbed the house of deputy Kaminsky.

            And it is not necessary to put the Bryansk policemen on a par with the Bandera. And then Jesuit propaganda likes to say "here you are." 1. In contrast to the Bandera, they were mostly not volunteers, but mobilized. 2. They had to clean up with the Germans, taking their families with them. Since no one was forgiven here. Even distant relatives were reminded (to put it mildly).

            Yagdkommandy. Temporary anti-partisan small detachments were created by anyone (the Wehrmacht, SS, SD, etc.) on the basis of tactical considerations. So what?
            According to "Sonderkomand R" it looks like a stuffing in general. You cannot put the cart in front of the paravoz.

            Such an impression from this nameless article that someone's godfather working in the museum took some leaves for her from available materials. And what more important she did not know.

            Nicholas C.
            The son of the partisan and grandson of the underground of the Bryansk region.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 29 June 2016 07: 21 New
    +6
    It’s not uncommon at night by the fire
    We are sitting quietly
    Any of us shoots accurately
    Yes, we are talking quietly.

    No, not we hunters,
    Wounds heal on everyone
    Looks like that and were born,
    In the woods we walk ... partisans!

    Everyone has their own family in the distance,
    The wall is your duty to the country
    And to save the vastness of the earth,
    Will have to fight back the war!

    Have to shed hot blood
    Do not spare the cartridge for the enemy’s strength,
    Yes, to kill, so that after living in peace,
    So that the grandson did not see the war picture.

    Our boss, dashing Cossack,
    He is from the Don: he wears a cloak on his shoulders,
    Like a bear's paw his fist
    But there is so much good in his eyes.

    Happened to sit by the fire
    A cigarette in the teeth, out of habit,
    He’ll remove the checker from his horse,
    Yes, PPSh will take on a wreck.

    He’ll sharpen the checker, check the machine,
    He knows ... Tomorrow we'll flush with a flurry
    On the enemy. So that the soldier gets to the house,
    But we’ll lie under the bullets here ...

    Vladislav Andreevich Kharitonov
  3. PValery53
    PValery53 29 June 2016 07: 22 New
    10
    “Achtung! Schießen die Partizanen!" When they were taken prisoner, they shouted: "Gitrel kaput!" - Guerrillas are a serious fear and horror for the common "civilizers".
    1. DMB_95
      DMB_95 29 June 2016 09: 43 New
      +7
      And here (in the Pskov region) many "civilizers" shouted in Estonian before they died. These cowardly s / uki from the Estonian SS legion, together with the Germans, burned down several hundred villages in our country. Some are with people. On the Eastern Front, they did not show themselves in any way. And the Germans sent them to fight with the civilian population.
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 29 June 2016 10: 04 New
        +1
        Quote: DMB_95
        These cowardly s / uki from the Estonian SS legion, along with the Germans, burned several hundred villages with us. Some are with people. But on the Eastern Front they did not show themselves.

        You can read about the battle for Narva in 1944.
        1. DMB_95
          DMB_95 29 June 2016 10: 46 New
          +2
          Quote: Warrior2015

          You can read about the battle for Narva in 1944.

          You can read about the burning of the village. Kraukha and dozens of such crimes.
  4. potapych
    potapych 29 June 2016 07: 26 New
    +8
    Partisans' first attack on a German convoy occurred on June 27, 1941. It was a real second front.
    1. ruskih
      ruskih 29 June 2016 15: 05 New
      +3
      I’ll clarify. June 28, 1941 in the vicinity of the village of Posenichi, Pinsky district, Brest region. was the first partisan battle of the first partisan detachment under the command of Vasily Zakharovich Korzh.

      Read the link http://www.warheroes.ru/hero/hero.asp?Hero_id=3391

      And yet, to whom the story is interesting, enter: http://militera.lib.ru/memo/russian/sb_bug_v_ogne/index.html
      Or simply a collection of “Bug on Fire” military literature, you will not regret reading these memoirs (in particular, guerrilla unit commanders).

      "Monument to partisans and Red Army men in Guta-Tract Guta-Mikhalin is located on the territory of the Kvasevichy village council and is known for its fraternal cemetery with a fundamental monument on the mass grave. 175 people are buried in it, as well as in individual graves - 146 partisans and 29 soldiers of the Red Army ( 12 officers, 6 sergeants, 11 soldiers) who died in the fight against the Nazi invaders in 1941-1944
      Read more: http://news.tut.by/society/454806.html
  5. Egoza
    Egoza 29 June 2016 07: 40 New
    13
    I congratulate all living partisans on this holiday. I wish them good health and that their deeds are always remembered by grateful descendants. I proudly remember my teacher N.V. Prikhodko. - liaison S.A. Kovpaka. And how painful it is that in Ukraine nowadays completely different "partisans" are held in high esteem. Moreover, Poroshenko's "directives" on the creation of "partisan detachments" are being implemented. A large-scale action is now underway at the ZU - "rest camps" for teenagers have been created in the former caches, they will be trained under the guidance of the surviving Bandera and ... foreign instructors. Moreover, a British director will be filming about it. Of course, parents are happy to send their children there - free food, recreation and entertainment are now expensive. And no one thinks that in the future such education will cost these children much more, at the cost of life.
  6. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 29 June 2016 07: 46 New
    +8
    Time is inexorable. Our task is to preserve in history the descendants of the story as it is, without cuts and embellishment. The partisan movement helped accelerate the defeat and annihilation of fascism for more than one day.
    All Partisans - Veterans with the Feast, those who perished and those who are no longer alive - eternal memory!
    Be silent for a minute ...
  7. Amurets
    Amurets 29 June 2016 07: 50 New
    +5
    But partisan detachments and the foundations of the partisan movement began to be created in 1924, bases were laid, cadres were being prepared, but in 1936 all this began to be dismantled and destroyed. Vaupshasov.S.A.Zaslonov.K.S. and a number of famous partisan commanders.
    http://ww2history.ru/index.php?newsid=3562
    http://www.thetankmaster.com/publication.asp?id=14061
    And how would it help in the initial period of the war, when all this had to be re-created. A plus article. For recalling this holiday.
  8. surrozh
    surrozh 29 June 2016 07: 57 New
    +2
    It is a worthy occasion to note.
  9. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 29 June 2016 08: 10 New
    +6
    This is a very good holiday. Thinks about those people who cannot be broken, scared. Even if the enemy is nearby. They fought a war, opposed the enemy, tried to keep themselves secret and bring Victory closer.
    Eternal Memory to the Heroes of the Fatherland
  10. Tatar 174
    Tatar 174 29 June 2016 08: 22 New
    +6
    Any enemy-occupier was afraid and afraid of partisans, and now this is so and is it not because our enemies Anglo-Euro-Americans (USA) are doing everything now to reduce or destroy our innate patriotism of the Russian people, respect and love for our common Homeland - Russia. Is it not for this that they are doing everything so that as many people as possible leave Russia, bribing those on whom much depends in Russia, allowing them to buy themselves "alternate airfields" outside the borders of Russia? This means that they still have a strong desire to seize Russian territory and they are doing everything possible to minimize the number of possible partisans, if the time comes to enter our territory with weapons ... ...
  11. Tanya
    Tanya 29 June 2016 08: 36 New
    11
    Partisans and underground members made a huge contribution to the common Victory.
    Congratulations to the living and the Eternal Memory of the fallen ...

    Among them was unique - Fritz Hans Werner Schmenkel (who defected from the Wehrmacht in November 1941) - a Russian partisan, Hero of the Soviet Union (Posthumous).
  12. atamankko
    atamankko 29 June 2016 08: 59 New
    +7
    The people who rose to fight the invaders are invincible,
    the eternal memory of the dead and dead partisans,
    honor and respect to the living.
  13. drop
    drop 29 June 2016 09: 00 New
    +8
    I had a good friend, General Denisov Vladimir Ignatievich (already dead), was a partisan in the Bryansk region during the Second World War. In my family, Aunt Olya (in the Vitebsk region) was an underground worker and partisan. Eternal glory to you, and rest in peace. I have the honor.
  14. Zomanus
    Zomanus 29 June 2016 10: 05 New
    +4
    Yeah, the guerrillas asked the heat. And in general, few in effectiveness are compared with our partisans.
    And all because the supply and management came from Moscow.
    And people knew that suffering was at war, that the country was fighting. the country is winning.
    And such knowledge greatly affects morale,
    when you are under occupation.
  15. Million
    Million 29 June 2016 10: 14 New
    +5
    The right holiday! Without partisans and underground, it would not be easy to win the war
  16. akudr48
    akudr48 29 June 2016 10: 52 New
    +6
    There is a book by Vershigora "People with a clear conscience", the history of the emergence and struggle of partisan detachments in Ukraine, about Kovpak's campaigns.

    There, at least half of all the mentioned heroic characters by last name are Ukrainians, and they fought bravely. About Bendera and, in general, Galitsaev and other zapadentsev, the book says quite carefully, yes, they say, there were enemies, but with enemies - like the enemies of the Kovpak partisans.
    And now, Ukrainianism has created from the Maloros the same policemen who kill the Donbass.
    The topic of betrayal and the fight against defectors in the book is severely shown, no one was left without punishment.
    The partisan movement was supported by all the power of the Soviet and party authorities of the USSR,

    But after all, these traitors were at the level of a village, a farm, a small town, served in the gendarmes or managers, were all sorts of small riffraff.
    After all, there were no traitors at the level of big cities, regions or republics. It was unthinkable to think about it.

    And now, no matter what the governor, if the FSB takes a tighter stand, then a potential traitor, or at least a thief and a corrupt official, such as the icon of the Belykh liberals, which is not far from betrayal. And the picture is the same above, in the ministries they are sitting and harming, at the same time they are corrupt and corrupt, continuing their holiday of life.

    Therefore, it’s just right to mark the day of the partisan as a day of struggle and deliverance from thieves and traitors of the country.
  17. Fonmeg
    Fonmeg 29 June 2016 10: 52 New
    +7
    When an adult takes up arms, this is love for the motherland, this is responsibility, this is duty. When a child picks up a rifle, this is a cry of despair.
    During the years of World War II, no one knows how many Soviet boys and girls abandoned childhood in the name of peace in their native land. The names that have come down to us are grains. The lists of young heroes are tens and hundreds of times less. But in the current Russian legislation there are simply no “sons of regiments”.
    Our power, living in sweetness, eats bread and butter, and crumbs, not even from the table, to the elderly and children! He cannot think human power, hence all the troubles of ordinary people, especially the older generation, which is actually doomed to survive! It’s bitter and insulting especially for those who laid down their lives, their health on the altar of the fatherland!
  18. bmv1202
    bmv1202 29 June 2016 11: 27 New
    11
    How happy my grandfather, Ilya Ivanovich Gapontsev, would celebrate this holiday! As a boy, at the age of 14, he became a partisan messenger in Dyatkovo, was captured by the Nazis, miraculously escaped from the Gestapo. He ascribed age to himself and continued to fight: first with a submachine gunner, and after a severe wound, with a medical orderly. Freed Prague and Budapest.
    We don’t know many details of his partisan life, my grandfather didn’t like to talk about the war, laughed off or answered monosyllabic ... Eternal memory to him and his fellow soldiers!
    1. shturman032
      shturman032 29 June 2016 23: 26 New
      +1
      The strange thing is, all veterans have a different attitude to war. Someone talks about the war, someone not. My grandfather never told me how not to ask him. He was disabled, a machine gun knee crushed. Grandma also says almost nothing, and by May 9th, even the TV does not turn on, except for the parade. Says films about the war can not watch.
  19. Dr. Sorge
    Dr. Sorge 29 June 2016 11: 38 New
    +7
    Eternal memory to the defenders of our Fatherland! Partisans bow deeply for their work behind enemy lines!
    And may God keep the partisans fighting in the rear for New Russia!
  20. Dr. Sorge
    Dr. Sorge 29 June 2016 12: 25 New
    +7
    Monument to the partisans in the city of Pinsk, Belarus.
  21. Des10
    Des10 29 June 2016 19: 53 New
    +2
    This is the memory of those born and raised in the USSR.
    For the present generation - partisans and underground members --- those who worked for the Victory --- in our rear !!!
    From today's communication with youth. Talked today. 1 course MEPhI. Afuet.
  22. Signaller
    Signaller 29 June 2016 22: 04 New
    0
    Super. And where to enroll in the sub-Polish ?????
  23. parafoiler
    parafoiler 17 July 2016 07: 52 New
    0
    The contribution of partisans and underground workers to the Victory is invaluable. Congratulations on the holiday and bow to you for courage and heroism!