Military Review

70 years ago, 28 June 1946, the first GAZ-M-20 "Victory" rolled off the assembly line

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The car with a beautiful and symbolic name "Victory" has become one of the symbols of the Soviet Union, without losing its charm and charm, and after decades. This passenger car was mass-produced at the Gorky Automobile Plant from 1946 to 1958 a year. The first “Victories” (factory index of the model M-20) went off the conveyor of GAZ 28 in June 1946 of the year, on this day 70 started production of this model years ago. In all, 28 1946 31 1958 241 497 37 492 14 222 XRUMX cars of this type, including XNUMX XNUMX taxi cars and XNUMX XNUMX rare convertibles for the Soviet Union, were assembled from XNUMX in June XNUMX of the year to XNUMX in May of XNUMX of the year.


GAZ-M-20 became the first Soviet passenger car with a monocoque and one of the world's first high-volume cars that were produced with a 4-pontoon-type door body that did not have separate wings, headlights and footboards. In our country, "Victory" has become a truly cult, and today thousands of model fans are chasing the retro cars that have survived. In the USSR, “Victory” was the first mass passenger car. Before her, personal use cars were considered in the country only as a government award.

A well-known joke is connected with the car. When Joseph Stalin was shown the car and offered his first name “Motherland”, he frowned and asked with a smile: “Well, how much will we have a Motherland?” On the same day, the name was changed to “Victory”, under which the car entered forever history. However, all of the above is nothing more than a beautiful legend. The car was originally planned to be called "Victory" in honor of the upcoming victory in the war with Nazi Germany, and the name "Homeland" was just an internal factory.



Work on the creation of the car GAZ-M-20 "Victory" began in the war years. The government assignment for designing and preparing for the mass production of a new car that would meet all the modern trends in the global automotive industry and had better performance compared to GAZ-М1, GAZ management received in December 1941 of the year. Surprisingly, it was an order not for a truck, not for a tractor for guns, and not even for an ambulance, but for an ordinary car, which was very symbolic. But at that time the plant was completely focused on the production of military equipment and the project was simply postponed. At the same time, at the very end of 1941, the captured German Opel Kapitan 1938 of the year of release was brought to Gorky. It was decided to choose this car as a prototype, since it best conformed to the requirements of the received technical assignment and the ideas of the Soviet designers on what exactly a modern passenger car should be.

In practice, work on creating a new passenger car began at the Molotov car factory in Gorky only in 1943 after the victory that the Red Army won near Stalingrad. Based on the sketches of the artist Veniamin Samoilov, gypsum models of the future machine were made on a scale of 1 to 5, and the life-size model was made in full size mahogany. Work on the car did not stop even after large-scale bombing of GAZ German aviation June 1943 year.

It was the artist Samoilov created a unique and recognizable image of the car to this day. Unlike the final version of the “Victory”, the Samoilov’s rear doors were hung on the rear pillar of the body and opened the same way as the German Opel Kapitan back against the car’s course. Unfortunately, the artist himself did not see his brainchild in metal: he tragically died after finishing work on the model sketches.



The first prototype of the “Victory” was assembled on 6 in November on 1944 of the year, Andrey Aleksandrovich Lipgart, the chief designer of the Gorky Automobile Plant, personally brought the sample to the test site. Soon two more cars came to the test. Unlike the GAZ-M-20 serial cars, they differed in the presence of the 6-cylinder engine from the GAZ 11-73 (upgraded version of the GAZ-М1, which was produced during the war). This engine was manufactured under license from the American company Dodge. In the line of future cars "Victory" was supposed to find a place as machines with 6-cylinder engine (upgraded Dodge D5), and with the 4-cylinder engine.

In this case, the first modification with the 6-cylinder engine was supposed to be the main, and the second was originally designed for taxis. However, it was later decided to abandon the 6-cylinder version in favor of the 4-cylinder version. This was done in connection with considerations of fuel economy, in the postwar years in the country it simply was not enough, as well as simplifying the design of the car. The 4-cylinder engine of GAZ was unified in detail with another more powerful option, representing a six-truncated six, which was later widely used on ZIM cars and GAZ trucks, in particular, the famous GAZ-51.

For the middle 1940-ies, "Victory" was a fully revolutionary machine. Borrowing from the German Opel Kapitan 1938, the structure of the load-bearing body (power elements and interior panels), the designers of the Gorky Automobile Plant were able to completely rethink the appearance of the car and were able to adopt a number of such innovations that would become widespread in the West only a few years later. The German Opel Kapitan had 4 doors, while the front doors opened along the way of the car, and the rear doors up against the turn. At GAZ-M-20, all 4 doors opened along the way of the car - in a traditional way today. The modern (at that time) appearance of the Soviet car acquired thanks to the presence of the belt line, the combination of the front and rear wings with the body, and the lack of decorative footrests, a memorable alligator type hood, headlights mounted in the front of the body, and other characteristic details that are in the middle of the 1940 were not yet familiar.



For the first time in the practice of the Soviet automobile industry, the GAZ-M-20 Victory serially used independent front wheel suspension, hydraulic brakes, electric brake lights and direction indicators, all doors on the front hinges, an alligator type hood, two electric windshield wipers and thermostat in the cooling system. For the first time in the domestic passenger car of this class, a cabin heater with a windscreen was installed as standard equipment.

The working volume selected for the Victory 4-cylinder engine was 2,112 liters, it developed the maximum power in 50 hp The maximum torque this motor provided at 3600 revolutions per minute. The engine has managed to earn a reputation as a reliable, high-torque and durable. However, the Pobeda engine was clearly lacking power, which was also noted by foreign journalists in their vehicle reviews (the car was also exported). Up to speed in 50 km / h the car accelerated quite briskly, but then overclocking indicated a failure. Speed ​​in 100 km / h "Victory" reached only in 45 seconds, and the maximum speed of the machine was limited to 105 km / h. It is curious that for its time the GAZ-M-20 was a reasonably economical car, but by modern standards the fuel consumption for an engine of such a working volume was great. According to the technical data, the car consumed 11 liters of fuel per 100 kilometers, operating consumption was 13,5 liters, and real fuel consumption ranged from 13 to 15 liters per 100 kilometers. The compression ratio of the GAZ M-20 “Victory” engine allowed it to operate normally on the lowest grade “66” gasoline.

Especially it was possible to identify and effective lever shock absorbers - the car was distinguished by good smoothness, as well as hydraulic drum brakes with common all-wheel drive. The latter have found their use in the Soviet automobile industry for the first time. The mechanism of the realized brakes was very simple - the pads were diluted with one hydraulic cylinder in each of the 4 brake discs.



At the time of the start of mass production, the Pobeda was favorably distinguished by its advanced design and modern design, but by the beginning of the 1950-s a number of design flaws in the car became obvious - first of all, the low functionality of the chosen fastback body type (very low ceiling height above the rear) seat, the almost complete lack of visibility back, a rather modest amount of luggage, a poor aerodynamic effect, which was associated with the appearance of lift when driving at high speed, as well as strong Because of all the listed reasons, the “general purpose” cars with the fastback body have not taken root anywhere in the world. By the middle of the 1950-s, the aggregate part of the car ceased to correspond to the world level (first of all, Since the 1952-1954, most American and many new European car models have begun to install overhead valves, curved windows, hypoid rear axles, etc.

Although the serial production of “Victory” was launched in Gorky 28 on June 1946 of the year, by the end of 1946, all 23 machines were assembled at GAZ. The truly mass production of cars was launched only 28 April 1947 of the year. It is noteworthy that GAZ-M-20 became the first passenger car in the USSR, which, in addition to the factory index, had its own name - “Victory”. The letter "M" in the factory index of the car meant the word "Molotovts" - from 1935 to 1957, the Gorky Automobile Plant bore the name of People's Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov. The figure "20" meant that the car belonged to the new model range, which had a reduced engine capacity (up to "two liters"). The models of the older GAZ line were designated as “1” - GAZ-12 “ZIM” and GAZ-13 “Chaika”. In subsequent years, this indexation at the plant was retained - GAZ-21 "Volga" and Gas-24 "Volga"

The first cars "Victory" were distributed solely on the instructions of the "top", under the personal signature of Molotov himself. At the initial stage, there were not enough machines even for heroes of the country and laureates of Stalin prizes. And yet, "Victory" has become a car that was available to the consumer. In the first Soviet motor show, located in Moscow, wealthy citizens had a choice between Moskvich-401 (9 thousand rubles), Victory (16 thousand rubles) and breathtakingly expensive ZIM for the Soviet Union (40 thousand rubles). It is worth noting that at that time period the salary of an experienced qualified engineer was approximately 600 rubles. "Victory" was already a big love among Soviet motorists, but for many it was an impossible dream. Due to the high price of excessive demand for GAZ M-20 in the country was not observed. In fairness it should be noted that the “Muscovites” 400 and 401, which were sold at 8 and 9 thousand rubles, respectively, were not in great demand by Soviet citizens. Despite this, they were able to produce and sell Victory 241 497 vehicles at GAZ.



The car went well and for export. Victories were mainly exported to Finland, where taxi drivers loved the car, to the Scandinavian countries, as well as to Belgium, where many Soviet cars were always sold. It is worth noting that taxis in Finland as a mass phenomenon arose largely due to the Soviet “Victory”. Up to this point, all the local taxi companies were equipped with different cars of pre-war models. In 1950, the first “Victories” also appeared in the UK, where they were sold by Belgian dealers of the Gorky Automobile Plant, as well as in the USA, where cars were imported from Europe by private individuals, mostly doing this out of curiosity. At the same time, initially this Soviet automobile received quite positive and positive reviews in the West.

Produced "Victory" under license in other countries. So, since 1951, the car was produced in Poland under the brand Warszawa, the cars were manufactured at the FSO factory (Fabryka Samochodów Osobowych). In Poland, this car was produced significantly longer than in the USSR. Production of "Warsaw" lasted until the year 1973, however, the car has undergone major upgrades. In particular, the later editions of the car received an overhead valve engine and new bodies: “sedan”, “pickup” and “station wagon”. At the same time, starting from the year 1956, the car was assembled exclusively from components made in Poland. In total, 254 372 vehicles of this type were assembled in Poland - more than the original “Victories” were assembled than in the Soviet Union.



Information sources:
http://wiki.zr.ru
http://modeli-gaz.ru/gaz/gaz-m20.htm
http://www.dal.by/news/174/31-07-13-21
https://rg.ru/2007/05/04/pobeda.html
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  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 28 June 2016 07: 06
    +15
    Just a very good and beautiful car.
    1. avt
      avt 28 June 2016 08: 16
      +3
      Quote: Volga Cossack
      Just a very good and beautiful car.

      good And for me, it's cooler than the "Volga". I saw the version - the guys tuned and set wide ones, but painted them heartily - in general, mortality!
      1. smel
        smel 28 June 2016 08: 26
        +14
        And for me - thanks to the author for the good material and for reminding everyone of the date
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 28 June 2016 09: 13
          +12
          Quote: smel
          And for me - thanks to the author for the good material and for reminding everyone of the date

          Yes, I agree. But I like the other version of "Victory" more. "Victory" GAZ M-72. Such a car was with the father of my classmate, and then passed on to the classmate himself. For hunting and fishing trips she did not have a price. I do not remember where she disappeared, but I went over the native engine for her in somewhere in 1993 goda.Imenno native, low-valve four.
  2. Bayonet
    Bayonet 28 June 2016 07: 07
    +10
    In total, from November 6, 1951 to March 30, 1973, 244472 Warsaws of various modifications were produced.
  3. EvgNik
    EvgNik 28 June 2016 07: 08
    +11
    Still running around, and not bad. In our city there are several. We all look at one when we go to the garden. The beauty is light green in color, like new. The other day we were going - a dent on the wing, everyone was very upset.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 28 June 2016 15: 28
      +3
      Quote: EvgNik
      Still running around, and not bad. In our city there are several. We all look at one when we go to the garden. The beauty is light green in color, like new. The other day we were going - a dent on the wing, everyone was very upset.

      It’s easy to repair. Tinkers know how to squeeze it out. It’s harder to save or restore the body half of the time. The Victory and Volga GAZ-21 secret is that after assembling and welding the body, it was degreased and lowered into a bath with molten solder. This way the body was smoothed before priming and painting. .Because they have such a fantastic resistance to corrosion.
      1. zadorin1974
        zadorin1974 28 June 2016 18: 54
        +1
        Amurets, have you ever worked with tin belay? First, only welding seams were processed, and secondly, not even on all machines. Ever melt the tin in a jar yourself and try to lower the parts with cavities there (we’re doing spinners with marmyshki and cast the clems request
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 29 June 2016 00: 27
          +2
          Quote: zadorin1974
          Amurets, have you ever worked with tin

          Yes! He worked at our plant in the late 60s, galvanic electrodeposition of tin was widely used and with melted tin, more precisely, POS alloys had to work.
          http://www.bibliofond.ru/view.aspx?id=38510
      2. Beefeater
        Beefeater 28 June 2016 22: 26
        +4
        Quote: Amurets
        Quote: EvgNik
        Still running around, and not bad. In our city there are several. We all look at one when we go to the garden. The beauty is light green in color, like new. The other day we were going - a dent on the wing, everyone was very upset.

        It’s easy to repair. Tinkers know how to squeeze it out. It’s harder to save or restore the body half of the time. The Victory and Volga GAZ-21 secret is that after assembling and welding the body, it was degreased and lowered into a bath with molten solder. This way the body was smoothed before priming and painting. .Because they have such a fantastic resistance to corrosion.

        This is a legend. Nobody lowered into the bathtub with the tin of the car. It is very expensive. You yourself believe in such generosity and philanthropy
        Panels after stamping turned out curves. To give the desired shape and fix the marriage, tin was applied. That's all. Often the application area was large. From here came such rumors.
  4. Bayonet
    Bayonet 28 June 2016 07: 22
    +4
    Medvedev has "Victory" hi
    (photo click.)
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 28 June 2016 10: 23
      +4
      Nice car, fighting. I took off the right transom from the front and here are the machine-gun nests! But along with her, an auto cluster appeared in Moscow - a taxi for the people. It was only later that they switched to the Volga.
    3. EvgNik
      EvgNik 28 June 2016 10: 36
      +1
      Quote: Bayonet
      Medvedev has "Victory"

      Mirage. Or photo montage.
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 28 June 2016 12: 41
        0
        Quote: EvgNik
        Mirage. Or photo montage

        Seriously! 1948 release. hi
        1. Rjn
          Rjn 28 June 2016 15: 28
          +2
          such a modification of the Victory was issued from 1956 to 1958. In addition, there is an alien flag from Winter on the hood.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 28 June 2016 18: 07
            +1
            Quote: RJN
            In addition, there is an alien flag from Winter on the hood.

            There is not only a flag, but also an emblem on the hood from ZIM, and a foreign molding. Perhaps that’s the way it is accepted for iPhoneophiles.))
          2. Bayonet
            Bayonet 28 June 2016 19: 27
            +2
            Quote: RJN
            such a modification of the Victory was issued from 1956 to 1958. In addition, there is an alien flag from Winter on the hood.

            The design is really not original 1948. Apparently tuned.
            There are such that there is almost one name left and body shape!
            For example, 300 horses and minced meat from BMW. smile
    4. Nekarmadlen
      Nekarmadlen 28 June 2016 11: 28
      0
      And Putin has 21 Volga)))
      1. Tsoy
        Tsoy 28 June 2016 12: 26
        +2
        and trailer judging by the declaration.
    5. Beefeater
      Beefeater 28 June 2016 22: 28
      +1
      And Putin has the Volga.
      I envy them.
      Happened to see the Volga with a filling from Mercedes.
    6. kostella85
      kostella85 3 August 2016 11: 36
      0
      They pinned up a beautiful car with dishman hoods !!!
  5. Tsoy
    Tsoy 28 June 2016 07: 22
    +1
    legendary car, today is not so much for a rarity. From 185 to 400 thousand rubles. Why is that?

    https://auto.ru/cars/gaz/m_20/used/?listing=listing
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 28 June 2016 19: 19
      +6
      And to this sum add a million and a half two for a full recovery - it took me so much to restore the grandfather Volga in 1961.
    2. Verdun
      Verdun 28 June 2016 19: 20
      +3
      Quote: Choi
      Why is that?

      Rarity is when a car is in original condition, not mutilated by alterations and inept restoration, and most parts and assemblies are original, native. Alas, a significant part of vintage cars, including Victories, cannot boast of this.
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 28 June 2016 07: 37
    +7
    I like this beauty ... Thanks, author ..
  7. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 28 June 2016 07: 46
    +4
    As far as I know, at Pobeda, for the first time in the history of the automotive industry, ball joints were used. I'm not wrong? By the way, “Volga”, which came to replace “Victory” looks worse. But, this is purely my opinion. hi
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 28 June 2016 14: 01
      +3
      Quote: Mordvin 3
      As far as I know, on "Pobeda", for the first time in the history of the automotive industry, ball joints were used. I'm not wrong?

      Ball joints of what? If you mean steering drafts - then at that time the whole world has been doing them ball for thirty years, if not more. And if the suspension - then the suspension on the GAZ M-20 was pivot, no ball bearings.
  8. dsm100
    dsm100 28 June 2016 07: 55
    +6
    Posh car.
  9. dobrjak
    dobrjak 28 June 2016 08: 21
    +4
    Beautiful and iconic car that will remain in memory forever !!! good
  10. alebor
    alebor 28 June 2016 10: 25
    +4
    "Victory". There were times when domestic cars were named in Russian. In our time, it would be called Victory, well, at best Pobeda. And newspaper articles would write, as is now customary, in broken Russian something like: "Over the current month, more than 20 thousand Pobeda were produced."
  11. Hey
    Hey 28 June 2016 10: 57
    +2
    A slightly different story, I heard about "Victory".
    Under the impression of the war, it was assumed that "Victory" in which case it will carry a gun and a mortar, and there is enough room for the calculation.
    To simplify production, it was originally planned to have a car with two doors, like the model 8 Lada. We made a prototype. We were invited to inspect the new car comrade. Stalin. Everything is fine, everything seems to be no problem. Here Stalin proposes to drive a new car together with the commission. The commission sits in the back seat, Stalin in front next to the driver. We drove several laps around the polygon. We stopped. Stalin does not come out, he is silent. The commission is waiting. For a few minutes this happens. Here Stalin asks: "Comrades, why don't you come out." No one dared to tell Stalin that you were interfering with the landing. Everyone immediately understood what was about and told Comrade. Stalin. After that, a four-door model appeared.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 28 June 2016 11: 11
      +5
      Quote: MUD
      After which four appeared

      This is the story of another car, KIM-10, which was developed at the MzMA-AZLK. That one really was in the first version a two-door, and after that it became a four-door. The car did not go into the series, because it had certain drawbacks and the production of the Opel Cadet - Moskvich-400 - 401 model was established at the plant's facilities.
      1. zadorin1974
        zadorin1974 28 June 2016 12: 10
        +3
        Verdun, let me add. Muscovites of the 400 series were launched after Opel factories along with the conveyor were removed from Germany for repair.
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 28 June 2016 12: 58
          +3
          Quote: zadorin1974
          . Muscovites 400 series launched after Opel factories along with the conveyor were removed from Germany for repair.

          I can add even wider. According to the agreement, the equipment was to be deployed in the occupied territory on equipment exported from Opel plants. That's just started to produce in Moscow. At the same time, all the stories about how Soviet engineers with a ruler crawled around a German car and, taking sizes, created their own drawings - absolute fairy tales. If only because at first it was Opel Cadet (Moskvich-400) on which all bearings were of an inch standard. (After all, Opel has been a division of General Motors since 1927 and at that time used just such a standard) But the Moskvich-401 was already converted to our standards.
    2. Bayonet
      Bayonet 28 June 2016 12: 44
      +1
      Quote: MUD
      A slightly different story, I heard about "Victory".

      Tales of it all smile
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 28 June 2016 13: 03
        +5
        Quote: Bayonet
        Tales of it all

        How to say. My immediate superior knew quite well Grandfather Lipgart at that time - they so respectfully called in the professional environment Andrei Lipgart in the seventies. And he claimed that he was really talking about the incident that took place when presenting the GAZ M-20 to Stalin. After sitting and driving in a car, Joseph Vissarionovich climbed out, lit a pipe and sighed, said:
        - Yes ... Small "Victory" ...
        What made GAZ representatives survive some very unpleasant minutes.
  12. Uncle Murzik
    Uncle Murzik 28 June 2016 11: 16
    +2
    my father had a "Victory"! great car of those years!
  13. Verdun
    Verdun 28 June 2016 11: 29
    +2
    The first prototype of the “Victory” was assembled on November 6, 1944; Andrei A. Lipgart personally brought the sample out of the factory’s gate to the test site
    Not one sample was released, but a small experimental batch. On these cars, the doors opened, as on the Opel Captain - back and forth, and there were other rear dimensions. It was these cars that starred in Alexandrov's film "Spring".
    Later, however, it was decided to abandon the option with a 6-cylinder engine in favor of the 4-cylinder version. This was done in connection with fuel economy considerations; in the post-war years, it simply was not enough in the country, as well as simplifying the design of the car.
    Here, to me, as an automobile designer, it is not clear. It is not clear why, when there was an Opel-Kapitan as a model on which the upper-valve engine was installed, a lower-valve motor was installed for Victory. Indeed, constructively and technologically, it was more complex, less perfect. It is unclear about the 4 cylinders and engine displacement. The same Opel = -Captain with 6 cylinders and 2,5 liters of displacement, consumed fuel almost as much as Pobeda, because there is no direct connection between displacement, number of cylinders and fuel consumption. And it is completely incomprehensible why, when using a smaller engine, the Victory turned out to be more than 200 kilograms heavier than its German prototype - 1460 kilograms versus 1270 kilograms. However, despite all these questions, it should be recognized that the car turned out to be successful.
    1. Gronsky
      Gronsky 28 June 2016 14: 49
      +2
      Strange questions for the automobile designer you ask dear. The lower valve circuit itself, compared to Opel OHV, to put it mildly, is not perfect and old. Hence the difference in the return of engines. We do not compare Pobedovskiy Dodge with some 1,4 turbo from a modern Volkswagen, which produces with such a modest volume, a fair amount of horses. Regarding weight, different metal thicknesses (a thin sheet after the war was rare), again, manual tinning of the body with a thick, thick layer of chic ... that is, tin. Here you have the extra 200 kg with a tail. As for me, the car was solid at that time, although the rejection of the in-line six is ​​sad. It would be just right.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 28 June 2016 15: 18
        +1
        Quote: Gronsky
        Strange questions for the automobile designer you ask dear. The lower valve circuit itself, compared to Opel OHV, to put it mildly, is not perfect and old. Hence the difference in the return of engines.

        So the thing is that the Opel low-valve engine at that time installed only on the two two cheapest models Kadett and P-4. The same Olimpia, produced in the same body as the Kadett, and all subsequent cars of a higher class, including the Opel Captain, were equipped with overhead motors.
        As for power output, the upper valve circuit does not have obvious advantages over the lower valve. By weight, the M-20 and Captain engines were close despite the difference in volume. And about tinning - read below, I explained there on this subject.
        1. Gronsky
          Gronsky 28 June 2016 17: 08
          +2
          Well, at that time we didn’t have a suitable upper valve. It was not there.
          Therefore, they set what is there to be surprised. The motor is simple and maintainable. Weak - yes. asked P6 - yes. Not set - yes too. So there were reasons for that.
          They thought that on the 51st it would be more necessary for raising the national economy, there was no possibility of increasing the production of sixes (a bomb was made, etc., etc.) and the personal owner was already driving. Normal Soviet approach. hi
          1. Nekarmadlen
            Nekarmadlen 29 June 2016 00: 46
            0
            They wrote that the Victory motor is a motor reduced by an 2 cylinder from GAZ 51 (and in many ways unified with it) ... P6 from the truck under the hood of a small passenger car is unlikely to fit))))
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 28 June 2016 17: 27
      +2
      Quote: Verdun
      Here, to me, as an automobile designer, it is not clear. Unclear, whywhen there was an Opel-Kapitan as a model on which the upper-valve engine was installed, a lower-valve motor was installed for Victory. Indeed, constructively and technologically, it was more complex, less perfect.

      Because the GAZ-51. Snap on these dvigla was already, pistons, connecting rods, valves were mass produced. They cut the six into 2 cylinders, got what they got cheap and cheerful. In the country then there was a shortage of everything, but it was necessary oh how much, the cars on this list were by no means at the top positions. So I had to save. Again, on the ZIM, which was supposed to be the coolest in everything, the same GAZ-51 went all the same, and if so, then for the car a class lower would go and four.
      Stalin rightly reasoned that the nomenclature, taxi drivers, and private traders would be happy for the four as well, and gasoline would be saved.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 28 June 2016 18: 15
        +1
        Quote: Nagan
        Because the GAZ-51.

        Yes, I just understand. I just can’t understand why Cadett’s production was taken from Opel. After all, even Olympia, produced in the same body, had an overhead valve motor. And for the national economy it was more logical to seize the production of the Opel Blitz truck. In my opinion, the car was more perfect than the GAZ-51. And given that GAZ is initially Ford with all American standards, and Opel is General Motors, there would be no particular problems in organizing production.
        1. Alf
          Alf 28 June 2016 19: 11
          +1
          Quote: Verdun
          And for the national economy it was more logical to seize the production of the Opel Blitz truck. In my opinion, the car was more perfect than the GAZ-51.

          That's it, that is PERFECT. And I needed a car simple and cheap.
        2. Revolver
          Revolver 28 June 2016 19: 42
          +1
          Quote: Verdun
          Yes, I just understand. I just can’t understand why Cadett’s production was taken from Opel.

          They grabbed what remained after the visits of the B-17, and then a considerable part had to be restored. Perhaps the production of overhead engines or the same Blitz was bombed into the ground. Well, or it was in the zones of occupation of the allies, from there what the hell. But you never know what were the reasons that today we are no longer visible through the thickness of years.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 28 June 2016 20: 07
            +1
            Quote: Nagan
            . Perhaps the production of overhead engines or the same Blitz was bombed into the ground

            No, everything was just available. At the same time, Blitz was not only more advanced than the GAZ-51, but also easier to maintain and manufacture. Moreover, under a reparation agreement, the Germans could not use engines of more than 3 liters in trucks. And the in-line six with a volume of 3,75 liters and a power of 75 hp, installed on the Blitz and Admiral, fell under these restrictions. And then if the USSR had adjusted its production, it would have been possible to substantially catch up with the backlog in the motor base.
            1. Revolver
              Revolver 28 June 2016 21: 13
              +1
              Quote: Verdun
              No, everything was just available.

              https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opel_Blitz
              In the English version of Wiki, the following is written: Blitz was produced in Brandenburg in 1942 until the plant was bombed. Well, the truth is, I made a little mistake, not the USAF bombed the British RAF. After that, the production was transferred to the Daimler-Benz plant in Mannheim (this is the west of Germany, the zone of the Allied occupation), and most likely, if in Brandenburg at least a che-thread from the equipment could be saved, it was also transferred to Mannheim. Where they released him right up to 1944, until they bombed them, they resumed production in 1946 under the supervision of the western occupation administration with less dvigl. Looks like the Soviet administration did not reach.
              Again, equipment for the GAZ-51 was purchased before the war, but Hitler's son of a bitch prevented float. Nevertheless, it was, and sin was not to take advantage.
      2. overb
        overb 28 June 2016 19: 24
        +2
        Quote: Nagan
        There was a shortage of everything in the country

        In the USSR there has always been a shortage of everything. Just so his economy was built. And there could be no other way, either a deficit or a complete absence of anything.
        But it is, as a retreat. And if in fact, then I completely incomprehensible enthusiasm for the Victory. How many did not use it, so much was surprised at her wretchedness. Large car with an extremely tight interior and trunk.
        That GAZ-21 Volga, yes, it was already a car. Moreover, much better than the later GAZ-24. But the victory was ... not very successful. To put it mildly.
        1. Revolver
          Revolver 28 June 2016 21: 24
          +1
          Quote: overb
          In the USSR there has always been a shortage of everything.

          According to my parents, at the end of Stalin's reign - the beginning of Khrushchev, supplies, at least in Leningrad, were quite at the level. And the end of Andropov - Chernenko - the beginning of Humpbacked, I myself remember, the grub was without any problems, and shmutki too, like Salamander's shoes. Some VAZ models were out of line, sign up at the "triangle" and come with money (or rather a check) to choose a color. And Muscovites generally gave on credit, just take it. Why, the dollar then on the black market dropped to almost 3 rubles. And then Humpback muddied perestroika and the fight against drunkenness, and then it rolled downhill.
        2. Nekarmadlen
          Nekarmadlen 29 June 2016 01: 19
          +1
          You probably forgot the essence of the Soviet economy ... The prices of many consumer goods were artificially underestimated ... Hence the shortage, although of course galoshes were possible and there was overproduction))))
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. overb
            overb 29 June 2016 02: 56
            +1
            Quote: Nekarmadlen
            You probably forgot the essence of the Soviet economy ... The prices of many consumer goods were artificially lowered ...

            That's just this insanity I have not forgotten. As the Soviet government squeezed the last juice out of the population. The prices of consumer goods in the USSR artificially overstated. Moreover, grandiose. And with all this, they had the audacity to create a deficit. Those. they were too lazy to deliver expensive goods.
            Quote: Nekarmadlen
            Hence the shortage

            The deficit was from stupidity and laziness. Not a single capitalist in the world was able to profit from people as much as advice. See Attachment.
            Quote: Nagan
            at the end of Stalin's rule - the beginning of Khrushchev, the supply, at least in Leningrad, was quite on the level.

            The salary was not up to standard. Therefore, few could afford goods from stores.
            Quote: Nagan
            the grub was without any problems, and the shmutka too, like the Salamander shoes. Some VAZ models were out of line, sign up at the "triangle" and come with money (or rather a check) to choose a color.

            Not everyone lived in Leningrad and Moscow.
            Quote: Nagan
            And Muscovites generally gave on credit, just take it.

            And constipation gave. Only a crappy Muscovite cost 7500, and Constipation 5500 rubles. Huge money at the time, and it is unclear what such a count.
  14. yehat
    yehat 28 June 2016 12: 31
    -5
    I understand Victory is history and all that, but why is the article posted in the weapons section ??? request
    Did they use the car as a specialized interceptor for dangerous pedestrians? laughing
  15. Taygerus
    Taygerus 28 June 2016 13: 09
    +2
    I think if GAZ launches a limited modernized version of Victory in a series, then it will be in demand
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 28 June 2016 13: 16
      +1
      Quote: Taygerus
      I think if GAZ launches a limited modernized version of Victory in a series, then it will be in demand

      Alas, this is not possible by modern safety standards. And the technology of that time today is not enough where you will meet. And reworking the existing standards and technologies of an old car is even more difficult than creating a new one.
      1. 0255
        0255 28 June 2016 16: 18
        +5
        Quote: Verdun
        Quote: Taygerus
        I think if GAZ launches a limited modernized version of Victory in a series, then it will be in demand

        Alas, this is not possible by modern safety standards. And the technology of that time today is not enough where you will meet. And reworking the existing standards and technologies of an old car is even more difficult than creating a new one.

        AvtoVAZ is now working on the "restyling" of the "penny" on the platform of "Vesta". What prevents GAZ from doing something like that?
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 28 June 2016 17: 02
          +1
          Quote: 0255
          AvtoVAZ is now working on the "restyling" of the "penny" on the platform of "Vesta". What prevents GAZ from doing something like that?

          Restyling a penny on the Vesta platform is practically the development of a new car. At the same time, the shape of the car largely depends on the technology of its manufacture. The technological gap between VAZ 2101 and Vesta is much smaller than between Pobeda and any of the modern cars. In addition, GAZ has focused on the production of commercial trucks and buses. He simply does not have a platform suitable for creating a GAZ M-20 class car on its basis.
        2. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 28 June 2016 21: 36
          0
          Quote: 0255
          AvtoVAZ is now working on "restyling" "penny" on the platform "Vesta"

          Well, if it costs like a penny, then they will take it. They discontinued the classics for 150 thousand, now they will always be at a loss
        3. Kotyara Fat
          Kotyara Fat 29 June 2016 12: 42
          0
          Nice car ... I wonder when and how much? I would buy ...
      2. Igor Polovodov
        Igor Polovodov 28 June 2016 20: 39
        0
        The image of victory is worth more!
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 28 June 2016 17: 13
      +1
      Quote: Taygerus
      I think if GAZ launches a limited modernized version of Victory in a series, then it will be in demand

      Stamps for body parts have long gone into scrap. To order new ones will cost so much that a small series will not pay off close, and a large series will not find so many retro enthusiasts. Yes, and environmental and safety will not work.
  16. Old26
    Old26 28 June 2016 13: 52
    +1
    Quote: lukmag
    He knows about galoshes, and we about the fact that the USSR was a trendsetter in the global automobile structure.

    Well, about the fact that the USSR was a trendsetter in the global automotive industry, you got excited. All the first Soviet cars: Moskvich-400, Pobeda, Volga, ZIM - all these cars had their predecessors abroad. Especially in terms of bodywork. I’m not talking about VAZ
    1. Alf
      Alf 28 June 2016 19: 16
      +1
      Quote: Old26
      Well, about the fact that the USSR was a trendsetter in the global automotive industry, you got excited. All the first Soviet cars: Moskvich-400, Pobeda, Volga, ZIM - all these cars had their predecessors abroad. Especially in terms of bodywork. I’m not talking about VAZ

      All right.
      M-400-Opel.
      Victory - who was the prototype?
      Volga-who?
      ZIM-?
      Yes, we bought foreign cars for review, we used individual solutions, but there was no complete copy, except for the M-400.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 29 June 2016 01: 36
        0
        Quote: Alf
        Yes, we bought foreign cars for review, we used individual solutions, but there was no complete copy, except for the M-400.

        Alas, here you are wrong. ZIS-101 - acquired from the Americans is not the most successful Buick model. GAZ-A - nothing like Ford-A. The unconditional prototype of the Victory was the Opel Captain 1939 model year. With external differences, many of the suspension parts of these machines are completely interchangeable. Gas tanks - only the throat in different directions, and so - even the mounting holes match. This list could be continued. And this despite the fact that the USSR had its own good designers and designers. If we talk about design - Aryamov, Eremeev, Molchanov, from the younger ones - Korsakovich. The names of these people are spoken to non-specialists a little, but if you rummage around the network, you can understand how many interesting developments have fallen victim to circumstances and volitional decisions of the leadership.
        1. Alf
          Alf 29 June 2016 18: 56
          0
          Quote: Verdun
          Alas, here you are wrong. ZIS-101 - acquired from the Americans is not the most successful Buick model. GAZ-A - nothing like Ford-A. The unconditional prototype of the Victory was the Opel Captain 1939 model year. With external differences, many of the suspension parts of these machines are completely interchangeable. Gas tanks - only the throat in different directions, and so - even the mounting holes match.

          I was talking about "after the war." The body of Pobeda is absolutely new, and the fact that the suspension details match, so the practice of copying successful engineering solutions is still not considered something "out of the ordinary". The McPherson suspension has already been on how many models.
          Yes, and I talked about the Volga and ZiM.
          1. Raf01
            Raf01 23 September 2016 21: 00
            0
            The prototype GAZ 21 was the Ford Mainline of 1949, while the engine with minor modifications was left from the same Victory.

            The prototype of the GAZ 24 was the 1962 Ford Falcon.

            The engine of the 24-ki is again the victory of modernization. By the way, this motor is still being produced, the latest gazelle e-tech is his granddaughter.
            In general, GAZ focused on Ford, Moskvich on Opel, VAZ on FIAT. The only more or less original model is the VAZ 2121, again based on the components and assemblies of the FIAT.
  17. Verdun
    Verdun 28 June 2016 14: 28
    +4
    I would like to add the following to the history of Victory. There is an opinion that the bodies of cars produced at that time in the USSR were tinned. This is not true. Just after assembling the body, its surface was not perfect (the quality of the dies did not allow). In the presence of a high-quality putty, it is it that is used to finish leveling the surface with the help of patterns. But we didn’t have good putty and had to use tin. Of course, this increased the cost of production. Victory cost 16000 rubles, and Moskvich-400 - 9000 rubles with an average monthly salary for 1950 of about 600 rubles. ZIM cost 40 rubles. For this money, the car was driven directly to the house and the owner was handed keys and documents.
  18. Red_Hamer
    Red_Hamer 28 June 2016 16: 26
    +1
    Hmm, while it flies, but I still remember them on the streets, and "Victories" were rare, and I apologize to those same foreign humpbacked "Cossacks" and "moon rovers", and humpbacks in childhood were called "ladybugs" laughing They were already a curiosity, well, still traveled.
  19. Gronsky
    Gronsky 28 June 2016 16: 58
    +2
    Quote: Verdun
    And about tinning - read below, I explained there on this subject.

    It is the following information that I had in mind. In nete, I remember a photo of a black victorious body, where the thickness of tin solder is clearly visible. On vskidku so a couple of buckets no less. hi
  20. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 28 June 2016 17: 06
    +2
    Quote: Bayonet
    In total, from November 6, 1951 to March 30, 1973, 244472 Warsaws of various modifications were produced.

    "Warszawa" in the museum of retro cars "Faeton" in Zaporozhye.
  21. Igor Polovodov
    Igor Polovodov 28 June 2016 20: 48
    +2
    At Victory, only three fuses were installed, on which, when burned out, the wire of the required section simply changed. Which by the way was carefully wound on the end of the fuse itself. The body itself is made of PCB.

    You do not even need a comparison with the modern realities of disparate consumerism ...
    At which the norm to throw a piece of plastic with aluminum contacts. On a global scale, this looks at least not entirely clever ...
    1. Alf
      Alf 29 June 2016 19: 01
      0
      Quote: Igor Polovodov
      On a global scale, this looks at least not entirely clever ...

      But for the manufacturer profitable.
  22. Denimax
    Denimax 28 June 2016 21: 17
    +2
    It seems that many now have nostalgia for the old car industry.) Then there were more manufacturers, and they had their own. Although with a planned economy, they did not have room for production. Now only Lada and UAZ?
    By the way, why did Lada with jammed sides mutilated? The face was given a fashionable one, X-Ray seems to be called, but the sides were not beautifully hushed up. (Tear off the designers' hands, the matrices would also be cheaper.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 28 June 2016 21: 46
      +2
      Quote: Denimax
      By the way, why did Lada with jammed sides mutilated?

      What do you want? A design quite characteristic of all modern Renault cars.
      1. Denimax
        Denimax 28 June 2016 22: 05
        +1
        This can not be explained as a trick from Renault.) Make the sides even, maybe with a couple of longitudinal lines for rigidity, and the view will be more pleasant. By the way, this ugliness was also mentioned in a German auto magazine. So this is not only my opinion.
  23. Old26
    Old26 28 June 2016 22: 06
    +1
    Quote: Alf
    Victory - who was the prototype?
    Volga-who?
    ZIM-?
    Yes, we bought foreign cars for review, we used individual solutions, but there was no complete copy, except for the M-400.

    Opel for Victory. Chevrolet and Ford for the Volga. For winter EMNIP Cadillac. Of course, these are not exact copies of these cars, but the bodies were almost copies. This does not, of course, plead with the achievements of the domestic automobile industry, but to say that he was also a trendsetter
  24. Fast_mutant
    Fast_mutant 29 June 2016 06: 31
    0
    Quote: Verdun
    It was a victory 16000 rubles

    With today's salary in the region of 30 thousand, the price of victory is 800 kilo rubles (26.5 salaries). At such a price, I would take a NEW-old Victory without haggling! And do not care that there is nizhneklappanik! Even do not care for the year of development and other little things ... Fuck with it, fasten the seat belts and stamp !!! Chur I am in line first! ))) By the way, now for 800 pieces you can only buy foil slightly larger than Matiz! And food was cheaper then ... So it’s not so expensive. And it was possible to accumulate. Prices did not rise every six months.