Military Review

Our memory. Brest Fortress, fort №5

35



Well, finally, I again seized upon the favorite topic of museums after the winter break. And decided to start with a remarkable monument to Russian engineering work - the fifth fort of the Brest Fortress.

When we hear the familiar and familiar words “Hero-Fortress-Brest”, then involuntarily we see the familiar barracks, walls and fortifications of the Brest Fortress in front of our eyes. Meanwhile, the fortress is much larger than we used to understand.

The citadel of the fortress itself is a very impressive structure, but the forts were supposed to bear the main combat load on the plans. From the diagram it is clear that the fortress and its forts were a mighty defensive knot.



Fifth fort. Why exactly him? Just because this building has survived the three wars perfectly and has survived today. Since 1995, he is historical a monument of the Republic of Belarus and is included in the complex of the Brest Fortress memorial.

Get acquainted.

The fifth fort was built in 1878 — 1888, capitally modernized in 1908 — 1911. Located in 4 km southwest of the Brest Fortress. It occupies an area of ​​0,8 square. km

It can be said that the fort has a pentagonal shape with a kind of spear tip, front caponier. It was originally built of brick, surrounded by an earthen rampart and a moat filled with water. A garrison barracks was built at the back, numbering eleven casemates.

Our memory. Brest Fortress, fort №5


The front caponier is associated with the lost barracks, that is, the underground passage. As we understood from our wanderings underground, if desired, it was possible not to leave the surface at all, traveling from one point of the fort to another. Today, however, many aisles and branches are closed.

Since 1908, the fort has been modernized under the leadership of Staff Captain Ivan Osipovich Belinsky. Brick structures were covered with concrete with a thickness of about 2 m, side rasters were built, connecting the barracks with the side polukaponirami. In 1911 — 1914 The hull (rear) caponier was built, the positions of the shooters are partially concreted.


Ivan Osipovich Belinsky (1876 - 1976).

Major General of the Soviet Army, member of the Russian-Japanese, First World War and World War II. A man of exceptional mind and iron character. Awarded Russian and Soviet orders and medals, including the St. George weapons.

However, Brest-Lithuania’s fortifications became the main activity in the breaks between the wars for Belinsky. In the development and construction of which he was most directly involved with another famous engineer, General Karbyshev. Only to Ivan Osipovich fate was more favorable.

By 22 June 1941, the 3 Infantry Battalion of the 44 Infantry Regiment was in the fort. With the beginning of World War II, the battalion was alarmed. After serving several German attacks, and in fact having spent the ammunition, part of the fighters attempted to break into the Brest Fortress, and part with the fighting went to the east.



Back to the fort.





The diagrams show how the defenders of the fort were supposed to fire. For me, at first this arrangement was amazing. Then, however, much cleared up.

Indeed, through the embrasures of the fort, it was most convenient to destroy the enemy's manpower, which bypassed the fort on the flanks. It is quite logical, because to take in the forehead such a structure is simply unrealistic. Today, the whole territory is overgrown, and in those days not only everything green was cut down, but for many kilometers. So from the front you will not approach especially. Shooting cells, machine guns, a ditch, three meters deep ... A pleasure below average, so to say.

A little later, I found another plus for pleasure.



This is just a postcard, but it captures exactly how the artillery worked in such forts. The guns, mostly of medium caliber, simply rolled out with their hands to the traverse, and forth. Casemate traverse will cover from enemy fire. Supervisors spotters in fortified NPs will tell you where and how.


This is one of the casemates with equipped NP. The seat is steel, but ...


And this is all that is seen from the other side. Not every sniper of the time in the teeth.








This is the casemate traverse. That is a shaft with casemates.

And in the casemates there was also something to greet the enemy. And there were also caponiers and half-caponiers. And this is a completely different story.






This polukaponiry. Left and right.

Get, of course, possible. If there is a boat, if the caponier will not shoot. And they will shoot ... And they shot.


Gun casemate under 57-mm gun Nordenfeld. Very quick-fire at the time gun. Up to 20 shots per minute. Iron grenades, shrapnel, caric.

In two polukaponirah and two caponier (front and gorzhemom) there were 20 such guns. Each casemate was equipped with a powder gas exhaust system, an armored cabinet for 150 shells.


Exhaust hood



In the walls of caponiers not often, but there are traces of that war.


It is difficult to say what this is, but it is impressive that the thickness of the wall, the energy of the projectile. As if the cruiser was driven into the Mukhavets.




The window for the supply of ammunition.


This is called lost. Long underground passage. There is no light.


These are the doors ...




Just say why these things, we can not. Apparently, a multifunctional device. And you can sit and lie down, and clean the rifle. But speculation, to be honest.


Rise in gorzhevoy caponier. That is covering from the rear.


It is he, the most bristling caponier. Because only from the rear and you can go through the bridge to the fort so that it is painless.

Along with the 57-mm cannons, guns were already more serious.


76-mm Durlächer fortress guns.

The 1 8-mm guns were placed on the 75 floor of the caponier, and the 2 8-mm guns were placed on the 76-m.


"Anti-diversion coating".


Inside the caponier.




Everywhere traces of heating. Oven.


And this is a through barracks. Long corridor, full barracks. Skimmer - perhaps from the word "through" or "draft." Its main task is to extinguish and deflect the blast wave.


Overlaps. They inspire respect.

By the time the reconstruction was completed in 1914, according to Russian military engineers, the fort was able to withstand the most severe siege. In essence, the modernized fort was a small independent fortress, with powerful armament and a layered (several lines) defensive system. In August, 1915, this fortress was to battle with the Austrians and the Germans, advancing from the south to Brest.

But the story, sometimes a harmful thing, decreed otherwise.

The fort number XXUMX, like the Brest Fortress itself, was left without a fight. Russian troops retreated into the depths of Polesie. Before the retreat, all weapons and other military equipment were removed from the fort.

From 1920, the fort was used by the Polish military for storage. When Poland ended, the Red Army arrived at the fort. Since 1939, the fifth fort has become the location of individual military units. Here the 22 Infantry Battalion of the 3 Infantry Regiment of the 44 Infantry Division, which had been practically defeated in the first days of the war, received the 42 battle of June.

During the years of occupation, the Germans used the fort as a warehouse.

After Brest was liberated from invaders, the military "service" of the old fortifications continued. The fort for many years was the territory of one of the military units and served as an army warehouse.

And now it is more than 20 years of the museum. Virtually no exhibits. Yes, there are several guns in the courtyard of the barracks, but they have nothing to do with the fort.

The fort is itself an exhibit.

Photos will not give even a tenth of those impressions that can be obtained by going through all its corridors and passages. We spent more than two hours. And it could have been twice as much, but I no longer had the strength, to be honest.

But 22 June 2016, the fort №5 opened before us his casemates and caponiers. You know, he looks like Svyatogor-bogatyr from a fairy tale. The need will be - wake up.

And you know, dear, what is the main question we asked when we went out in the sun?

How? How did they dig it all up, build it, build it? Without technology, without anything? Shovels, carts and hands?

From the Brest Fortress to this day there is not much left. And here you are imbued with the greatness and power of this old fort, created by Russian engineers Ivanov and Belinsky and thousands of builders unknown to history.

Frost on the skin, to be honest, even in the thirty-degree heat.

Glory to those who built, defended, preserved! Glory and memory!
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  1. Aleksander
    Aleksander 28 June 2016 06: 57
    +12
    How did they dig it all up, build it up, build it up? Without technology, without anything? Shovels, carts and hands?

    Military builders, they are, they can all! yes What then, what later.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 28 June 2016 07: 39
      +8
      Quote: Aleksander
      Military builders, they are, they can all!

      Royal troops! drinks
    2. creak
      creak 28 June 2016 10: 11
      +20
      I would like to add to the above that the Brest Fortress is only part of the defensive belt, which also included fortifications in Przemysl, Osovce and Kovno (Kaunas) ...
      About them much less is known, even about the defense of Osovets, where a lot of blood was also shed at one time ...
      Before the war, units of the 2nd rifle division were stationed there. Frunze. Above the main gate of the fortress there was an inscription from 1914: "Where the world ends, there is the Osovets fortress. There are impenetrable swamps. The Germans are reluctant to climb into them."
      The fighting in the fortress began on the morning of June 22 and was no less fierce and bloody than in Brest ...
      In the history of these fortresses, the engineering genius and the unprecedented stamina of the Russian Soldier intertwined in an amazing way ...
      1. Roman 11
        Roman 11 28 June 2016 16: 15
        +2
        Quote: ranger
        The Brest Fortress is only part of the defensive belt, which also included fortifications in Przemysl, Osovce and Kovno (Kaunas) ...

        Yes, there were many fortresses, in Poland Warsaw and Novogeorgievskaya. In addition, Krakow and other medieval castles were possibly considered as fortifications.
    3. Yarik
      Yarik 28 June 2016 10: 20
      +7
      Classic- 2 soldiers from the construction battalion replace the excavator laughing
  2. EvgNik
    EvgNik 28 June 2016 07: 00
    +13
    Yes, to read in books about the defense of the Brest Fortress is one thing, but to visit the place, to feel the atmosphere, for me even to see a detailed photo report, is completely different.
    Thank you Roman.
  3. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 28 June 2016 07: 05
    +8
    Great! Very impressive and instructive!hi
  4. igordok
    igordok 28 June 2016 07: 18
    +12
    Thank you.
    From a family legend, my great-great-grandfather Barsukov Ivan Vasilyevich worked as a foreman (something like a foreman) on the modernization of the Brest Fortress at the beginning of the 20 century. He lived in Warsaw. According to legend, he also worked in the Warsaw Fortress and Kronstadt. Tried to find data on it - to no avail. Perhaps my love of fortification is hereditary. repeat
    On trips to school times in the Brest Fortress I was three times, but unfortunately I was only in the Citadel, unknowingly I did not wander even in the Kobrin fortifications.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 28 June 2016 07: 40
    +9
    Thank you for an interesting tour .. Eternal memory and Glory to the defenders of the Brest Fortress .. And its builders ...
  6. igordok
    igordok 28 June 2016 07: 58
    +5
    Forgot to mention that now, in front of the gorge barracks there is an exhibition of military equipment from the time of the Second World War.

    1. igordok
      igordok 28 June 2016 08: 36
      +3
      In recent times with pictures, some problems. When pasted, pictures are visible, everything seems to be fine. But after a reboot, the pictures disappear. What am I doing wrong? Not long ago, everything went off with a bang.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 28 June 2016 09: 39
        +4
        Quote: igordok
        In recent times with pictures, some problems. When pasted, pictures are visible, everything seems to be fine. But after a reboot, the pictures disappear. What am I doing wrong? Not long ago, everything went off with a bang.

        Not one of you. I can’t insert pictures at all. The link is loading, the devil knows what. Click on the link appears: error
  7. dsm100
    dsm100 28 June 2016 08: 02
    +7
    The article is good. The living fortress is even more impressive.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 28 June 2016 09: 52
      +7
      Quote: dsm100
      The article is good. The living fortress is even more impressive.

      I did not see the live Brest Fortress, but the structures of the Vladivostok Fortress are impressive, not so famous, but just as grandiose. Http: //fortress.wl.dvgu.ru/
      This is a link to the Vladivostok fortress. Thanks to the author for showing in his materials the most interesting places in Russia and the former USSR. Thanks again.
  8. Uncle Murzik
    Uncle Murzik 28 June 2016 09: 00
    +3
    Thanks to the author! The article is definitely a plus! And for the photo I would like to put a separate plus!
  9. Urri
    Urri 28 June 2016 09: 46
    +5
    Thanks for our shared Memory. Success and good luck in your travels. New discoveries and new (and old) friends
  10. Rusfaner
    Rusfaner 28 June 2016 09: 47
    +4
    Glory to those who built, defended, preserved! Glory and memory! (with)
  11. ruskih
    ruskih 28 June 2016 10: 05
    +13
    Thanks a lot, Roman. The second day begins with a positive. I am very glad that you liked it in Brest. The places here are wonderful, beautiful, and as far as history is concerned, you can walk endlessly, each time discovering something new.
    I'll try to add a photo
  12. ruskih
    ruskih 28 June 2016 10: 13
    +6
    But in the rating after the article I do not have the + and - badges. Therefore, here I put ++++
  13. libivs
    libivs 28 June 2016 13: 25
    +3
    An interesting point. Scheme 5 of Fort Brest is very similar to Scheme 5 of Fort Koenigsberg. Only materials of construction are slightly different. And built at about the same time. It seems that the common roots of engineering schools are affecting, not without reason Peter 1 studied engineering in Prussia. In general, the author is a huge plus for the article.
    1. Starina_hank
      Starina_hank 28 June 2016 17: 46
      0
      An interesting point. Scheme 5 of Fort Brest is very similar to Scheme 5 of Fort Koenigsberg. In my opinion, completely different designs.
      1. igordok
        igordok 28 June 2016 19: 01
        +1
        The subtleties will vary. But in general terms they are similar, as indeed are all the projects of forts of those times.
        5 Fort Plan - the rest of 14 are about the same
    2. Starina_hank
      Starina_hank 28 June 2016 17: 46
      +1
      An interesting point. Scheme 5 of Fort Brest is very similar to Scheme 5 of Fort Koenigsberg. In my opinion, completely different designs.
  14. omsbon
    omsbon 28 June 2016 13: 38
    +3
    Quote: ruskih
    Thanks a lot, Roman. The second day begins with a positive. I am very glad that you liked it in Brest. The places here are wonderful, beautiful, and as far as history is concerned, you can walk endlessly, each time discovering something new.
    I'll try to add a photo


    Twice I was in Brest. Amazing place!!! Indeed, each time you discover something new, you can inspect the fortress endlessly!
  15. Evil like Putin
    Evil like Putin 28 June 2016 13: 38
    +2
    Honor and glory to the Russian spirit !!!
  16. Alex
    Alex 28 June 2016 15: 16
    +5
    Roman, thank you so much for the article! In the summer I was going to go with children and grandchildren to Brest, now I know where else to go.
  17. Siberia 9444
    Siberia 9444 28 June 2016 15: 52
    +3
    Thanks to the author! Photo class has never seen a fortress from such angles. hi
  18. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 28 June 2016 16: 31
    +2
    This is MATERIAL! What wonderful pictures and schemes! Just a unique special expedition for acquaintance was carried out! MANY THANKS, dear Roman, really enjoyed it, as if he himself had been there.
  19. Kibl
    Kibl 28 June 2016 17: 48
    +1
    In Libava, around the perimeter of the city and on the seashore, there were chic defensive structures in a differently-destroyed state, but they remained !!! And what !!!!
    1. Roman 11
      Roman 11 28 June 2016 18: 26
      0
      Quote: KIBL
      In Libava, around the perimeter of the city and on the seashore, there were chic defensive structures in a differently-destroyed state, but they remained !!!

      If there are pictures, please post it.
  20. Lex.
    Lex. 28 June 2016 18: 08
    +7
    modern language. He is engaged in calculating the exposure of buildings from air bombs, develops engineering solutions for the protection system of industrial enterprises. The crown of this work was the defense of the Ph.D. thesis and the title of brigine engineer in 1939. At 63 years old. Stalin's purges in the armed forces did not affect him. Which, in general, refutes the well-known maxim "we have no irreplaceable." You cannot find such military experts during the day with fire. And he is preparing new cadres at the Military Engineering Academy.

    With the beginning of World War II, Ivan Osipovich was back in service. It was the leadership of the construction of fortifications around Moscow. In the fall of the 41st he was evacuated along with the academy in Frunze. Here he was engaged in strengthening the Soviet-Iranian border. In the 43rd he was awarded the title of Major General of the Engineering Service. Only after the Victory, in August 45th, he retired for health reasons. The war robbed his son Dmitry. Also an engineer, he died at the front.
  21. Forever so
    Forever so 28 June 2016 23: 09
    +3
    Eh !! in how many places I haven’t visited the most interesting and will not visit !! Thanks to the Internet and the authors for the wonderful stories and photos. When he was small, he was read by the Brest Fortress. But there are black and white photos, but here it’s live.
  22. GTYCBJYTH2021
    GTYCBJYTH2021 29 June 2016 11: 33
    +1
    In Russian, at the School of Weapons, he began his service .... Forts "Pospelovskie" - WHY did the builders stir cement-concrete, there were no concrete mixers ...
  23. Konstantin Yu
    Konstantin Yu 30 June 2016 17: 05
    +2
    I have not been to Brest, I was in the spring at the 35th battery in Sevastopol ... the guide told me: she was leading a group of Polish youth along the river ... and they let them shout loudly like "heil g..r. turned off the light ... tens of meters underground, darkness, cold, cramped, no doors ... they fell silent at once, the trail disappeared from arrogance ... then they gave light ... until the end of the excursion no one uttered a word.

    The very greatness of the feat, you are better aware of seeing these epic structures, heroic places.
  24. pudelartemon
    pudelartemon 30 June 2016 18: 15
    +1
    Thank you for the article. Super!