Military Review

Red Empire on the eve of the great battle

178
Preparation of the USSR for war


The Soviet Union in the prewar five-year plan has achieved amazing success in all spheres, including the military-industrial complex. At first, in a hostile environment, mainly due to the mobilization of internal resources and forces, the economy and transport destroyed during the First World War and the Civil War were restored. Then the task was to eliminate the 50-100-year-old economic and technical backwardness from the West, and this task was successfully solved. The Soviet Union became the second industrial power in the world, second only to the United States.

Soviet society was built by the simultaneous transformation of the national economy, culture, education and science. In the first five-year period (1928-1932), performed in the 4 of the year and 3 of the month, the volume of industrial production increased by 1928 times compared to 2. During the second five-year plan (1933-1937), also performed prematurely, the gross output of industry increased 2,2 by a factor of 10 in comparison with the USSR 1932 in Europe and second in the world in industrial production! Thus, the Soviet Union overtook such traditionally strong and advanced economies of the West as Britain, France and Germany.

In March, the 1939 XVIII Congress of the Party reviewed and approved the third five-year national economy plan (1938-1942), which planned the creation of a powerful industrial base in the eastern regions of the country. In carrying out this plan, 2900 industrial enterprises were commissioned. In Siberia, created a second coal and metallurgical base. They mastered new deposits of coal and oil in the Far North, between the Volga and the Urals in the Far East. Fully five-year plan failed to realize because of the start of the war. However, the fact that they managed to do that helped Russia-USSR to survive and to win this terrible war.

Over the years of the prewar five-year plans, 8900 enterprises were built in the country. Soviet industry has reached a high level of development. Preemptive attention was paid to the construction of heavy industry enterprises as the material basis of socialism. Complete collectivization was completed, the mechanization of agriculture increased significantly.

At the same time, society has greatly changed. There was a creation of a new society of service and creation. Despite all the difficulties of the transition period, the country was gripped by tremendous inspiration and patriotism. New generations were brought up, for which the private, personal and material were receding into the background compared with the ideal, the people and the state. A cultural revolution occurred: the illiteracy of the population was eliminated, a new best school in the world was built, millions of cadres of the new Soviet intelligentsia were brought up. As a result, if the German soldiers in the First World War were mainly opposed by an illiterate peasant mass, who did not know the goals of the war, then during the Great War the Germans faced a completely different adversary - they were mostly representatives of the working class or intelligentsia, as well as workers of the village, familiar with technology, educated and knowing that they are fighting for "their" power and socialist homeland. In 1937, the Red Army became an army of continuous literacy. In addition, many young people had initial military training, were introduced to physical culture, etc. Thus, the Soviet (multinational Russian) people were distinguished by their moral and political unity, which was one of the main achievements of the Soviet system. Such a people was invincible.

Moscow in the prewar period seriously strengthened its military-strategic position on the western frontiers. During the Soviet-Finnish war, the strategic position of the second capital of the USSR and the largest industrial center, Leningrad, was strengthened. In the summer of 1940, the city of Bucharest was forced to agree to the demand of the Soviet government for the return of Bessarabia that had been torn away from Russia, and the Moldavian SSR was formed. In the summer of 1940, Russia returned the Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) to its membership. The Baltic republics became equal Soviet republics. In September, 1939, during the German war against Poland, Moscow sent troops into the western regions of Belarus and Little Russia, which Warsaw captured during the destruction of the Russian Empire.

Thus, the Kremlin returned the native Russian territories, watered with the blood of millions of Russians and people and historically belonging to the Russian civilization, and pushed the western borders, which improved the military-strategic position of the USSR on the eve of the war.

The successes of the economic development of the Union, the advantages of its social and state system created the necessary prerequisites for the development of military power necessary to ensure the security of the country and people. The USSR did not spare funds and forces for defense. The Kremlin understood that the great war had already begun and it was only a matter of time before the enemy attacked the Union. This forced to increase the pace of technical equipment of the ground forces, air force and fleet. At the same time, the organization of the Armed Forces of the USSR was improved.

The state has created a strong design base that allows the creation of new types of aircraft, tanks, artillery, ships, small arms weapons etc. The leading designers were S. V. Ilyushin, S. A. Lavochkin, A. S. Yakovlev, A. N. Tupolev, N. N. Polikarpov, A. I. Mikoyan, M. I. Koshkin, A. A. Morozov, J. Ya. Kotin, V. G. Grabin, A. G. Kostikov, G. S. Shpagin, V. A. Degtyarev, F. V. Tokarev, etc. As a result, the technical equipment of the Red Army constantly rising. Production of aircraft, tanks, guns and other weapons and equipment in the second half of the 1930-s increased sharply. For example, if in 1934 the Red Army had 17 thousand guns, then by the beginning of 1939 there were already 56 thousand.

Armored and mechanized troops were created and improved. Other troops also developed - engineering, railway, communications, air defense, airborne, border, etc. Particular attention was paid to the development of the air force. The country has launched the activities of research institutes and large design organizations in the field of aviation. Created aircraft factories, enterprises producing engines and aircraft devices. “That was the time,” writes one of the leading aircraft designers of the USSR A.S. Yakovlev, “when our aviators broke into the world arena of air competitions. The successes of Soviet aviation were based on the creative pursuit of our designers and on the rapidly growing aviation industry. ” In particular, in 1937, Soviet pilots set about 30 international records on domestic aircraft.

The Soviet fleet also greatly increased its power. Deployed the construction of new warships. First small, and then larger for a large ocean fleet. Was organized mass production of submarines, torpedo boats and aircraft for naval aviation. The Pacific Fleet was created in 1932, and the Northern Fleet in the 1933. Fleet tonnage from 1930 to 1939 increased by more than 130%.

After the XVIII party congress (March 1939), the government paid even more attention to the country's defense issues. If the annual output of all industries increased by an average of 13%, then the defense one - 39%. A number of large industrial enterprises transferred to the production of defense products. Deployed the construction of new military plants. The People's Commissariat of Defense Industry in January 1939 was divided into four People's Commissars, for greater efficiency: aviation, shipbuilding, ammunition and armament. From the People's Commissariat of Mechanical Engineering were created the People's Commissariats of heavy, medium and general engineering. People's commissariats of motor transport, construction, etc., are being created, which on the whole helped strengthen the country's defense. Councils on the defense industry, metallurgy, fuel, machine building, etc. are being created from the Economic Council under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. Their deputies were the chairmen of the USSR SNK N.A. Voznesensky, A.N. Kosygin, V.A. Malyshev and others. All these measures Improved industrial governance contributed to the accelerated development of heavy and especially defense industry.

New enterprises are created mainly in the eastern regions of the country, remote from the western strategic direction: in the Volga region, in the Urals, in Siberia, Kazakhstan, and Central Asia. In this way, The new industrial base was removed from the possible areas of battles and strikes of a potential enemy, and at the same time Moscow gradually developed all areas of the country, creating the potential for future prosperity of the entire power.

In September, 1939 passed a law on universal conscription. The previous restrictions in the military service were canceled, its term was extended from 2 to 3 years, and in the fleet - to 5 years. The draft age was reduced from 21 to 19 years. As a result, if by 1 in January of 1935, the number of the army was a little over 1,5 million, then by 1 in January of 1941, it increased to 4,2 million. By 1 June 1941, the strength of the Armed Forces has already exceeded 5 million. Taking into account the increased military threat and with the aim of the fastest growing economic power of 26 June 1940, a decree was adopted “On the transition to the 8 hourly working day, for a seven-day week and to ban unauthorized departure of workers and employees from enterprises and institutions”.

In the last prewar years, the growth of the country's defense power continued unabated. In 1939-1940 New fighters were created - Yak-1, MiG-3, LaGG-3, Il-2 attack aircraft, Pe-2 diving bomber, etc. In the third and fourth quarters of 1940, all old fighters were removed from mass production. Began mastering the mass production of new aircraft. New models of technology created in the field of tank building. In 1940, the production of heavy tanks KV and medium tanks T-34 began, the best in the world in terms of their fighting qualities (even taking into account “childhood diseases”). Important decisions were taken on the organization of mass production of tanks in the Volga region and in the Urals. From January 1939 to 22 June 1941, the industry gave the army more than 7 thousand tanks. The production of artillery, small arms and ammunition increased. New artillery pieces of the 1939 Sample were delivered to the troops: 76-mm divisional, 37-mm and 85-mm anti-aircraft guns, 210-mm gun, 28-mm mortar and 305-mm howitzer. From January 1939 to 22, June 1941, the Red Army received about 30 thousand guns, more than 52 thousand mortars, etc.

The power of the fleet continued to grow. From the beginning of 1941, they stopped the construction of battleships and heavy cruisers, they no longer had time to complete construction, all attention was focused on small surface ships and submarines. From 1927 to 22 on June 1941, 312 ships entered service, including 4 cruisers, 30 destroyers, 206 submarines, etc. In addition, the fleet was replenished with 477 combat boats and a large number of auxiliary vessels. Total Soviet fleet on the eve of the war had 3 battleship, 7 cruisers, 59 leaders and destroyers, 218 PL, 269 torpedo boats and about 2600 aircraft.

However, there were many problems that weakened the combat power of the USSR Armed Forces. The army has increased dramatically in quantitative terms, as a result there were not enough experienced and fully trained command personnel. Apparently, in the Soviet generals there were still representatives of the “fifth column” - the uninitiated Trotskyists, which led to a number of failures of the initial period of the Great Patriotic War.

There were problems in almost every sphere. For example, the Soviet Union was the first to create large mechanized units — brigades and corps. However, due to the incorrect assessment of the experience of the war in Spain, the mechanized corps disbanded and created smaller units — brigades and regiments. In the middle of 1940, in view of the success of large armored formations on the Western front, the erroneousness of the implemented measure became visible, it was decided to create 9 new mechanized corps. In February-March, 1941 began the formation of another 20 mechanized corps. However, it was impossible to immediately solve a problem of this scale: the tank industry could not supply such a number of tanks (to fully equip all new hulls, 32 thousand tanks, including more than 16 thousand tanks of new types) were required; massive training of technical and command personnel was required; create a material base for mass equipment maintenance; to work out methods of using such masses of tanks in combat, their interaction with aviation, artillery, infantry, etc. Thus, the formation and equipment of all new mechanized corps was not completed. However, the first 9 mechanized corps played a big role at the beginning of the war, restraining the onslaught of the enemy.

Rifle troops needed serious reinforcement. According wartime, approved in April 1941, at Infantry Division was to have 14,5 thousand. Man, 78 field guns, anti-tank guns 54, 12 anti-aircraft guns, mortars 66 82-120 mm, light tanks 16, 13 armored vehicles, more than 3 thousand horses. In June, the 1941 in the Soviet ground forces had 303 divisions, of which 81 was at the formative stage. In the five border districts there were 170 divisions, a significant portion of them had 8-9 thousand people, some 5-6 thousand people. Domestically, the divisions also had reduced staff.

The troops received from the industry a large number of guns and mortars. In the border districts military artillery, in the main, was staffed up to regular standards. However, it was a bad deal with mechanical artillery. The artillery of the reserve of the High Command (RGC) was insufficient in quantitative terms. In the spring, 1941 began to form 10 anti-tank artillery brigades of the GSC, but did not have time to do this before the start of the war. The prototypes of jet weapons created at the beginning of the war (BM-13, "Katyushas") did not immediately receive due recognition, and it was only in June that a decision was made on the mass production of jet-sets.

The development of aviation in the USSR was given paramount importance. So, in 1940, compared with 1939, the aircraft industry grew by more than 70%. The construction of new aircraft manufacturing and aircraft manufacturing plants continued. But the main problem was the improvement of combat and flight performance of aircraft. In the Air Force there were few fighters and bombers of new types. And according to the flight data, the old cars were inferior to the German cars of the same type. The reorganization and growth of the Air Force also required retraining of the flight technical staff. New air regiments were formed, new airfields were built, the air force rear was reorganized, and so on. At the same time, the entire air defense system of the country was transformed.

In this way, the enemy found the Red Army at the stage of formation of new formations, rearmament, reorganization and retraining, preparation of new fortified lines. In addition, part of the Soviet generals worked for the Trotskyist underground, or inherited the psychology of the tsarist generals (generals of "peacetime", not capable of feat and actions in crisis conditions). However, the Red Army of sample 1941 was qualitatively different for the better from the satellite of sample 1925-1935, when for the USSR even Poland or Finland was a serious opponent. It already had its beginnings, which in the 1944-1945 year, made the Red Army the most powerful force on the planet.

Red Empire on the eve of the great battle

Shielded T-28 tanks pass through Red Square during the November 7 1940 parade of the year.

T-35 tanks before the parade on Red Square 7 in November 1940 of the year

Strategic situation in June 1941.

From the summer of 1940, when France and the expeditionary forces of England suffered defeat, to June 1941, military operations were limited. Separate outbreaks of active actions were followed by pauses. After the air strikes in England in winter, Germany continued to struggle in the Atlantic and, together with Italy, in the Mediterranean and North Africa. The German command practically abandoned the surface cruising operations, and now only the German submarine fleet threatened British communications. In addition, during the preparation of the war with the USSR, Germany transferred part of its submarine forces from the Atlantic to the Barents and Baltic Seas (ten submarines moved to the Mediterranean Sea). In the spring of 1941, Greece and Yugoslavia were crushed and occupied.


But the main attention of Hitler's Germany was drawn to the preparation for war with the USSR. Berlin completed the strategic deployment of the armed forces along the western borders of the USSR. The annexation of Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary to the German bloc, as well as the defeat of Yugoslavia and Greece, provided the southern strategic flank of the Wehrmacht. More than 150 ground forces divisions were intended to attack the Soviet Union. 38 divisions and 2 tank brigades remained in France, Belgium and Holland; 9 Infantry Divisions - in Denmark and Norway; 8 infantry divisions - in the Balkans, in North Africa - 2 tank divisions; The 5 infantry divisions and the 3 brigade are in Germany, Austria, Poland and Czechoslovakia. The main part of the German fleet was still diverted to the Atlantic. Part of it was deployed against the USSR. For example, in the Baltic for operations against the Soviet Baltic Fleet and to secure the coastal flank of Army Group North, the Germans had about 100 warships. Germany's allies - Romania, Hungary and Finland, launched 37 divisions against the USSR. That is, all against the USSR at the beginning of the war put up about 190 divisions. In addition, the 2 Slovak infantry divisions and the moto-brigade, the Italian expeditionary corps as part of the 3 divisions, were to take part in the aggression against the USSR.

Italy continued to focus on the Mediterranean and the Balkans. By June, 1941 from the 64 divisions of Italy 33 were located on the Balkan Peninsula, 24 - in Italy (3 was being prepared for transfer to the Russian front), 7 - in North Africa. Most of the Italian navy and air force operated on the Mediterranean.

England in this period focused on the organization of the defense of the metropolis and sea communications, mainly in the North Atlantic, where the main sea routes of Britain were located. British aviation occasionally bombed German economic facilities. Three quarters of the land forces were deployed in the metropolis. In North Africa, in the Middle East, there was a half-million army, which mainly consisted of Australian, Indian, New Zealand, South African units and formations. The fleet covered England and conducted military operations in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Taking into account the reduction of the threat directly to the metropolis, the British command sent significant fleet forces to ensure communications in the Atlantic. By June 1941, the number of British escort ships in the Atlantic reached about 700.

In the spring of 1941, England’s position in the Mediterranean deteriorated somewhat due to the loss of Greece and Crete. However, this unfavorable factor was compensated by the fact that Germany’s main focus was on the USSR and Hitler turned down plans to expand the zone of control in the Mediterranean. In particular, the operation to seize Malta was curtailed, and the 10 Corps of the German Air Force was transferred from the Mediterranean theater to attack the USSR. Therefore, the British fleet retained dominance in the middle and western part of the Mediterranean Sea and a strong base in Malta, from where it was possible to strike at the communications of the Italian-German forces. In North Africa, where 100-thousand was located Italian-German contingent, at this time there was no active action.

The Japanese empire, continuing the aggressive war in China, hoped to use the forthcoming war of Germany against the USSR and the weakening of the positions of the colonial powers in the Asia-Pacific region to realize its own expansion. The primary direction was southern, but after the defeat of the main forces of the Soviet Union by the Germans, the Japanese hoped for a significant expansion of their possessions at the expense of the Russian lands. To attack the positions of the United States and Britain in the Pacific, they planned to use the main forces of the fleet and aviation, more than 10 land divisions. To attack the USSR, they planned to use the Manchurian bridgehead, where the 400-thousand was located. Kwantung Army. In China, Japan had 39 divisions (of which in Manchuria - 12 divisions), in Korea - 2, in Japan - 9 divisions.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
1941 Campaign

How defeated Yugoslavia and Greece
Yugoslav operation
Greek operation
Operation Mercury
How German paratroopers stormed Crete
Hitler was only a tool to crush the USSR
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  1. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 27 June 2016 06: 27
    +1
    "the task is to eliminate 50-100 years of economic and technical backwardness from the West"

    Why is there a hundred-year, immediately one thousand-year backwardness from the West. yes
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Joe stalin
      Joe stalin 27 June 2016 12: 42
      +14
      Created our world for glory
      Over the years, things have been done for centuries.
      Happiness take on the right
      And we love it hot and sing like children.


      RETURN THE SOCIALIST SYSTEM AND THE SYSTEM OF COUNCILS to the Constitution of the Russian Federation!
      nationalize the extraction of raw materials - oil and gas, coal, gold mining and precious metals, energy!
      we will return the world's best completely free budget education according to Soviet standards, 100% budget, non-insurance state medicine, the right to work guaranteed by the state, the sectoral structure of ministries of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Federation, 5-year plans for the development of the public sector of the economy!
    3. Joe stalin
      Joe stalin 27 June 2016 13: 10
      +7
      During the Stalinist leadership, over the course of 30 years, an agrarian, impoverished country dependent on foreign capital has become the most powerful military-industrial power on a global scale, the center of a new socialist civilization.
      The impoverished and illiterate population of Tsarist Russia has become one of the most intelligent and educated nations in the world. The political and economic literacy of the workers and peasants by the beginning of the 50s was not only not inferior, but also surpassed the level of education of the workers and peasants of any developed country at that time.
      During the first 19 years of the country's governance, Stalin increased its industrial production by almost 70 times and turned it from an African state into the second in the world, and in a number of ways it turned into the first country in the world!

      Under the liberal capitalist, oligarchic system, the Russian Federation will be the same third-rate economic country as the capitalist Russian Empire before 1914!

      Urgently needed:

      1) return the socialist system and the system of Soviets to the Constitution of the Russian Federation!
      2) to nationalize the extraction of raw materials - oil and gas, coal, gold mining and precious metals, energy!
      3) return the world's best completely free budget education according to Soviet standards, 100% budget, non-insurance state medicine, the right to work guaranteed by the state, the branch structure of ministries of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Federation, 5-year plans for the development of the public sector of the economy!
      1. Pcorda38
        Pcorda38 27 June 2016 14: 09
        +7
        The return of socialism to Russia will be the most serious defeat for the oligarchy in Western Europe and the USA.
        The only thing that the West is afraid of and endangers! Around the world of Russia = USSR for love, has ever lost in Lenin and socialism!


        Only in Russia there are political, military and economic means for trying to return socialism, and this time may be at the right time.
      2. yehat
        yehat 27 June 2016 16: 58
        +2
        "2 comments".
        1. In itself, some unilateral sticking into the growth of industry has given quite a few minuses
        industry must grow in harmony with the economy and logistics. Added to this, the fact that the industry was too focused on the production of weapons, which was not always justified. Weapons should be based on the technological level of the economy, but on the contrary, a smart military man teaches the lives of ordinary manufacturers.
        2. The above statistics do not fully reflect the growth of industry in the USSR. Due to the lack of technology, centralized management did not control everything and part of the economy was forced to subsist on subsistence farming, barter and shade. This is not reflected in statistics, although according to my personal estimates, 10 percent would add to GDP.
        1. Kotyara Fat
          Kotyara Fat 1 July 2016 20: 51
          +1
          Two notes
          1. Harmonious growth can be 300 years! For 20 years there will be no harmony. There will be distortions, hitch ... But. Growth is growth!
          2. This is not going into the shadows - this is the distribution of sectors. Where the state distribution failed, they gave it to the private trader.
    4. The comment was deleted.
    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. RUSS
      RUSS 27 June 2016 16: 39
      +1
      We noticed in the second photo on the building that the American flag is hanging from the left, is this the former building of the US Embassy?
    7. overb
      overb 27 June 2016 20: 33
      -3
      Quote: Samsonov Alexander
      Red Empire on the eve of the great battle

      "Ivan Vasilyevich, when you speak, it feels like you are delusional."
      Everything in the article is enchanting. From the stunning statement that the USSR once in its history was the second economy in the world (this was not even in the years of the so-called "developed socialism", and even under the so-called "socialism", in a poor half-starved country with slave economy, and even more so). And ending with the "new" models of equipment: "The troops received new artillery pieces of the 1939 model: 76-mm divisional and 85-mm anti-aircraft guns."
      The first is actually a slightly sham three-inch arr. 1902 And the second former German anti-aircraft gun arr. 1930
      About the heavy tank KV and the medium tank T-34, "then the best in the world in terms of their combat qualities (even taking into account" childhood illnesses ")", is also cool.
      To begin with, because the KV was not a heavy tank before the war, but the T-34 was a medium one. There was no such division then. And about the "best in the world, taking into account childhood diseases" the author also bent. In addition, he has not yet remembered, not about childhood illnesses, but about their serious design flaws. Very serious, good (not even the best, but just good) tanks don't have such tanks.
      Quote: Samsonov Alexander
      On June 26, 1940, a decree "On the transition to an 8-hour working day, on a seven-day week and on the prohibition of unauthorized withdrawal of workers and employees from enterprises and institutions" was adopted.

      "Life has become better, life has become happier".
      56 hour workweek (in terms of modern rates) with one day off is really fun. If someone does not believe, you can compare it with the modern 40 hour with two days off. And the enslavement of a "free citizen" with a specific owner, this does say a lot. Understanding people.
      When was this monstrous law abolished? In May 1945? No? In June? No. Only in 1956. “Khrushchev, a bad maize”, after the revolution he accomplished in general and after the country's transition from slavery to feudalism, introduced a 49-hour working week with one day off. And even allowed to quit, which was logical, tea was no longer a slave system.
      Quote: Samsonov Alexander
      representatives of the “fifth column” —non-finished Trotskyists — remained in the Soviet generals, which led to a series of failures in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War.

      But how then? How without them, without pests?
      Quote: Samsonov Alexander
      To be continued ...

      Maybe not?
  2. timyr
    timyr 27 June 2016 06: 55
    +8
    Quote: Vladimirets
    "the task is to eliminate 50-100 years of economic and technical backwardness from the West"

    Why is there a hundred-year, immediately one thousand-year backwardness from the West. yes

    And what, there was no backwardness or how.
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 27 June 2016 07: 03
      +9
      Quote: timyr
      , there was no backwardness or how.

      In some areas and quite serious. The successes of industrialization are obvious. BUT, a hundred-year backwardness? request So, Russia was at the level of 1820? The beginning of the twentieth century is a time of a grandiose world technological breakthrough and thanks to industrialization we have not lagged behind it.
      1. White Guard
        White Guard 27 June 2016 07: 32
        -3
        Quote: Vladimirets
        In some areas and quite serious.

        By what? On the production of pig iron for tanks and the number of tanks themselves? Yes, there were no mechanized corps in the Russian Empire, the time had not come yet!
        And if for anything real and comparable, agricultural production or housing construction, then the "union of repressed" Dzhugashvili lagged behind Russia in 1913.
        1. ammunition
          ammunition 27 June 2016 08: 41
          +9
          Quote: White Guard
          For what?


          Unfortunately .. In the Russian Empire simply did not have a number of industrial sectors. sad
          --------------
          There was not much of the chemical industry. Most of the precision and heavy engineering. There was no optical industry either. ..
          Even in metallurgy, which seemed to be .. There was no capacity to produce the necessary range of products.
          Aluminum, Nickel in the Russian Empire not produced. sad From non-ferrous metallurgy .. only copper was produced in abundance.
          Tin was also not produced .. ore was transported to England. recourse
          -------------
          Well, judge for yourself!
          If you just take on one bearing.
          What can be done without a bearing ????? Never mind!!
          And there was no bearing industry either. sad
          ---------
          To list everything for a very long time. Yes, you yourself know all this .. only .. troll .. not for the truth, but for fencing off your beloved Kappel and other Kolchakov-Krasnovs.
          1. Nikolay K
            Nikolay K 27 June 2016 14: 41
            +1
            And under Ivan the Terrible, bearings were not produced at all, and even gasoline was not produced. What backward tsarism we had. wink
            By the way, do not remind where there were plants at the Nobel, well, who invented dynamite. Have you heard anything about the Baku oil fields? And about Mendeleev, who lived in backward Russia?
            1. ammunition
              ammunition 27 June 2016 15: 19
              +3
              Quote: Nikolai K
              And under Ivan the Terrible, bearings were not produced at all, and even gasoline was not produced. What backward tsarism we had.


              Dear Nicholas.

              We are not Spain .. not Brazil .. and not Hungary.
              If we are not at the most advanced level - they will simply destroy us! sad
              ------------
              And by the time of 1914, the ball bearing had become absolutely irreplaceable thing.
              Even the famous Russian steam locomotive of the Ov series could no longer be made without ball bearings.
              Do you understand this?
              If there is no own production ... Then! Sanctions instantly strangle industry.
              ------
              We are not Argentina. We need to do everything ourselves.
              ----------
              By the way. In the time of Ivan the Terrible, Moscow Russia was at the forefront of the technical level of those times.
              1. Warrior2015
                Warrior2015 27 June 2016 15: 33
                -3
                Quote: ammunition
                By the way. In the time of Ivan the Terrible, Moscow Russia was at the forefront of the technical level of those times.

                Oh, come on, even printing was banned for 150 years, and you mean "the most advanced state." It’s just not the most backward, but in general, not very leading.
                1. Warrior2015
                  Warrior2015 28 June 2016 10: 30
                  -1
                  Quote: Warrior2015
                  Oh, come on, even printing was banned for 150 years, and you mean "the most advanced state." It’s just not the most backward, but in general, not very leading.

                  Hey secret minusers! If you don’t know the trivial facts, then you think this will fix something? Printing in the Moscow kingdom tried to introduce Ivan Fedorov, you know this? But he was accused of the Black Book and heresy, his typography was defeated, and before Peter I, in general, we had very serious problems with printing (we copied everything with pens, yeah).

                  This is due to the fact that thanks to Ivan the Terrible, we have become almost the most advanced state in Europe.
                  1. ammunition
                    ammunition 28 June 2016 14: 19
                    +3
                    Quote: Warrior2015
                    Printing in the Moscow kingdom tried to introduce Ivan Fedorov, you know this? But he was accused of the Black Book and heresy, his printing house was defeated, and before Peter I, in general, we had very serious problems with printing (we copied everything with pens, huh).

                    This is due to the fact that thanks to Ivan the Terrible, we have become almost the most advanced state in Europe.


                    1) I didn’t set any cons.
                    -------------
                    2) at the beginning of the 50 of the XVI century. by decree of Tsar Ivan IV (Grozny!)
                    “... they began to seek out print mastery ...”,
                    That .. in the beginning of the 60’s the tsar “ordered to build a house at the expense of the tsar’s treasury, where to print.”
                    3) Fedorov’s printing house in Moscow began to interfere with an influential group of scribes. The usual thing. It was in Europe .. the same in Moscow.
                    The printing house was burned (not smashed, but burned) according to the intrigues of scribes.
                    4) And here is what Fedorov himself said about the persecution in Moscow: -, “Not from the Sovereign, but from many the chief and the boss, who envy us for the sake of many heresies for the sake of”which him "... hitherto unknown were expelled from the land, fatherland and our family to the land." ,
                    -------------
                    It was known before .. and now is on the internet. request
            2. Alf
              Alf 27 June 2016 19: 52
              +2
              Quote: Nikolai K
              And about Mendeleev, who lived in backward Russia?

              And what about Mendeleev? Yes, there lived such a really great chemist in Russia, he lived, created and made discoveries. But tell me, please, many of his discoveries have been introduced?
              The fate of the nitrocellulose gunpowder created by Mendeleev was especially "successful".
              Later, thanks to the efforts of the French engineer Messen, who was none other than an expert at the Okhta powder factory who was interested in using his pyroxylin technology, the identity of the latter was recognized by the results of D. I. Mendeleev's developments. At that time, they attached little importance to domestic research, and, instead of developing it, they preferred to buy foreign privileges and patents - the right to “authorship” and production of gunpowder D. I. Mendeleev was appropriated to himself at that time in St. Petersburg, Navy lieutenant SASH D Bernadou (eng. John Baptiste Bernadou), "part-time" was an employee of ONI (Eng. Office of Naval Intelligence - Office of Naval Intelligence), procured the recipe, and, never before doing this, suddenly since 1898 "carried away by the development of "Smokeless powder, and in 1900 he received a patent for" Colloidal explosives and its production "(eng. US Patent 2253: For improvements in smokeless explosives or colloids and process for making the same), in his publications he reproduces the findings of D. I. Mendeleev. And Russia, “according to its eternal tradition”, bought it in huge quantities in World War I, this gunpowder, in America, and the sailors — Lieutenant D. Bernadou and captain J. Converse — are still inventors. .
      2. Stas57
        Stas57 27 June 2016 09: 31
        +4
        Then the task was set to eliminate the 50-100-year economic and technical backwardness from the West,

        well, it was 50 summer and in some places 100 summer- when compared with Britain, where this moment is not the first generation of the working class to grow up, with its own culture and even caste, I recall the boom of metallurgy in small Britain in the 30-40x years of 19в, and here it is Yesterday's peasant, who had to be taught and taught.
        our mass broad industrial intelligentsia (in a good way) -60 e years 20в

        Well, they said about education.
      3. Forest
        Forest 27 June 2016 09: 38
        +4
        In the 20-s we had a typical agrarian country, while others in the 19-th century became industrial countries.
      4. Pcorda38
        Pcorda38 27 June 2016 14: 24
        0
        Each person has his own character, his own story. You cannot easily change and not always bad. In fact, many times ugly, it is a quality. For example, Japan. This is a modern country ... However, a very archaic culture.

        Without backwardness, Soviet people would not have stood the fury of Hitler.
    2. White Guard
      White Guard 27 June 2016 07: 29
      -2
      Quote: timyr
      And what, there was no backwardness or how.

      Backwardness? What are you speaking about? The USSR only by the 50-51st year (we do not take the NEP years) was able to achieve the performance of the Russian Empire in production (production, not consumption) agricultural products.
      And the Russian Empire of 1913, even if it lagged behind the USSR in 1953, only in that, in which all other countries in their historical past lagged behind in the present.
      1. Alexey T. (Oper)
        Alexey T. (Oper) 27 June 2016 08: 50
        +4
        What nonsense is this? The 1913 agricultural production indicators were already achieved by the 1927 year. And after collectivization and at the end of the period of formation of collective farms, these indicators were surpassed by the 1937 year. So the drought of the 1936-37 years, much more serious than the drought of the 32-33 years, the country did not even notice.
    3. avt
      avt 27 June 2016 08: 01
      +1
      Quote: timyr
      And what, there was no backwardness or how.

      Well, something like this
      “Do you want our socialist fatherland to be beaten and to lose its independence? But if you don’t want that, you must eliminate its backwardness in the shortest possible time and develop real Bolshevik rates in building its socialist economy. There are no other ways. That is why Lenin said on the eve of October: “Either death, or catch up and overtake the advanced capitalist countries.” We are 50-100 years behind the advanced countries. We have to cover this distance in ten years. Either we do it, or they will crush us, "Joseph said Stalin at the first All-Union conference of workers of socialist industry on February 4, 1931
      Although .... this is a bloody tyrant "said" uneducated " bully
    4. Riv
      Riv 27 June 2016 08: 08
      +2
      Pr century-old backwardness - this, of course, Stalin said in his speech to strengthen the impression of it. In fact, the lag was not so fatal. Even before the revolution, Russia quite successfully modified its industry through foreign investment. This is of course a double-edged sword, because foreigners exported profits abroad. However, capital remained in Russia.

      So the Stalinist five-year plans did not begin from scratch. There was a manpower and engineering personnel. When a plant was bought in the United States, there were those who built it on the spot and those who later worked on it. 8900 enterprises just do not put in the field. We need infrastructure, and a very significant part of it has remained since tsarist times.
      1. avt
        avt 27 June 2016 08: 23
        +4
        Quote: Riv
        . In fact, the lag was not so fatal. Even before the revolution, Russia quite successfully modified its industry through foreign investment.

        wassat Have you missed anything? Well, the fact that the Civil War was, the people were crumbled and the cordon did not go sourly, alien class?
        Quote: Riv
        . There was a manpower and engineering personnel.

        Igde? In what quantities? Yes, actually you can bring the royal statistics for comparison?
        Quote: Riv
        When a plant was bought in the United States, there were those who built it on the spot and those who later worked on it. 8900 enterprises just do not put in the field.

        I will reveal a "terrible secret" - the working class, as well as the engineers, were formed right "on the march" from the peasantry, which nowadays without exception is written down by the universal intelligentsia, describing collectivization in the course of de-Stalinization, which is actually characteristic of any industrial revolution previously committed in other countries, but the pace was not found anywhere else. Again, together with the purchased factories, specialists from the same USA and Germany, the main suppliers, also traveled here.
        Quote: Riv
        . We need infrastructure, and a very significant part of it has remained since tsarist times.

        laughing Well, as you do not dig, I'm talking about
        Quote: Riv
        a very significant part of it has remained since imperial times.

        Indeed, Putilovsky stood and ZiS / ZiL based on AMO type raised.
        1. Riv
          Riv 27 June 2016 12: 34
          0
          You, sorry, carry heresy. And the October Revolution itself then where did it come from ??? After all, it was the proletariat that became its main driving force.

          Purely for your information: the proletariat is a social class that earns livelihoods by selling its labor. Definition of Engels, by the way. The number of the proletariat in Russia from 1861 to 1900 increased neither more nor less, but by 4.5 times. from 3.2 to 14 million people. By 1917, almost 20 million, 11% of the population. Plus, what was called the proletarian milieu is their family members.

          What did we have in 1861? The abolition of serfdom was. That is, proletarians from peasants (here you are right, from whom else?) Did not begin to do under the Soviet regime. Moreover, the pace is perhaps that exceeded the Stalinist. Surprise? Surprise...

          As for the difficult legacy of the tsarist regime ... Transport, for example. In what year did they begin to build the Trans-Siberian Railway? And before, you drove exclusively on donkeys? Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy. Engineering. Extractive industries. All this was. When the Dnieper Hydroelectric Power Plant began to be built, cement and rebar were not bought in Germany. And it was completely Russian engineers who designed it (again, a surprise!). In the United States, only electrical equipment was purchased.
          1. Kotyara Fat
            Kotyara Fat 1 July 2016 21: 27
            0
            Yeah, how many excavators worked at this construction site? Already two! And there are as many cranes. Tehnichiski is the pre-advanced Zimbabwe! And after 10 years, they came out on top in Europe.
      2. White Guard
        White Guard 27 June 2016 08: 35
        -2
        Quote: Riv
        This, of course, is a double-edged sword, because foreigners exported profits abroad. However, capital remained in Russia.

        Yes, stick, that's how it was!
        Under the Bolsheviks, it was even better; grain was not exported abroad, but grain. But in Russia there remained not capital, but millions who died of starvation.
        Well, why wouldn’t they die if Dzhugashvili wanted to export grain abroad?
        1. Alexey T. (Oper)
          Alexey T. (Oper) 27 June 2016 08: 55
          +1
          It is enough to open the table and see the export structure of the USSR in the 30 years to make sure that the grain was far from the most important part. And in the hungry 32-33 year, grain export was virtually stopped.
          1. gray smeet
            gray smeet 27 June 2016 09: 34
            +3
            From a letter of I.V. Stalin V.M. Molotov (no later than August 6, 1930):
            “... An agreement with Italy is a plus. Germany will follow her. By the way, what about German loans? Force the export of bread with might and main. This is now the nail. If we take out the bread, the loans will be».
            Letters I.V. Stalin V.M. Molotov 1925 - 1936. M., 2001.S. 194.
            1. Alexey T. (Oper)
              Alexey T. (Oper) 27 June 2016 10: 29
              +3
              Yes. And now just look at the figures of grain exports by year for the period 1930-1935 years.
            2. The comment was deleted.
            3. RUSS
              RUSS 27 June 2016 11: 21
              -3
              Quote: gray smeet
              An agreement with Italy is a plus. Germany will reach for her. By the way, what about German loans?

              The receipt of a large credit loan from Germany, Stalin regarded as an expression of the intention of Germany to come to an agreement with the USSR. At a meeting of the Politburo, Stalin objected to the OGPU report as follows: “How can Hitler fight against us if he provides us with such loans? It's impossible. The business community in Germany is powerful enough and it is they who manage ”
              Aliluyev’s daughter of Stalin about Stalin-: “He did not guess and did not foresee that the 1939 pact, which he considered his great cunning, would be violated by an even more cunning opponent. That is why he was so depressed at the very beginning of the war. It was his huge political miscalculation: “Oh, we would be invincible with the Germans,” he repeated, even when the war was over ... “But he never admitted his mistakes”
            4. PHANTOM-AS
              PHANTOM-AS 28 June 2016 01: 53
              +2
              Quote: gray smeet
              Letters I.V. Stalin V.M. Molotov 1925 - 1936. M., 2001. S. 194.

              I already saw a certain document, which our top leaders waved, in a hysterical apology for Katyn.
              What, damn it, embarrassment.
              I do not believe liberal sources, but my grandmother’s tales of 1902 and I believe letters from grandfathers from the front.
          2. Nikolay K
            Nikolay K 27 June 2016 14: 57
            -6
            Still would. The Bolsheviks crippled our agriculture and so artfully that instead of the world's largest grain exporter, Russia turned into a starving country. Although in these conditions, the Bolsheviks managed to export bread abroad. The industrialization of the 30's was done on peasant bones.
            1. Alexey T. (Oper)
              Alexey T. (Oper) 27 June 2016 16: 41
              +2
              Quote: Nikolai K
              Still would. The Bolsheviks crippled our agriculture and so artfully that instead of the world's largest grain exporter, Russia turned into a starving country. Although in these conditions, the Bolsheviks managed to export bread abroad. The industrialization of the 30's was done on peasant bones.

              Russia has never been the largest exporter, much less the largest grain producer. Argentina occupied the first place in the world in export and production of grain per capita, producing 132 pounds against 36 pounds in Russia. The second and third places in the world in grain production were occupied by Canada and the USA.
            2. Alf
              Alf 27 June 2016 20: 05
              +2
              Quote: Nikolai K
              Still would. The Bolsheviks crippled our agriculture and so artfully that instead of the world's largest grain exporter, Russia turned into a starving country.
      3. Stas57
        Stas57 27 June 2016 09: 37
        +1
        Pr century-old backwardness - this, of course, Stalin in his speech said in order to strengthen the impression of it. In fact, the lag was not so fatal.

        Neither the massive SHRUS, nor the 2 cm automatic machine from the rheinmetal in the USSR could.
        Quote: Riv
        Before the revolution, Russia quite successfully modified its industry through foreign investment

        this was completely insufficient for a new war, with the tsar there were no mass tanks, machine guns, aircraft, and so on. level has grown
        1. Riv
          Riv 27 June 2016 12: 46
          +3
          There was still life to tanks, but to live. But! During 1916, the Russian industry produced so many small arms that it was enough for the entire Civil and still for the Patriotic. The transition of quantity into quality is only a matter of time. Exaggerating: if there was a tank factory, and to produce T-34, or IS-7 on it, it was only a matter of design.
          1. Stas57
            Stas57 27 June 2016 12: 59
            0
            Quote: Riv
            There was still life to tanks, but to live. But! During 1916, the Russian industry produced so many small arms that it was enough for the entire Civil and still for the Patriotic. The transition of quantity into quality is only a matter of time. Exaggerating: if there was a tank factory, and to produce T-34, or IS-7 on it, it was only a matter of design.

            but the Germans and the Brins lived somehow longer, and, by the way, where did the motors for RI’s airplanes be made?
            was it a tank factory? otherwise it’s easy to switch from nothing to nothing
            1. Riv
              Riv 27 June 2016 13: 14
              +1
              For yeroplans? The I-16 was powered by Bristol Jupiter, manufactured in the USSR under the name M-22, then the American Wright-Cyclone R-1820-F3 engine, produced under license under the name M-25, and after a number of improvements received the name M-62 (AS- 62).
              Notice: produced in the USSR, and not in some kind of England there.
              1. Stas57
                Stas57 27 June 2016 13: 26
                +2
                Quote: Riv
                For yeroplans? The I-16 was powered by Bristol Jupiter, manufactured in the USSR under the name M-22, then the American Wright-Cyclone R-1820-F3 engine, produced under license under the name M-25, and after a number of improvements received the name M-62 (AS- 62).
                Note: produced in the USSR, and not in some kind of England there.

                and?
                so what do we have with motors in RI?
                1. Alex_59
                  Alex_59 27 June 2016 16: 03
                  +3
                  Quote: Stas57
                  so what do we have with motors in RI?

                  Yes, everything is bad there with motors. http://hvylya.net/analytics/history/russkaya-aviatsiya-pervoy-mirovoy-voynyi-res
                  ursnaya-baza-i-strategicheskie-oshibki-voennogo-rukovodstva.html

                  1 511 engines for the entire war on an 5012 aircraft (i.e. imported engines were on an 3501 aircraft)
                  For comparison, Germany - 40 200, France - 93 100.
                  1. Stas57
                    Stas57 27 June 2016 16: 10
                    +1
                    Quote: Alex_59
                    1 511 engines for the entire war on an 5012 aircraft (i.e. imported engines were on an 3501 aircraft)
                    For comparison, Germany - 40 200, France - 93 100.

                    I know, and these 1500 ....
                    factories “Gnome and Ron” and “Salmson, as they would say now, had partial localization in RI, therefore
                    Due to the German offensive on the south-western front, aviation property sent from France to Russia by sea was delayed in Thessaloniki and then redirected to Arkhangelsk, but due to the formation of ice on the White Sea, it had to be unloaded in Aleksandrovsk (now the city of Polyarny) where it was stored until the opening of navigation next year. Having not received the components, the Gnome and Ron and Salmson motor plants stood up, and the warehouses of Petrograd, Moscow and Odessa were filled with aircraft without engines. The situation was saved by the "chief of aviation" Alexander Romanov, who organized the delivery of reindeer carriage of the necessary cargo from the Aleksandrovsk railway line to the railway line in Murmansk.
                    1. Riv
                      Riv 27 June 2016 16: 47
                      -3
                      You still do not understand what it is about. The actions of foreign capital in Russia were aimed at making a profit and exporting it. The fact that the country's economy was growing at the same time is nothing more than a side effect. A quick profit does not work in high-tech enterprises. Therefore, in tsarist Russia, no one ever bothered with the release of something more complicated than a steam locomotive.

                      Nevertheless, the steam locomotive must be assembled and serviced - a lot of things are needed, starting from the extraction of resources and ending with metalworking. Skilled labor is also needed. There was a foundation and this foundation was used by Stalin.

                      Why I started talking about the I-16. His first flight was in the early 30s. The release of the engine for him had already been mastered by the industry by this time, from the beginning of the 20s. Less than 10 years after the revolution. Before industrialization, it was just like before Beijing, and the motors are already being made. On the same "royal" equipment.
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 27 June 2016 20: 19
                        0
                        Quote: Riv
                        and the motors are already being made. On the same "royal" equipment.

                        You are "a little" wrong. Not motors were bought, but a complete plant with a technical process, tools, machine tools and those who started all this and taught our workers.
                        To get acquainted with the design and production technology, engineers and workers of the plant No. 29 in the city of Zaporozhye were sent to the Gnome-Ron company, which was entrusted with the manufacture of this motor. The plant was reconstructed and replenished with the machine park necessary for the production of a large series of the Jupiter VI motor, which we have received the designation M-22.
                      2. Riv
                        Riv 28 June 2016 06: 16
                        +1
                        But you contradict yourself. If the plant was RECONSTRUCTED, then obviously it was not BUYED again. FILL UP the machine park means that there was something to replenish.

                        You have some childish ideas about technology. "The factory was bought, built ..." It is only in Starcraft that you can buy and build. But in reality, the plant needs a lot more. You can't tighten the nut without a 17-mm open-end wrench, but how much does it take to make such a wrench, which seems to be the easiest thing to do? And the nut itself, for that matter ...
                      3. Alf
                        Alf 28 June 2016 18: 15
                        0
                        Quote: Riv
                        But you contradict yourself. If the plant was RECONSTRUCTED, then obviously it was not BUYED again. FILL UP the machine park means that there was something to replenish.

                        I do not contradict.
                        The fact is that very often it happened that the factory building remained, everything was scooped out of it for non-ferrous metal, and completely new equipment was installed in an empty space. But since the building remained old, it was called "reconstruction".
          2. Alf
            Alf 27 June 2016 20: 10
            0
            Quote: Riv
            For yeroplans? The I-16 was powered by Bristol Jupiter, manufactured in the USSR under the name M-22, then the American Wright-Cyclone R-1820-F3 engine, produced under license under the name M-25, and after a number of improvements received the name M-62 (AS- 62).
            Note: produced in the USSR, and not in some kind of England there.

            But licenses for these engines were bought already in the days of the USSR. If something were, do you think, would you buy them? Nothing came out of nothing yet.
            1. Operator
              Operator 27 June 2016 20: 28
              +1
              The single-row nine-cylinder M-25 was a licensed copy of the R-1820-F3, the M-62 was its Soviet modification, but the two-row eight-cylinder ASH-73 and the fourteen-cylinder ASH-82 were already entirely Soviet-made.
      4. Alf
        Alf 27 June 2016 20: 07
        0
        Quote: Riv
        ! In 1916, Russian industry produced so many small arms that it was enough for the entire Civil and still for the Patriotic.

        Yes, they produced rifles. And how many planes were made in RI and how many MOTORS for them?
  3. 97110
    97110 27 June 2016 10: 55
    +1
    Quote: Riv
    foreigners exported profits abroad. However, capital remained in Russia.

    That is, you want to say that when setting up an enterprise in Russia, foreign capital did not use profit for production growth? Again a stamp from the Soviet era. Yes, it will be profitable, not only profit will be taken out, but the business will be liquidated, and capital will be forced to work elsewhere (in China, for example). It is not a matter of exporting profit, but of managing money from behind a hill. What Soviet Russia could not do is a matter of life.
    1. Riv
      Riv 27 June 2016 12: 56
      +1
      Alas, the export of profits was a universal phenomenon. But do you seem to confuse money and capital? Physical capital is not money. This is the value used to obtain the surplus value through the exploitation of wage labor. And the money invested in production is an investment and it is not directly related to profit.

      The fact that foreign investment in tsarist Russia exceeded the export of money is simply explained: the rate of return in Russia was higher than in the West. The goal was simple: make money fast. And the fact that at the same time the country's economy was growing is nothing more than a side effect. You can build a sawmill, hire pests, make boards and spend money from selling them. Or you can build a powerful wood processing plant. Profit will not be long, but then the costs will pay off. It is clear that in Tsarist Russia no one built plants.
  • Alekseev
    Alekseev 27 June 2016 10: 21
    +1
    Quote: timyr
    And what, there was no backwardness or how.

    Was, the Russian Empire in 1913 - 5,3% of world industrial production.
    USSR before the war, about 10%.
    Those. the growth is clear, but ... Unfortunately, not all of the quantity passed into quality ...
    1. Joe stalin
      Joe stalin 27 June 2016 13: 00
      0
      Not certainly in that way:
  • parusnik
    parusnik 27 June 2016 07: 11
    0
    From battle to labor, from labor to attacks .....
  • qwert
    qwert 27 June 2016 07: 29
    +1
    Alexander was too clever with the title. It is clear that he wanted more abruptly ... But it was necessary to limit himself to using the "red empire". And a battle is a battle. This is not a war - this is one of the battles in the war. Rench does not speak separately about the battle of Moscow, or for Leningrad, or Kursk, etc. It's about war. Well, the source would have to be indicated. Where are the numbers. From Rezun? From Volkogonov? From Mukhin or Pykhalov? Or maybe from the 1981 edition of the History of the KPSS, or 1989? This is very important, since the credibility of the listed authors is completely different. There is even a huge difference from the year of publication.
  • timyr
    timyr 27 June 2016 07: 56
    +2
    Quote: White Guard
    Quote: lukmag
    Germany was a country of complete literacy.

    Young man, you urgently need to study, otherwise you will live your whole life an uneducated and poor communist, unable to buy even an iPhone.
    And in the Republic of Ingushetia under Nicholas 2, universal education was implemented in the Russian regions, and by the mid-20s, education was to become universal throughout the Russian Empire, including the remote regions of Central Asia and Siberia.
    And this is confirmed even by the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, indicating the number of those who can "read and write without mistakes" among the recruits in the tsarist army.
    But in the "Union of the Repressed" Dzhugashvili at the beginning of the Second World War up to 25% of all conscripts could not even read, and also because under the Bolsheviks the education system was almost completely destroyed, and the teaching staff for the most part was repressed.
    Quote: lukmag
    because he could compare our country with Africa and other China

    Yes. The USSR could only be compared with the countries of the Third World, because only it was.

    This is another lie, it is better to lie about universal education under the tsar. Skoko there were draftees of illiteracy at the call of 1912. Such a backward country like the USSR rolled out united Europe. And the RKMP was a country of periphery capitalism, in which corporal punishment was imposed in the army in 16 because of successes, probably. And then in 17, the officers were amazed, but for us then.
    1. Riv
      Riv 27 June 2016 08: 14
      +1
      You did not recognize Evgeny Vaganovich? He simply decided to make people laugh before he died.
    2. White Guard
      White Guard 27 June 2016 08: 43
      0
      Quote: timyr
      This is another lie, it is better to lie about universal education under the tsar.

      Yes. It's true that under the king, almost any child could go to school.
      And the fact that some did not go, well, so many did not go to the USSR, WALKING.
      In the Republic of Ingushetia, it was easier to skip, because parental control was softer over education, and there were no "correctional" schools for the handicapped either.
      Quote: timyr
      Such a backward country like the USSR rolled out united Europe.

      Yes, yes, exactly what a "united Europe"! Holland there with Denmark, or OH GOD Romania itself.
      By the way, do not recall when the Allies rolled Italy out ?!
      Quote: timyr
      in which corporal punishment was introduced in the army in 16

      I don't remember about the corporal, I remember how officers in the Second World War shot soldiers, officers were shot by generals, and generals were shot and their muzzles were beaten by the "marshal of victory" himself!

      "A truck with shells is rapidly moving along the highway, overtaking the commanding cavalcade. Ivan is at the helm, he was ordered to deliver ammunition to the front line as soon as possible. Battery without shells, the guys are dying, and he is doing his duty, ignoring the traffic controllers. The marshal's jeep stops. , the marshal jumps out onto the asphalt and throws: "... your mother! Catch up! Stop! Bring here! A minute later trembling Ivan appears before the formidable marshal." Your driver's license! The marshal takes the document, tears it to shreds and barks to the guards: - Beat, piss and throw in a ditch! The retinue takes Ivan aside, quietly whispers to him: - Come on, go quickly from here, but don't get caught anymore! We, numb, stand on the sidelines. The Marshal had already left for Berlin long ago, and the rumbling stream resumed its movement. "
  • White Guard
    White Guard 27 June 2016 08: 02
    -1
    Another megarzhaka!
    USSR in the pre-war five-year period has achieved amazing success in all areas

    If the author is about how many tens of millions died of hunger or was "dispossessed", then the word surprisingly not the most suitable epithet, I would use terrible.
    the economy and transport destroyed during the First World War and the Civil War were restored.

    It would be very cool if the author specified.
    1. What kind of "economy" was destroyed during WW1, if the war was on the border, and all the years of the war, almost the entire civilian population freely bought and sold food on market conditions.
    2. He also reminded us that it was the "restored" Bolsheviks who started the "bloody civil" and "red terror".
    3. And he also told us about the catastrophic reduction in the number of horses in the USSR over the years of collectivization, as well as the fact that the Red Army was almost entirely provided by trucks exclusively American Made.
    the task was set to eliminate the 50-100-year-old economic and technical backwardness from the West, and this task was successfully solved

    Well, everything is clear, funnier than "hundred-year backwardness" only that the USSR has overcome its backwardness from the West.
    The Soviet Union became the world's second industrial power, second only to the United States.
    The jokes continue.
    The "Union of the Repressed" even in the last years of its existence (after almost half a century without wars !!!) in terms of GDP per capita (moreover, the official, unrealistically overstated!) Would be in the third ten countries.
    And under Dzhugashvili it was even worse; people were starving to death in the late 40s.
    Thus, Soviet (multinational Russian)

    That's all, there’s no more patience, I’ll finish the rest only after Valerian.
    1. stead
      stead 27 June 2016 08: 37
      +1
      what are you carrying!
      Quote: White Guard
      What kind of "economy" was destroyed during WW1, if the war was on the border,

      by the year 15 have lost ALL of Poland
      Quote: White Guard
      During the war years, almost the entire civilian population freely bought and sold food on market conditions.

      Food Survey introduced in 1916!
      Quote: White Guard
      He also told us about the catastrophic reduction in the number of horses in the USSR over the years of collectivization.

      those. arrived in the first world and civilian population by all means? and on the collective farms they began to score? my friend, by the year 29, the livestock had almost been restored after the wars
      Quote: White Guard
      And under Dzhugashvili it was even worse; people were starving to death in the late 40s.

      I’ll tell you more: in the early 40s even more starved to death

      the rest of the pearls there is no desire to comment, laugh less, read more
      1. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 27 June 2016 22: 34
        -1
        All Russian Poland had an area of ​​128 square kilometers, which is 000% of the territory of the modern Polish Republic.
    2. avt
      avt 27 June 2016 08: 57
      +2
      Quote: White Guard
      3. And he also told us about the catastrophic reduction in the number of horses in the USSR over the years of collectivization, as well as the fact that the Red Army was almost completely and completely provided with trucks exclusively made in America.

      If you have enough remnants of the mind for horses to find out, read Müller Hildebrant, well, where he writes about the requisition of horses with carts, as he says, the advancing Wehrmacht from the population of the USSR in the amount of hundreds of thousands of heads for the infantry, well, at the same time look for who is the same, "raised and did not disdain to cooperate during the war. Although what am I talking about? Here the client is quite ripe not only to enter the institute, but immediately postgraduate studies at the Serbsky Institute.
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 28 June 2016 10: 38
        -3
        Quote: avt
        Although what am I talking about? Then the client is quite ripe, not just to enter the institute, but immediately graduate school of the Institute. Serbian.

        Yes, what about? It is likely that there is a clear relationship between the saturation of the Soviet troops with American trucks and other machinery (including various types of armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles, amphibious and evacuation vehicles) - and between their ever-increasing ability to conduct deep offensive operations.
  • Kenneth
    Kenneth 27 June 2016 08: 22
    +4
    From what mossy chest pulled this article.
  • Kenneth
    Kenneth 27 June 2016 08: 24
    -1
    Something the Balts are not very proud of having become equal Soviet republics. It seems that they just wanted to remain unequal and independent.
  • Predator
    Predator 27 June 2016 08: 42
    +6
    Much has been done, especially in industry, the product shaft was wonderful, with the exception of the eternal disease of compliance with GOST, and therefore the quality was, as usual. But everything was not very good in the army. Look at the requests of the military - give 32 thousand tanks, more than 20 thousand aircraft, etc. If the fur. the corps, then the numbers are like a tank army, air divisions are like an air corps, but we didn’t think how to manage, supply, repair and think about all this. If the Wehrmacht TD has 120-180 tanks, then we will have 350-370 .... let's crush! Only there, in addition to tanks, there are 2500 more vehicles, tractors, which have 2 motorized infantry, 101 battalions, XNUMX artillery barrels, and that this division carries everything you need. Do you understand the difference?! What is the interaction between TD and Luftwaffe, almost real time, and this is not talking about reconnaissance, which led to the appearance of TDs at the junctions or even in free space, while our MKs darted along the roads and constantly poked at anti-tank infantry divisions without artillery, riflemen and ...... any supply.



    Sorry .... the grandson got up! Alarm!
    1. bistrov.
      bistrov. 27 June 2016 09: 27
      +6
      Quote: Predator
      ... Only there, in addition to tanks, 2500 more vehicles, tractors, which include 2 motorized infantry, a battalion, 101 artillery barrels on a mecht pull, that this division carries with it ...

      Come on, we have arranged "art on mechtyag, art on mehtyag". The bulk of the Germans' artillery was also horse-drawn, the infantry units also moved on foot, carrying property on carts and were armed with the same rifle, the tanks were worse than ours and there were fewer of them, that's the connection, yes. The Germans had excellent communication, in contrast to the Red Army. The commander's tank had as many as two radios, and there was not a single one of us, the company or battalion commander had to protrude from the hatch and wave flags. In other types of troops, incl. and aviation was the same. The organization of the battle among the Germans was at a height, great importance was attached to its control, making adjustments. The interaction of the combat arms was worked out: the attack did not work, they thrashed with aviation, used detours and envelopes, ours learned this only by 1944. Back in 1943, during the period of the Kursk Bulge, the crossing of the Dnieper and other battles, head-on attacks were quite frequent and, as a result, heavy losses.
      LOSS OF TROOP CONTROL AND THE QUALITY OF THE COMMAND STAFF. This is the main reason for the defeat of the Red Army in border battles in 1941, and not the mythical "mechtyag" and the "Schmeisser" assault rifle.
      1. Stas57
        Stas57 27 June 2016 09: 57
        +1
        Quote: bistrov.
        Come on, we have set up "art on mechtyag, art on mehtyag". The bulk of the Germans' artillery was also horse-drawn, the infantry units also moved on foot, transporting property on carts and were armed with the same rifle, the tanks were worse than ours and there were fewer of them, that's the connection, yes.

        all divisions at the tip of the main strike were motorized, either tank or front
        There were already two radios in the commander’s tank, but there weren’t any of us, the company commander or battalion had to protrude from the hatch and wave flags.

        sturgeon must be cut, in commander communication was unlike the rest
        . In other branches of the armed forces, including and aviation was the same. The organization of the battle with the Germans was on top, great importance was attached to its management, making adjustments.

        you would open Aliyev and find out how, for example, 45 in the BC is openly obosra, and there are a lot of such examples.
        do not fall into German ownership, it was better, much better, but let’s do it without enthusiasm.
        1. Predator
          Predator 27 June 2016 11: 23
          +2
          Well, if they had been prepared, then they would have also trodden 1941, regardless of the order and organization of the Wehrmacht, as an example of a three-day battle of 2 TD of the Red Army with 6 TD of the Wehrmacht on the Dubissa River, which was driven 30 km while there was fuel and ammunition.
      2. Predator
        Predator 27 June 2016 11: 13
        +4
        We are talking about TDs and MDs of the Wehrmacht, where did you see the brandy there ?! Besides, all TDs acted as campho groups (artillery, motorized infantry), and not naked tanks, and any TDs were supported by MDs and PDs (see the composition of tank groups). The bulk of the MK tanks are T 28, bt 5,7, which made their way through the entire Wehrmacht art starting from 20 mm artillery, not to mention the beater of which in any division was 51 pieces. and as part of each German platoon, the calculation of anti-tank guns was present. Structures are fighting, not crowds, it is not known where and why rushing tanks.
    2. Kenneth
      Kenneth 27 June 2016 11: 15
      +3
      We need more because the USSR, in principle, could not ensure quality at the German level. And the professionalism of the service. Every German peasant knew how to handle a tractor. Their workers and engineers were better trained, and the production culture was an order of magnitude higher. Therefore, we simply had to do more so that the part would break.
      1. Predator
        Predator 27 June 2016 20: 51
        -1
        Bravo! You are a big plus!
  • zoknyay82
    zoknyay82 27 June 2016 08: 55
    +4
    For all the undeniable achievements of the Soviet power, one should not forget the price that the People paid. An eternally poor village, workers' barracks, creepy communal apartments. The people have always been a "consumable" for all those in power, tsars, general secretaries, presidents, "there is no money, but you hold on" the eternal throwing of bureaucrats. The difference is that some created (and created) a powerful social State, and people endured their children for the future, now we endure a very thin and disrespectful stratum of the "elite" for the future children.
    1. bistrov.
      bistrov. 27 June 2016 09: 52
      +1
      Quote: zoknyay82
      For all the undeniable achievements of Soviet power, do not forget the price that the people paid

      One might think that under the former tsarist, or even earlier princely power, the people paid a lower price, died less of hunger, or were killed less in battles for the glory of "the faith and the tsar." It's just that there have never been such large-scale military clashes and the involvement of many peoples in preparation for them. Globalization. Secondly, this is how life and man are arranged. Communism, when all people will have a conscience, has remained a myth. If God, with all his capabilities, can do nothing with people, then where are we sinners. Most likely it is not and never was. That's all.
  • 97110
    97110 27 June 2016 10: 28
    +1
    50-100 years of economic and technical backwardness from the West

    Usually I defend the Bolsheviks. But why is this obviously false slogan here? What is economic backwardness? Not knowing arithmetic? Is the physical mass of industrial enterprises insufficient? That is, the country owns technologies? Why then backwardness? And even 100 years old? Technical backwardness. It reads especially well in a military context. Somehow I read (like on VO) that in the list of artillery items surrendered by the Great Germany division (?) In 1945 due to surrender, there was a Putilov three-inch model of 1903. What else are we 100 years behind Germany? Okay, 50? We agree that our ancestors did not eat cabbage soup at all. For that matter, the West has lagged behind us by a millennium in cabbage soup, in bast shoes, and in the technology of slurping. When our elites play by their rules, then we are "backward", like the blacks from Dixie. But the elite is still ahead. By merciukas per km. expensive for sure. The technique is called "planting the reporting base". To hit readers with a four-digit growth rate.
    The army received new artillerys instruments 1939: 76-mm divisional, 37-mm and 85-mm anti-aircraft guns, 210-mm gun, 28 mm mortar and a 305 mm howitzer.
    More carefully, the Author, it is necessary to outline the primary sources.
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 27 June 2016 11: 11
      +3
      Quote: 97110
      What else are we behind Germany at 100 years behind? Okay, on 50?

      in technological literacy, low technical culture, I have already indicated above, and I repeat, generations of workers have grown in small Britain, but it would be yesterday with us a peasant who had recently learned that there is a tractor, so we couldn’t get into a massive SHRUS or in 2 Rheinmetall machine gun, not into normal aircraft engines, Well, at least you die, but you can’t teach a good steelworker in a year how to not teach a good locksmith, etc., etc. for a year, sometimes you have to live in a profession for 30 years in order to feel and understand it.
      The same applies to users of technology, it is one thing if you have been messing around with cars, motorcycles and tractors with your father since childhood, and another if you are in the army for the first time seeing a tractor.
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 27 June 2016 15: 08
        0
        Quote: Stas57
        The same applies to users of technology, it is one thing if you have been messing around with cars, motorcycles and tractors with your father since childhood, and another if you are in the army for the first time seeing a tractor.

        You said it right. The same Erich Hartman, if he was wrong, began to fly from 14 years. And for most Soviet pilots of the 1941 of the year, the raid was on 5-6 hours.
      2. 97110
        97110 27 June 2016 17: 47
        +2
        Quote: Stas57
        in technological literacy, low technical culture, I have already indicated above, and I repeat, generations of workers have grown in small Britain, if we had this yesterday’s peasant

        That is, until "yesterday" everyone was peasants, but today, with a primitive snout, they climbed into the Kalash row? Yesterday the fields were earing, but today they have already built Tula ... What, not yesterday? Did Pyotr Alekseevich also give permission? You see how it happens. This United Kingdom seems to commemorate the attack of the light cavalry every year. What, the peasants mowed, raked and threshed with flails? Or was there some kind of artillery? How many years have elapsed from the invention to the use of bomb guns by our fleet at Sinop? Were all the guns foreign, or did they pour some of our own? Why are you suffering from such foreign rage? Stalin had to inspire the masses for a labor feat. He also inspired. There was a lot of work, hard work. There was no money, there were few people. But practically all the necessary technologies were in the country. There were specialists. Listen to you, this is how the proletariat appeared in the desert like mold, and Soviet power was divorced.
        1. Stas57
          Stas57 27 June 2016 18: 34
          +1
          97110

          and you should not cosplay the Kiev measure.
          otherwise, I don’t perceive this set of phrases.
          Peter ... Sinop ...
          when they had a massive army called up with high-tech weapons such as aviation and tanks?

          Katukov already said everything about the high level of the Soviet recruit
          ... upon the arrival of people, I found that among the sent people were sent not only unfit for staffing. units, but also for service in tank units. So among the sent 15 etc. were 25 people. illiterate and illiterate, 17 people sick ... This is confirmed by the commander of the 15 division, who, having received people from us, sent them to the garrison commission ....

          Similar cadets were sent by 10 etc. among the 47 people returned to her. there were 26 people ill, illiterate, illiterate, do not speak Russian and cannot be in the school. divisions ... As a result of such manning, there are currently hundreds of people in units of the division entrusted to me by their physical condition, literacy and knowledge of the Russian language that are completely unsuitable for service in tank units and are actually ballast, namely:

          Natives of nat. non-Russian republics 1914 people or 23.2% Of these, 236 people who do not speak Russian at all ...

          Illiterate - 211 people, illiterate 622 people, with the formation of 3 – 4 groups of 3571 people.

          Old Ages (26 – 30 years) 745 people

          Formerly tried and convicted - 341 people ...


          and six months later there was a war ....
          1. Warrior2015
            Warrior2015 28 June 2016 10: 41
            -2
            Quote: Stas57
            Natives of nat. non-Russian republics 1914 people or 23.2% Of these, 236 people who do not speak Russian at all ...

            Okay so. Interestingly, and how to command them (I'm not talking about training in the basics of battle)?

            Although, for example, a certain commander Hannibal (through the system, as it were, in the modern language of bilingual commissars), even 2200 years ago, was able to command hordes of tribal mercenaries.
  • Army soldier2
    Army soldier2 27 June 2016 11: 01
    +5
    An article for the sake of an article? I did not read anything new in it.
    And this passage generally causes surprise and rejection:
    Apparently, representatives of the “fifth column” —non-finished Trotskyists — remained in the Soviet generals, which led to a series of failures in the initial period of World War II.

    Generally speaking, "Trotskyist" is not a synonym for Hitler's agent. The Trotskyists saw another way of building socialism in the USSR.
    It's time for the collective author under the name of Alexander Samsonov to believe J.V. Stalin, who blamed Mehlis when he wanted to accuse Pavlov of treason. Stalin said something like "how can the peasant Pavlov, to whom the Soviet government gave everything, can be a traitor?"
  • Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 27 June 2016 11: 58
    -1
    Not an article, but a collection of propaganda stamps of some sort.

    Quote: Alexander Samsonov
    There were few new types of fighters and bombers in the Air Force. And old cars were inferior to similar German cars according to flight technical data. The reorganization and growth of the Air Force also required retraining of the flight personnel.
    Yes Yes. A LITTLE - HOW MUCH? Almost HALF of what the Luftwaffe had?

    And there were a lot of old airplanes, there were a lot of them, the author doesn’t say something, how many times there were more than the Germans.

    Well and still - there was such a small country Finland, which generally had neither modern planes, nor modern tanks. And somehow it was able, however, to fight off the Soviet invasion in the 1939 year.
    1. Alexey T. (Oper)
      Alexey T. (Oper) 27 June 2016 12: 56
      +1
      Finland was able to fight back?

      This is not even funny. Chukhnya capitulated in March of 40 and was not fully occupied just because their swamps and forests, inhabited by stupid savages, were not needed by anyone. At the same time, we received from the Chukhons all that we considered necessary. And much more than requested before the war for good.
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 27 June 2016 13: 20
        -2
        Quote: Alexey T. (Opera)
        Chuhnya surrendered in March of 40 and was not fully occupied just because their swamps and forests, inhabited by stupid savages,

        Excuse me, are you kind enough about Karelians? one of the peoples of the Russian Federation?
        1. Alexey T. (Oper)
          Alexey T. (Oper) 27 June 2016 16: 58
          0
          Karelians of Chukhons are hated. You’ll be in Karelia. I don’t recommend speaking positively about the Chukhons, they can even break your head. It hurt too bad memory they left about themselves there.
      2. Kenneth
        Kenneth 27 June 2016 14: 28
        +2
        And Kuusinen’s government was quietly dismissed. In fact, the Finns proved that they can be defeated, but it will be expensive.
    2. Stas57
      Stas57 27 June 2016 13: 09
      +3
      Quote: Warrior2015
      And there were a lot of old airplanes, there were a lot of them, the author doesn’t say something, how many times there were more than the Germans.

      LM at that time was considered impregnable, and?
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 27 June 2016 13: 21
        -2
        Quote: Stas57
        LM at that time was considered impregnable, and?

        And proud Soviet citizens cheerfully sang even in 1941 "And from the taiga to the British seas, the Red Army is the strongest." And?
        1. Stas57
          Stas57 27 June 2016 14: 13
          +1
          Quote: Warrior2015
          And proud Soviet citizens cheerfully sang even in 1941 "And from the taiga to the British seas, the Red Army is the strongest." And?

          and Barbaross’s plan failed and the Wehrmacht suffered the first defeat in its history,
          And?
          1. Warrior2015
            Warrior2015 27 June 2016 15: 02
            -1
            Quote: Stas57
            and Barbaross’s plan failed and the Wehrmacht suffered the first defeat in its history,
            And?
            Well, he didn’t fail, but didn’t achieve success. It was not winter near Berlin, and not even near Warsaw, but in the suburbs that way.

            But I'm talking about something else - about the fact that many assessments (if you look at the complex) are highly subjective.

            Minus one
            Wow, have they already begun to minus for truthful words? or that Soviet citizens did not sing songs "from the taiga to the British seas"?

            Or did the USSR planes evaporate somewhere in 1941? and we will count - as in the USSR - exclusively "new samples", and the Germans will take into account everything that flew?
            1. Stas57
              Stas57 27 June 2016 15: 13
              +2
              Quote: Warrior2015
              Well, he didn’t fail, but didn’t achieve success.

              oh yes, and then what, what date was Moscow taken?
              and on line AA what did they get?
              Quote: Warrior2015
              It was not winter near Berlin, and not even near Warsaw, but in the suburbs that way.

              this is where for example such a suburbs?
              Mtsensk?
              Kaluga?
              show on the map?


              http://library.ispu.ru:8001/history/2/15tema15/karti15/moskva_files/image001.jpg




              Quote: Warrior2015
              But I'm talking about something else - about the fact that many assessments (if you look at the complex) are highly subjective.

              I think you should not cosplay the Kiev boxer measure wink
              1. Warrior2015
                Warrior2015 27 June 2016 15: 34
                -1
                Quote: Stas57
                this is where for example such a suburbs?
                Mtsensk?
                Come on, you all perfectly understood what I want to say.
                1. Stas57
                  Stas57 27 June 2016 16: 32
                  0
                  Quote: Warrior2015
                  Come on, you all perfectly understood what I want to say

                  Of course I understood, you are an ordinary Internet trololo, said without thinking.
                  so what is there with AA and Barbaros, did the plan succeed? reached the specified boundaries at the appointed time
        2. Uncle Murzik
          Uncle Murzik 27 June 2016 14: 35
          -1
          and what’s not true! The Red Army didn’t lose one war! soldier
          1. RUSS
            RUSS 27 June 2016 15: 05
            0
            Quote: Uncle Murzik
            and what’s not true! The Red Army didn’t lose one war! soldier

            Well, except for the "no-man's" result in the Soviet-Polish war of 1918-1921.
    3. Kenneth
      Kenneth 27 June 2016 14: 35
      +5
      It’s not enough to have new planes. They need to be able to fly, they need infrastructure. They simply did not have time to master.
  • Tanya
    Tanya 27 June 2016 12: 19
    +1
    Statistical data on the production of military equipment and ammunition, as well as the number of vehicles, tractors, horses and so on. and their actual presence in the army is, as they say in Odessa, two big differences. There are open documents - reports on the manning of parts and formations of the Red Army / SA for various dates. Here is an example: 9th Guards after rest and understaffing. The question of what was there to fight, leave the professionals.
  • Tanya
    Tanya 27 June 2016 12: 21
    -2
    Here is another document
    1. Tanya
      Tanya 28 June 2016 14: 24
      0
      For those who are minuscule, I will explain my point. You can’t get much statistics in real warfare.
  • Uncle Murzik
    Uncle Murzik 27 June 2016 14: 33
    -2
    many thanks to the author! plus article!
  • timyr
    timyr 27 June 2016 15: 50
    -1
    Quote: Nikolai K
    In tsarist Russia there was a very high infant mortality rate. It was considered normal if half the children survive. So count, if half of the babies die, and the rest live up to 65 years, then the average life expectancy will be 32,5 years.
    Under the Bolsheviks, there were fewer births, including because of abortions. So the statistics "improved".

    My grandfather had 7 children in the family and everyone survived. Gave birth less in 70, 60. So it is not necessary to carry nonsense or the fact that they began to die less is bad.
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 27 June 2016 16: 00
      +3
      Quote: timyr
      My grandfather had 7 children in the family and everyone survived. Gave birth less in 70, 60. So it is not necessary to carry nonsense or the fact that they began to die less is bad.

      well of course of course

      “Throughout the imperial period, high birth rates were so important for the mortality rate that they provoked poor childcare. Not a single society, not a single most developed economy would be able to feed the huge number of children (8-10) that Russian women gave birth in the 19th century if the children did not die in large numbers either. Nand in the first year of life at the end of the 19th century, almost 30% of boys died in European Russia, including 35% of Russians, and 6% and 56% of newborns lived to 50, respectively. In the middle of the XIX century. these rates were even worse. It was some kind of hellish machine: children were born to die, and the more children were born, the more they died, and the more they died, the more they were born. High fertility and mortality are two sides of the same coin, they stimulated each other. If fewer children were born, they would receive better care and they would undoubtedly die less. It is no accident, probably, that the higher the birth number (starting with the third child), the less likely the child was to survive: a sure sign of increased mortality in large families of 26. In this case, we are not talking about a direct physiological relationship between fertility and mortality, but about such a dependence that existed indirectly, due to the influence of domestic, cultural and socio-economic factors 27. The high average mortality rate that existed in Russia was not only derived from low culture and literacy, lack of medical knowledge and poverty, it was a product of the East European model of demographic behavior.
      Mironov B.N. Welfare of the population and revolution in imperial Russia: XVIII-beginning of XX century. - M.: New chronograph, 2010. C. 404-405

      .BUT. Rubakin “Russia in Figures” (St. Petersburg, 1912 edition of the year):

      “... in 1905 of every 1000 of both sexes who died in the 50 provinces of European Russia, there were 5 deceased children under 606,5 years of age, i.e. almost two thirds (!!!). Of each 1000 deceased, men accounted for children under 5 years of 625,9 in the same year, of each 1000 of deceased women - for girls up to 5 years - 585,4. In other words, in Russia every year a huge percentage of children dying who are not even 5 years old die, a terrible fact that cannot but make us think about the difficult conditions the Russian population lives if such a significant percentage of the dead for children under 5 years. "


      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 28 June 2016 10: 50
        -1
        Quote: Stas57
        It was some kind of hellish machine: children were born to die, and the more children were born, the more they died, and the more they died, the more they were born.

        The infernal machine was in colonial countries like India, yes there, hellish horror. But in Russia it was certainly much worse than in Europe or North America, but still, it’s somehow relatively normal for that era.
  • andrewkor
    andrewkor 27 June 2016 19: 10
    -1
    Well, what's new? Almost word for word from "Memories and Reflections" by G.K. Zhukov. And there is also "History of WWII" in 12 volumes. And the USSR called it the fashionable word "Empire".
  • Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 27 June 2016 20: 42
    +1
    The article is not bad. I do not like the name. What empire are you talking about? Was the USSR an empire? Read in the encyclopedia: What is an empire.
    1. Alf
      Alf 27 June 2016 21: 12
      -1
      Quote: Alexander Green
      What empire are you talking about? Was the USSR an empire?

      And the USSR was actually an empire. The only difference is in the system of inheritance of the highest authority.
      The empire in this article is a superpower that affects the state of the whole world.
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 28 June 2016 10: 53
        +1
        Quote: Alf
        And the USSR was actually an empire

        Such a strange empire. feeding the Papuan half of the globe, and keeping her people in a "black body".
      2. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 28 June 2016 19: 44
        +1
        Empire Definitions:

        1. The monarchical state, headed by the emperor.

        2. The colonial power, which established its dominance over the colonies and dependent countries, retaining its power through a system of oppression and cruel exploitation.

        (In the 70s of the 20th century the last, Portuguese colonial empire fell).
        1. overb
          overb 28 June 2016 20: 23
          0
          Quote: Alexander Green
          Was the USSR an empire?

          Of course.
          Quote: Alexander Green
          Empire Definitions:
          1. The monarchical state, headed by the emperor.
          2. The colonial power, which established its dominance over the colonies and dependent countries, retaining its power through a system of oppression and cruel exploitation.

          This is only a small part of empires.
          For example, you do not have pseudo-religious empires. One of which was just the USSR.
          You have no neo-empires. One of which is the United States today. And not only them, there are a lot of such people.
          Quote: Alexander Green
          (In the 70s of the 20th century the last, Portuguese colonial empire fell).

          And in 1991. fell "the last" pseudo-religious empire of the USSR? What about neoimeries? What will they be, "very, very last"?
          Quote: Warrior2015
          Such a strange empire. feeding the Papuan half of the globe, and keeping her people in a "black body".

          "Own people" for a pseudo-religious empire can be located anywhere in the world. And have completely different skin colors. Because pseudo-religious empires are not built on the principles of blood or race, but on the principles of their "faith" curve. Whoever has this "faith" (or whoever says there is) is his own.
          In the USSR, all this was covered with the term "internationalism". Such was the cunning internationalism. Not all of the USSR internationalized. Only with "fellow believers".
          And one who spoke the same language could easily be not his own. Or even an enemy. And nobody promised to pamper the enemies.
  • fa2998
    fa2998 27 June 2016 23: 05
    0
    The USSR lagged behind the West for 100 years ... Well, well! Well, of course, for the war you still need 20 MK (in each 1600 tanks) -total 32 thousand! The Germans and the tank group (and there were FOUR) did not have 1600 tanks! And if a wise party and the military decided to form 50 MK and another 80 thousand tanks are needed, in general, a mess, unavailability, the USSR had "only" 20 THOUSAND TANKS. Yes, if you count ALL TANKS OF THE WORLD (and at that time there are actively built by the French, Germans and British), then the total amount is just over 10 thousand.
    The readiness of the army is a comparison with a likely adversary, and not with FANTASTIC plans! If we compare the supply of army tanks, then Germany has pr. 4 thousand, we have 20 thousand (of which new medium and heavy tanks are st. 1800 units) - for the defense is really enough! The fact that the crews are unprepared, the tanks are not combat-ready, is the fault of the army men themselves, the people gave them their own weapons, so LEARN and take care and repair the equipment! lol hi
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 27 June 2016 23: 19
      -2
      Quote: fa2998
      ! If we compare the availability of army tanks, then Germany

      what for? the Germans, like the primitives, were supposed to have just tanks. most importantly running and with communication.
      USSR as defenders must have must have an advantage and good
  • Aleksander
    Aleksander 28 June 2016 10: 11
    -1
    In the first five-year period (1928-1932 years), executed in the 4 of the year and 3 of the month, the volume of industrial production in comparison with 1928 was increased by 2 times. During the second five-year period (1933-1937 gg.), Also completed ahead of schedule, gross industrial output increased 2,2 times compared to 1932 g


    Remember, remember the result of the five-year period - 7 million people who died of hunger, women began to give birth in TWO times less. The same five-year-4,5 million dispossessed, i.e. robbed, exiled, killed and dead in inhumane conditions.

    Meat consumption 27kg to 1913, 18kg in 1937
    Milk 154 L (1913) to 128 L (1937)
    1913 g of bread consumption 200 kg, 1937-192 kg.

    Here is the TRUE statistics, not the gross waste.
    28 million peasants fled to the cities from dispossession, collectivization and the inability to feed on the ground — wild conditions fled — in dugouts, barracks, beams — housing was practically not built ...
    Life has become "better" ....
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene 28 June 2016 19: 49
      +1
      Only you believe in these nonsense.
      1. Aleksander
        Aleksander 28 June 2016 22: 24
        0
        Quote: Alexander Green
        Only you believe in these nonsense.


        That is, to argue, NOTHING

        Such a name is messed up ...angry
      2. The comment was deleted.
  • Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 30 June 2016 17: 55
    +2
    Quote: Aleksander

    That is, to argue, NOTHING

    There is something, it’s just that your demshiza already exposes itself: its inflated figures several times, the accents calculated for fools, the distorted history speak for themselves. Now everyone understands who benefits from slandering the USSR, socialism and Stalin.
  • nnz226
    nnz226 8 October 2016 18: 36
    0
    Here's to talk about the "literate" Red Army, which was radically different from the "peasant" army of the 1st World War - DO NOT! The bulk of the soldiers from the collective farmers had 4 classes of education. There are enough examples that they did not like self-loading and automatic rifles because of the required good service, and they preferred the "mosinka" that came from the same 1st World War. And how much equipment was lost in 1941 not because of combat losses, but because of the inability to control it ?! Pictures of the abandoned (and not knocked out !!!) because of a minor accident or breakdown of armored vehicles fill all the articles about the defeat of 1941!
  • nnz226
    nnz226 8 October 2016 18: 41
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    And the enthusiasm for the production of means of production from the first five-year plans passed into the post-war ones, which became one (!) Of the factors of the collapse of the USSR. When machines, tanks, etc. are made, and there are no decent consumer goods in the store, there is a "servility of the West"! They began to chase after Western goods, despising - everything Soviet .... And now we chant slogans about the return of the socialist construction. And what will we eat under socialism? Again coupons for meat, butter, sugar ???