Military Review

Bitter "Wax": Bryansk-wheel drive vehicles that did not go into the series

47


From the beginning of the 1970-s to the end of the 90-x, the special design bureau of the Bryansk Automobile Plant has developed several families of four-axle multi-purpose terrestrial vehicles. They were also created within the framework of the experimental design theme “Basis”, but gradually the incomprehensible military code “Voshchina” spread over them - so-called thin wax sheets for bee honeycombs.


Artillery tractor BAZ-69531 in the Armed Forces of Russia (photo by S. Andreev)

All these secret machines were created in the harsh conditions of the “iron curtain”, the lack of domestic units and materials, constant rushing from one layout to another and the difficult search for new solutions. From a constructive point of view, they were an intermediate link from the legendary 135-series to more advanced cars with one power unit and independent suspension, although archaic transmission onboard remained for a long time on them.

In 1980, destructive restructuring and disarmament were added to technical issues. As a result, despite the tremendous efforts, this technique did not justify itself, it was not mass-produced in the Soviet, and later, the Russian army did not receive wide distribution.

BAZ-6950 series chassis cars (1976 – 1999)

In the middle of the 1970-s, the Bryansk Automobile Plant secretly presented prototypes of its future heavy BAZ-6950 ground range of the “Osnova” family with the wheel formula 8х8 for transport support of the Soviet army. All work was carried out under the direction of the chief designer Ivan Ludvigovich Yurin, the leading designer was A. S. Koptyukh.

Until the new fiberglass cab was ready for future cars, the first in 1976 was the 12-tonne truck BAZ-6952 with the all-metal cab from the MAZ-537 tractor. Then a test batch was assembled with on-board bodies and vans. Before 1980, cars passed acceptance tests at 21 NIII, which opened the way for the new BAZ-6950 family.


Winter tests 12-ton 400-strong car BAZ-6952. 1977 year


Experimental four-axle chassis BAZ-6952 with a multi-purpose body-van

A short история The base 12-ton car-chassis BAZ-6950 began in the late 1970-x. Unlike the BAZ-6944 amphibian unified with it, it was equipped with a powerful spar frame and a fiberglass cabin carried forward with a back tilt of three front windows. Behind it were 400-strong diesel V8, torque converter with 5-speed gearbox and an open mounting frame or on-board platform.


Experienced 400-strong truck BAZ-6950 with an onboard platform. 1980 year


Military vehicle chassis BAZ-6950 with a plastic cabin (photo K. Dunaeva)

The BAZ-6950 chassis, which was not distinguished by high tactical and technical data and released in single copies, was practically not used in the army. The only military superstructure for him was the SKN-6950 “Rodinka” manned frame metal wagon with wide lateral bevels to accommodate staff complexes. In reality, the only one among them was the Poliana-D4 command post, which was part of the automated control system of the anti-aircraft missile brigade.


Car BAZ-6950 in the repair shop of the Bryansk Automobile Plant. 2007 year


BAZ-6950 with a habitable sealed body SKN-6950 "Birthmark"

To replace the 6950 model, a 14-ton prototype BAZ-6950M was created, which, after extensive testing and refinement in 1985, appeared in the twin-engine version of the BAZ-69501, on which the military had high hopes. It was a brand new car, on which the former heavy tank the engine was replaced with two lighter and cheaper serial KamAZ-740 diesel engines with 210 hp each, working with two 5-speed gearboxes. The car, which completely satisfied the military, headed the new Osnova-1 family, which bore the code Voshchina.

In fact, everything turned out the opposite: BAZ-60501 just did not have time to establish itself and meet all expectations. For it appeared in the times of restructuring which were murderous for the Soviet military industrial complex, which nullified all the prospects for its use in the Soviet army and reduced the number of superstructures to a minimum. To this scourge was added a strong fire in April 1993 of the year, which destroyed the motor shop of KamAZ. As a result, the range of special equipment on this chassis turned out to be more sketchy sketches and bold projects than the "living" technology.


Upgraded 14-tonne BAZ-69501 truck with onboard transmission

The SKN-6950 box body became the most advanced superstructure for the upgraded command and control center of the Polyana-D4M complex for control of Buk and C-300 anti-aircraft complexes. He could simultaneously display up to 80 air targets and accompany the 272 flying object. The Maneuver command post and the 7В440 combat command and control system of the Air Force were also deployed in such bodies.


BAZ-69501 chassis with body for control point. 1990 year (from the archive of the author)


The interior of the command and control center of the Polyana-D4M complex (from the author’s archive)

The most important project of the Volgograd plant "Barricades" on the BAZ-69501 chassis was the self-propelled launcher (SPU) 9P76 of the promising operational-tactical missile system (OTRK) "Iskander" with one or two missiles housed in a fully enclosed housing. In 1991, a single prototype SPU with the factory designation Br-1555-1 was assembled, which produced several launches at the Kapustin Yar test site. The development of this system was decided to be transferred to a more advanced BAZ-6954 chassis, which is discussed below. On the basis of BAZ-69501, the Uragan-1 multiple launch rocket system and the Puela-1 reconnaissance aircraft were also designed.


Model Launcher Br-1555-1 on the chassis BAZ-69501. 1991 year

In 1990, the development of the BAZ-69501 was the 13-ton long-base chassis of the BAZ-69502, which became the last new development of the special design bureau, made in the Soviet era. Unlike its predecessor, this machine for the first time received a fundamentally new closed 4-seat frame-metal cabin from the BAZ-6954 model with increased resistance to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and two hatches in the roof for landing and disembarking the crew. The chassis was planned to be used as a land variant of the SPA complex "Oka" and the installation of 9П76 for the promising system "Iskander".


BAZ-69502 truck with all-metal cab without doors. 1990 year

The appearance of the new 14-ton special chassis BAZ-69506 with a fiberglass cabin was explained by the hasty search for a replacement for the BAZ-69501 car with two KAMAZ engines, the supplies of which stopped after a devastating fire. Without thinking twice, the Bryansk designers bravely returned to 30 years ago and mounted the Yaroslavl diesel in the 300 hp on it, which first appeared on the first-born BAZ-135MB. In those hard times, the car managed to pass acceptance tests, but then it was not used.


The onboard 14-ton BAZ-69506 with one 300-strong diesel. 1994 year

At the end of 1980-x, when military orders rolled down, several dual-purpose vehicles were created on the BAZ-69501 chassis, devoid of military paraphernalia. The most original was the 11-ton national economic truck BAZ-6951P, in which two 260-strong KAMAZ diesel engines were mounted in the central part of the frame under the loading platform between the third and fourth pairs of wheels. This made it possible to balance the load on the bridges, reduce noise in the cab and increase the mounting length of the frame, but during operation the engines overheated.


BAZ-6951P chassis with two engines under the cargo platform (from the archive of N. Shcherbakov)


Experienced twin-engine car BAZ-6951P (from the archive of N. Shcherbakov)

The 12-ton multipurpose vehicle BAZ-69501P used the traditional layout with two Kama engines. Of the other vehicles, the BAZ-69505 chassis equipped with an ATZ-5609 tanker with a tank capacity of thousands of liters 17 could be used for military purposes.


Airborne truck BAZ-69501P classic layout (from the archive N. Scherbakov)


Tests of BAZ-60501P with two 210-strong engines (from the archive of N. Shcherbakov)


ATZ-5609 fuel tanker on the BAZ-69505 chassis (from N. Scherbakov archive)

Special chassis BAZ-6948 / BAZ-6954 (1986 – 1997)

The special Bryansk chassis included several four-axle vehicles, which were the most original search designs designed for the prospect of their further implementation in new generations of vehicles for carrying rocket systems.

The first range, created under the leadership of Chief Designer Yuri Ivanovich Mosin, was composed of 14-ton chassis with two 210-powerful KAMAZ-740 engines for the new Oka-U missile system with increased accuracy. Their prototypes BAZ-6944М and BAZ-6944М20 for the launcher and charging machine, respectively, were assembled and tested in 1986-m. A year after the modifications, they were renamed BAZ-6948 and BAZ-69481.

On the way to deep unification, they embodied the unique idea of ​​Soviet engineers, which was considered a new mainstream for creating multi-axle vehicles and without foreign analogues. It consisted in the use of the BAZ-6944 amphibious-carrying amphibious body for land vehicles, but without sealing, water jets and other components from floating machines.


Body 14-ton chassis BAZ-6948 for TZM complex "Oka-U". 1987 year

In 1987, a BAZ-69481 chassis was used to assemble a spacious case for the Oka-U model missile launcher. The open stern compartment of the BAZ-6948 was used to transport two missiles. Meanwhile, the refusal to release the Oka missile systems during the period of disarmament and exacerbation of friendship with the West made it necessary to curtail the revision of these systems. However, two years later, after the completion of state tests, both cars were prudently put into service. Subsequently, the best qualities of the Oka and Oka-U complexes were succeeded in translating them into even more powerful and accurate Iskander missile systems.


Land vehicle BAZ-69481 with a high bearing body. 1987 year


Tests of the BAZ-69481 chassis for the Oka-U complex launcher

In 1990, the second gamut was made up of a single sample of the BN-17 6954-ton car with 210-strong motors and a steel cabin carried forward. He served for the installation of promising types of weapons and was an exception from all previous developments. Its design under the leadership of Chief Designer Viktor Pavlovich Trusov was made in the framework of the new factory research topic "Facet", but the military still attributed the car to the Voshchina family.

Structurally extended BAZ-6954 was the development of the BAZ-69501 chassis and was unified with the BAZ-69502 machine created at the same time, in which the hatches in the roof of the frame-panel cabin were replaced with ordinary doors. BAZ-6954 met the strength requirements of all factors. weapons mass destruction and was tested for resistance to the shock wave of a nuclear explosion.



Long-base twin-engine 420-strong truck BAZ-6954

In 1992, the Barrikady plant on the BAZ-6954 chassis assembled a prototype of the SPU 9P76 of the Iskander complex with one rocket and a front-mounted gas-turbine electric generator. A year later, at the Kapustin Yar test site, he made eight test launches, and based on their results, the terms of reference for the well-known Iskander-M missile system was approved.


Launcher 9P76 tactical complex "Iskander." 1992 year

Artillery tractors series BAZ-6953 (1987 – 1996)

Another exception to the rule was the first in the USSR special artillery towers, created by converting the BAZ-69501 chassis into ballast vehicles for towing heavy artillery systems and trailers weighing up to 15 t. Thus, lightweight, fast-moving and more maneuverable short-base vehicles of the BAZ-6953 series with forward shifted appeared plastic cab and all-metal cargo platform. They appeared at a crucial period in the late 1980's and early 1990's and entered the armed forces in very small quantities.

The first BAZ-6953 tractor with two 210-strong engines was developed in 1987 year under the leadership of Yuri Mosin under the theme “Basis-1” and belonged to the military family “Voshchina”. The car could work as a part of road trains with a full weight up to 45 t and transport in the body over 10 tons of ammunition and combat crews of towed systems. The maximum speed of a single tractor on the highway reached 75 km / h, laden road trains - 65 km / h.


Chassis korotkobaznogo two-engine artillery tractor BAZ-6953. 1987 year


Ballast tractor BAZ-6953 for towing 15-ton artillery guns

The BAZ-6953 profile assignment was towing heavy artillery systems of the 152 mm caliber — the four-wheel Hyacint-B cannon and the Msta-B single-axle howitzer with combat capability of up to eight people. The car also worked with the standard 11-ton trailer ChMZAP-8335.4 for mounting special bodies. The BAZ-6953 production continued until the summer of the 1993 year, when due to the fire at KAMAZ all the engine stocks were exhausted.


BAZ-6953 tows four-wheeled 152-mm gun 2А36 "Hyacinth-B"


Tests of the car on the rise with trailed gun "Hyacinth-B"


Tests of the BAZ-6953 coupled with a heavy four-wheeled cannon

A year later, the car was revived in the shape of a modified BAZ-69531 model designed by Viktor Trusov, created by replacing two previous KAMAZ engines with one 300-strong diesel engine YMZ-238Н. The cab, body and all the other units corresponded to the model BAZ-6953, and the external differences from the previous car consisted mainly in the form of the front cabin trim.


Prototype artillery tractor BAZ-69531 (from V / O Avtoexport)


Serial version of the upgraded single-engine tractor BAZ-69531


Tractor BAZ-69531 in the Ryazan Museum of military vehicles (photo M. Shelepenkova)

The BAZ-69532 variant with a reinforced cargo platform, capable of operating as a part of road trains with a total weight of up to 70 tons, was among the few versions of artillery towers. At the end of the 1980 for the national economy, an experienced short-base multi-purpose tractor BAZ-6953PT was assembled on the BAZ-69501 chassis. Unlike military vehicles, it did not mount military equipment, awning, partitions and benches in the side metal body.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.kolesa.ru/article/gorkaya-voshhina-bryanskie-polnoprivodnye-mashiny-ne-poshedshie-v-seriyu
47 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, daily additional materials that do not get on the site: https://t.me/topwar_ru

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Sergey333
    Sergey333 25 June 2016 07: 20
    +10
    A good article, I would also like to know which trucks they are now producing and are going to produce in the near future, whether they will pull the competition with MAZ.
    1. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 25 June 2016 08: 49
      +22
      A characteristic feature of the BAZ chassis is the torsion bar suspension. Which, with the same clearance as that of competitors, allows the use of wheels of smaller diameter. And this is an undoubted plus for army use.

      Nuances. Those who have seen standard contracts for the supply of equipment to Belarus were probably impressed by the number of penalties for everything, incl. for non-delivery on time. There, in days already, it runs beautifully. Our government contracts are resting. It is curious that their management did not want to sign similar contracts with the same penalties for the supply of MZKT products to Russia. That convinced the interested parties in Russia of the need to restore the BAZ. Almaz-Antey, which now owns BAZ, took a hustle. All the new heavy products "A-A" are now on this chassis: C-400 launchers, all kinds of radars, etc.

      True, there was also the opposite effect. "Carapace" KBP. KAMAZ-6560 chassis and BAZ-6909-019 chassis. According to the experts who participated in the run tests and firing at the Kapustin Yar and Ashuluk ranges, the BM on the BAZ-6909-019 chassis has higher travel speeds, dynamics, cross-country ability, and a smooth ride. But "Pantsir" went into production on a KAMAZ chassis. I will assume that the point here is not in the lobbyists of KAMAZ, but in the fact that the KBP itself chose KAMAZ when it became clear that BAZ was going into the ownership of a direct competitor. The amount of contracts for "Armor" is already billions of dollars - serious numbers to depend on a competitor.

      Now BAZ produces a chassis for 4, 5, 6 axles. And it is able to develop and perform more complex developments. It is good that an enterprise has appeared in Russia that is able to participate in the development and production of such special equipment:
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 25 June 2016 14: 37
        +4
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        A characteristic feature of the BAZ chassis is the torsion bar suspension. Which, with the same clearance as that of competitors, allows the use of wheels of smaller diameter. And this is an undoubted plus for army use.

        And what is the plus? If only in terms of service. Ground clearance is clearance, but the larger the outer diameter of the wheel, the larger the obstacle it can overcome. This is more likely not from a good life, but from unwillingness to bother with the layout of large-diameter wheels.
        1. Rostovchanin
          Rostovchanin 27 June 2016 15: 21
          +2
          plus the fact that the suspension elements are smaller, which increases cross-country ability. The increase in wheel diameter also gives the car a height increase, an excessive shift of the center of mass upwards, which is not necessary for such a car, especially when driving on the road.
          I think engineers are no stupider people than us and these points have been taken into account and anyway what technical solutions will not be applied ...
    2. Alekseev
      Alekseev 25 June 2016 09: 32
      +11
      Quote: Sergey333
      whether competition with MAZ will be pulled.

      Probably MZKT?
      BAZ is better than MZKT for placement of not too heavy systems (up to 40 tons). It can very well be used as a truck tractor for transporting tanks, etc.
      Machines with a load-carrying capacity for MBRKs at the BAZ are not produced. Here KamAZ leads the Platform-O project.
      And KamAZ also crawls according to the principle where the horse with the hoof, and there the cancer with the claw into the niche of the conveyor machines of high rather than increased cross-country ability: how KamAZ truck most, it’s simpler, cheaper, but how base for weapons BAZ was created.
      Here GBTU should say its word, and not waving to everyone.
      Examples of irrationality, lack of standardization, pushing into armament for the sake of industry a dime a dozen.
    3. Verdun
      Verdun 25 June 2016 14: 31
      +4
      Quote: Sergey333
      Good article, I would also like to know which trucks they are now producing and are going to produce in the near future, whether they will pull the competition with MAZ.

      As already noted in other comments, according to the plan, BAZ should become a competitor not to MAZ, but to MZKT. But there is no particular hope. In the 80-90s, working in NAMI, he worked on projects created in cooperation with the BAZ. Even then, the technological weakness of the plant affected. In order for the plant to simply work normally (not to mention competition), it needs serious modernization and re-equipment.
      1. pimen
        pimen 25 June 2016 17: 50
        +2
        as I understand it, a characteristic feature of the BAZ chassis was, after all, on-board power distribution (not bridges with a common cardan, differentials and locks, but on-board cardans with a common differential and lock). For a multi-wheeled chassis, it looks simpler and more competent
      2. avt
        avt 25 June 2016 18: 22
        +3
        Quote: Verdun
        As already noted in other comments, according to the plan, BAZ should become a competitor not to MAZ, but to MZKT.

        Well, yes, that's right. The transition of the BAZ to Almaz-Antey should give him good help in the form of a defense order. He overdid it and himself outplayed Butsk with the MZKT.
  2. Bayonet
    Bayonet 25 June 2016 07: 46
    +1
    The cabin is very forward, it’s interesting how the crew felt there on rough terrain. smileand patency should have a negative effect. But with a mine explosion, in such a layout, plus.
    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 25 June 2016 09: 06
      +4
      Quote: Bayonet
      how the crew felt there on rough terrain, in theory, the conversation should not be frail

      I think that independent suspension together with the mass solved this problem.
    2. Berkut24
      Berkut24 25 June 2016 09: 36
      +7
      Passenger rode across the steppe on a similar MAZ. A meter deep of the pit runs at 60 km / h as if you were riding in a soft carriage of the Red Arrow. The cabs and engines brought forward serve as an inertial balancer, preventing the machine from swinging.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 25 June 2016 14: 57
        +3
        Quote: Berkut24
        The forward cabs and engines serve as an inertial balancer, preventing the car from swinging.

        No, it's a matter of the torsion bar suspension. On the crossroads, such machines, like MAZ "Uragan", go smoothly and quickly. I think many foreign manufacturers can envy.
    3. Orionvit
      Orionvit 8 December 2016 17: 47
      0
      how the crew felt there on rough terrain, in theory, the conversation should not be frail
      Actually, special cars, this is not a limousine. They have their own tasks and people working for them, the same different tempering. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4q8TJ5tU28
  3. bionik
    bionik 25 June 2016 08: 53
    +7
    Many good illustrations to the author +.
  4. dFG
    dFG 25 June 2016 09: 16
    +2
    Enough to live in the past)) only money and the will to develop the enterprise are needed and the result will not be long in coming, it's time to show new and promising chassis, traditions and the school have not gone away.
  5. BARKAS
    BARKAS 25 June 2016 09: 16
    +5
    It was also similar to KZKT
  6. Anton Yu
    Anton Yu 25 June 2016 09: 38
    +7
    BAZ products today.
  7. Tsoy
    Tsoy 25 June 2016 09: 40
    +11
    BAZ-69481 handsome, monolithic majestic creature.
  8. kav669
    kav669 25 June 2016 09: 40
    +1
    Not a bad development at first glance (will replace Belarusian tractors)
  9. Anton Yu
    Anton Yu 25 June 2016 09: 45
    +8
    Electric BAZ-M6910E
  10. Anton Yu
    Anton Yu 25 June 2016 09: 47
    +7
    A prototype of the antenna-lifting module SM-626 of the RTR Sbor-1 complex on the BAZ-6910-015 chassis
  11. Pushyk
    Pushyk 25 June 2016 10: 19
    +2
    Good article. The futuristic look of these cars. I could not help but think that the cars are very similar to the products of the American company Oshkosh. Correctly means ours. A great idea is to create a unified chassis for military vehicles for various purposes. It’s a pity, of course, that it didn’t work out. All were left at the mercy of the Union republics at one time.
    1. Anton Yu
      Anton Yu 25 June 2016 10: 35
      +2
      So now they are trying to place part of the orders at BAZ and KAMAZ, cooperation with Belarus has some risks.
  12. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 25 June 2016 11: 54
    0
    Quote: Anton Yu
    cooperation with Belarus has some risks.

    Cooperation with friends must be strengthened in every way! And our enemies will appear!
    1. Bayonet
      Bayonet 25 June 2016 14: 17
      +7
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
      Cooperation with friends must be strengthened in every way!

      Here with Ukraine and strengthened! Now we’re thinking how to replace turbines for the fleet and aircraft engines, but we had to think earlier!
    2. Anton Yu
      Anton Yu 25 June 2016 15: 58
      +3
      I am not against cooperation if our technologies are protected from leaking to third countries, and first of all to Ukraine. Can Belarus give such guarantees having deep cooperation with the military-industrial complex of Ukraine?
  13. Amurets
    Amurets 25 June 2016 12: 36
    0
    In the late 80s and early 90s, BAZs were exported to China, I won’t say which model, I just don’t remember, I remember that they were timber trucks and trucks, we had a dozen and a half in our territory. Blue and white-blue. I had to help to the drivers, on one change the TNVD-33. There were two KAMAZ-740 engines on the machines. I remember that for sure.
  14. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 25 June 2016 13: 28
    +3
    Almaz-Antey will give, or not, its own chassis for coastal anti-ship missile systems? The chassis of Voshchina is lighter, and even has an option with a long base. The five-axis version, even with a decent margin, or the four-axis version with a reinforced frame, would be quite suitable. For example, the Bastion stands on the MZKT-7930 chassis with a lifting capacity of 24 tons, the five-axle BAZ-69096 33 tons. Yaroslavl diesel engine YaMZ-8431.10.



    The chassis can easily replace the MZKT products, in principle, especially raising the plant again there is a chance to seriously upgrade the equipment, as well as carry out work on Voshchina-2.

    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Anton Yu
      Anton Yu 25 June 2016 16: 03
      +7
      BAZ also has six-axle cars. BAZ-69099.
      1. proud
        proud 26 June 2016 00: 30
        +4
        In this situation, they could have long ago switched to their chassis for ICBMs, and not depend on their neighbors! It is really clear that there are opportunities, and most importantly, there are brains for that! Give people an order and you will see what they are capable of, because this is a circus with such design bureaus to buy equipment over the hill! These, if necessary, will alter the suspension, and the wheels will be of the required diameter! How not to twist and "Iskander" they can easily pull and will be no worse than the MZKT! At the same time, the neighbors will behave more restrainedly, and they will not grovel about the fact that someone does not have enough brains to do something like that, because all that is needed is only political will, but this is what is not yet there!
        1. antivirus
          antivirus 27 October 2016 08: 18
          +1
          shavings are cut everywhere the same way, everyone's brains dry out in their own way. How will it be ?!
  15. The comment was deleted.
  16. Anton Yu
    Anton Yu 25 June 2016 16: 06
    +3
    There is also such a beast: a 12-ton BAZ-69501P with an all-metal onboard platform.
  17. Anton Yu
    Anton Yu 25 June 2016 16: 13
    +2
    more accommodation options
  18. Anton Yu
    Anton Yu 25 June 2016 16: 17
    +2
    there are also URALS.
    1. proud
      proud 26 June 2016 00: 33
      +2
      On the "Ural" the cab is from "Iveco" and the bridges do not understand what!
  19. sergsh
    sergsh 25 June 2016 19: 26
    +9
    So many inaccuracies and mistakes today are surfing the Internet from various authors that after reading this article I could not stand it and I was drawn to tell the real story of the creation of at least one sample - read the real story first-hand, so to speak ...
    I am very grateful to the author of the article for books and articles on this topic, including about the SKShT of the Bryansk Automobile Plant, however, he also encounters many mistakes.
    The first big mistake is the story of creating a prototype of the BAZ-6950M chassis described in the article. The search for possible alternatives for replacing the engine for the BAZ-6944 floating chassis, on which the OKA OTRK was mounted and for its BAZ-6950 frame brother, was carried out as a result of a very brief “brain attack” in the design bureau (design bureau), what happened somewhere in late June or early July 1985, which was directly related to the acute foreign policy situation prevailing in Europe.
    And it was precisely on these chassis that tank engines were installed, which had a very limited motor resource and which had already been practically exhausted by a considerable amount of the chassis by this time. In response to the government telegram, in the absence of the head of the design bureau V.I. Lyovkina (he was on vacation) at the direction of the chief designer Yu.I. Mosin and a “brainstorming” was conducted to find a way out of this serious problem ...
    As a result of the analysis and study of various options, the participants in this process, the leading designers of design bureau PP, unanimously settled on the option of using a KAMAZ-740 twin-engine power plant with a capacity of 210 hp.
    At first glance, this completely archaic proposal was the only way out in this critical situation, because practically minimized the amount of work for the chassis customer, as the new power plant is the only one of the considered options that had smaller overall dimensions in height and therefore did not "invade" the zone of the head of the OTRK installation.
    However, at first, our proposal was accepted with hostility by representatives of military science (but this is a long story), and therefore only in August 1985 a joint decision was made with the head of the Moscow Defense Ministry to upgrade these chassis.
    Only after the successful completion of acceptance (state) tests was this chassis, along with other BAZ chassis with twin-engine power plants, recommended for adoption, only then military science came to terms with such an archaic technical solution, due to the fact that the power plant was used two diesel engines, which, as you know, have worse throttle response compared to carburetor ones (as, for example, on a BAZ-135LM twin-engine chassis).
  20. sergsh
    sergsh 25 June 2016 19: 26
    +8
    To reduce costs and time, it was decided to check the correctness of the design decisions made on a frame chassis (there were so many doubters about the positive outcome of this project), for which a serial sample of the BAZ-6950 chassis was driven off the assembly line.
    All the layouts of the new transmission units for a 2-engine power plant and the layout of the finalized power plant systems were entirely carried out by the KB PP. And the entire team of the design department has already been involved in the development of design documentation, in a volume sufficient for the manufacture of a prototype. At that time, there was not a single computer in the department, but to our great fortune, at that time for the first time we had a polyester tracing-paper, on which absolutely all the developments were carried out. The saving of time was also achieved by the fact that copying work and the need for their verification were completely excluded. Instead of assembly drawings, we brought to the EC to the assemblers of assemblies and systems our layouts on mylar film and prompted the assemblers to order the assembly.
    In a fantastic time (beginning of work, end of August - end of assembly December 1985, and after all, it was necessary to develop many new transmission units with a large number of case casting parts, a new engine compartment and joint control systems for two engines, clutches, gearboxes, a modified steering system and much more ...) a prototype BAZ-6950M chassis was developed and manufactured (later it was renamed as a prototype chassis BAZ-69501 - lead designer V.I.Sinakin as a separate solution) and in the summer of 1986 he successfully completed a mileage of almost 10 km along the route Bryansk-Voronezh-Saratov-Uralsk-Aktyubinsk-Aralsk-Kyzyl-Orda-Chimkent-Tashkent-Osh-K
    Okand-Samarkand-Bukhara-Ashgabat-Krasnovodsk-Baku-Rostov-on-Don-Kharkov-Bryansk. At the same time, the chassis (in full mass) still overcame the Ak Baital Pass in the Pamirs, located at a sky-high height of 4650 m ...
    Well, and how then to believe what was written by a respected author, Evgeny Kochnev, that “... To replace the 6950, a 14-ton prototype BAZ-6950M was created, which, after extensive testing and refinement in 1985, appeared in a twin-engine version.
    About the other inaccuracies in this article some other time ...
    1. 52
      52 26 June 2016 15: 09
      +2
      Comrade, why don’t you write an article about BAZ, especially since you have good information, and the history of BAZ is a collection of "black holes". Decide, we are waiting!
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 27 October 2016 08: 23
      0
      Teach students. 10 years is not a term. Their time will come.
  21. polkovnik manuch
    polkovnik manuch 25 June 2016 21: 33
    +1
    I liked the article very much. At first, I didn’t understand why the Belarusians were so excited in the winter, when the first articles appeared that Russia was thinking about producing heavy tractors at home, which would be a serious slap on MAZ production. Belarusians need to be friends with brothers, they need to cooperate more closely, Bryansk is not so far from Minsk.
  22. proud
    proud 26 June 2016 00: 47
    +1
    The article is wonderful! Forum users are simply the upper class! It is nice to read interesting comments, not to see quarrels and to perceive such a forum as a worthy continuation of a wonderful article! Thank you all again! Author of YOUNG !!!! Everyone else is above all praise! (except for me, of course)
  23. Whack
    Whack 26 June 2016 06: 29
    0
    Thanks, very interesting.
  24. guzik007
    guzik007 26 June 2016 09: 22
    +1
    “Basis”, but gradually the incomprehensible military code “Voshchina” spread to them - this is the name of thin wax sheets for bee honeycombs.
    --------------------------------------
    why "incomprehensible"? Foundation is the base on which the honeycomb grows. And the tractor, in turn, is the base on which you can hang whatever you want From a rocket to a tank.
  25. The comment was deleted.
  26. ROMANO
    ROMANO 27 June 2016 06: 03
    0
    Quote: Bayonet
    The cabin is very far forward, it is interesting how the crew felt there on rough terrain; in theory, chatting should not be weak and it should have a negative effect on cross-country ability. But with a mine explosion, in such a layout, plus.


    For this, the maneuverability increases and the mass of the chassis decreases: you can reduce the length of the heavy frame, drives, etc.
  27. sergsh
    sergsh 27 June 2016 20: 25
    +3
    Read more.
    The second inaccuracy in the article is the following story, presented by E. Kochnev, related to the long-base chassis BAZ-69502 and BAZ-6954.
    In fact, this is a slightly different story and it began a year earlier.
    In March 1989, when I went on vacation, a very bad thing happened in the history of the plant, and even the country as a whole, a sharp turn - the so-called "Democratic elections" of the chief designer. By the way, because of them, in protest, the outstanding constructor of our country, Invincible Sergey Pavlovich, the creator of various weapons systems, including unique ones - OTR "Tochka", "Tochka-U", the famous " Oka ", as well as complexes that did not fall into serial production -" Oka-M "," Oka-U "and" Volga ", placed on various chassis of high cross-country production of BAZ, which happened due to the agreement signed a little earlier, between Gorbachev and Reagan. Invincible S.P. was also the ideological inspirer of the start of work on the creation of the Iskander complex).
    As a result of these elections, the team, consisting of a greater percentage of the fair sex, chose a new chief designer - the head of the design bureau of frames and bodies V. Trusov.
    At the same time, the gene. Director of BAZ Gross V.I., deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, in order to save the plant, which fell into a cruel situation, due to the almost complete lack of state orders, to save the 17 thousandth plant staff, took up the 1,5-ton production project proposed to him in Moscow van, which because of the events in Nagorno-Karabakh "hung in the air." In connection with this fact, a radical reorganization began in the design department, or rather division of the team in half, which ultimately led to the almost complete collapse of the entire team.
    So, when I returned from vacation in mid-April and wrote a statement, I became the head of the design bureau in the design and technological center that had reappeared at the plant, the chief of which was my immediate supervisor - V. Levkin. However, I was not immediately allowed to work there, because it was on these very days that the BAZ received an order from TsKB Titan for the development of the chassis, which eventually became "... the long-base chassis BAZ-69502, which became the last new development of the SKB completed in Soviet times ...". Due to the fact that as a result of the so-called “Reforms” almost completely collapsed the work in the Design Bureau, I was tasked to urgently develop “... a fundamentally new closed 4-seater frame-metal cabin ... with increased resistance to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion and two hatches in the roof for boarding and disembarking the crew ...” . Dates were allotted to me very tight, because in mid-August, my trip to England was already planned for a company that was developing a 1,5-ton van for the plant ...
  28. sergsh
    sergsh 27 June 2016 20: 25
    +3
    ... Due to the tight deadlines, it was decided to make the first cabin with hatches, because the development of a door with such stringent customer requirements would delay the appearance of the first prototype for a long time and, accordingly, the testing of a promising complex.
    So I had nothing to take "... from the BAZ-6954 model ...", as indicated in the author’s article, because it appeared much later ... As for the author’s statement that “... The chassis was planned to be used as a land version of the Oka complex SPU and the 9P76 installation for the promising Iskander system ...”, it is possible that there were such plans, but I worked closely with designers from Volgograd specifically for Iskander.
    I can add the following to this question - some technical solutions that I laid down in the layout of this cabin, alas, were not implemented in metal.
    For example, gamma-protection screens, to protect the crew in front, which can be seen on the photo that are fixed on the bumper, I “hid” under the front hood of the cab and attached directly to the cab frame, as for the covers installed immediately behind the cab to the motor compartment, then this has already been done contrary to my suggestions. The first solution, implemented without me, worsened the crew’s protection, because according to the test results I had to make large openings for headlights (because the light from the screens shone back and prevented the driver from observing the road, and I put the opening between the cab and the motor compartment into the design to carry out lateral air intake for the operation of a twin-engine power plant, and not from above, as seen in the photo.
    These unrealized solutions then were used only a few years later, but already on the new family of dual-purpose SKShT in the Voshchina-1 development center, but this is a completely different story ...
  29. 31rus2
    31rus2 29 June 2016 22: 51
    +1
    Thanks for the corrections, the article and your clarifications are very interesting.