Military Review

The cedar rook of Cheops: 5 long journey 000 years

53
Surely everyone remembers a picture from childhood: you open a box of pencils, take them out, sharpen them, and ... a thin woody aroma begins to float in the air, slightly tart, tarry, unobtrusive. This is cedar. Its wood is very strong, fragrant, not subject to decay, and a unique smell can be felt, as it turned out, several hundred years. Yes, yes, it really is. The tree has been appreciated for its unique properties since ancient times. Even in the biblical scriptures cedar is mentioned. At that time, except for construction needs (beams, boards, material for construction fleet), Egypt needed cedar as a source of resin, which was part of the complex balms for processing mummies. In Phenicia, cedar wood was used for the construction of military and merchant ships, so needed by Phenicia itself, then for the Persian fleet, and only then for the Arab.


And now we turn to a very interesting stories.

26 May 1954 for the Egyptians was most likely an ordinary hot day, when everyone was busy with his own business, and someone, on the contrary, had a rest from these very things. But this day has become a landmark for historians around the world. During the archaeological excavations under numerous layers of stones, sand and limestone, a unique object was discovered that is directly related to the history of ancient Egypt - the Solar ship of Cheops.

The cedar rook of Cheops: 5 long journey 000 years

"Solar boat" - view from the nose.

How did this happen? Everything is very simple. The Second World War ended and the Egyptian government decided to put in order some of the pyramids that were near Cairo. Near the Giza is located the majestic complex of pyramids, which includes the pyramid of Cheops - the largest of the pyramids of Egypt.

It all began with an archaeological expedition working near neighboring tombs. A team of hired workers, cleaning the sides of the pyramid from dirt and sand, worked hard. Working hard, they dumped the excavated land at the foot of the Great Pyramid.


"Solar boat" - a view from the stern.

Finally, only the southern side remains untreated from the ground. In spite of the fact that the earth heap was already elevated by such a heap about 20 meters in height, the workers did not have the right to use the equipment, as they risked catching and God forbid destroying something valuable and unique. Spatulas, hoes, brushes - that’s the whole set of tools that could be used with great care in excavations.


View of the middle part and the "cabin".

Continuing the excavation further, archaeologists discovered a number of carefully hewn blocks of sandstone. The width of the row was about 5 meters, and the thickness - 60 centimeters. The total number of stones was 40 pieces. From this it followed that something must surely be behind them.


The “pit” in which the boat was buried. To date, the same repositories, both empty and with another rook, have been discovered.

On one of the stones, slightly rising above the rest, Mallah, the first to see the rook, noticed a hieroglyph meaning the name of the pharaoh “Djedephra”. Djedefra was the son of Cheops. The archaeologist suggested that under a layer of stones, perhaps, is a pit with a boat. Several excavated fragments of wood and rotten pieces of rope indicated that the ship had once been lying there. To verify the correctness of the hypothesis, it was necessary to have a few more objects or their fragments, and therefore the workers began to excavate more vigorously.


And here is the “resting place” of the Khufu boat - the “Museum of the Solar Boat”.

Towards noon, diggers were finally able to make a hole in the layer of stones. The noon sun shone so brightly that it dazzled his eyes, and Mallah saw absolutely nothing in that hole. In order to at least see something in the dark, I had to use a pocket mirror. Mallah sent a sunbeam into the hole and, glancing there, tried to look at something that snatched a ray of light from the pitch darkness. This “something” turned out to be the blades of a long rowing paddle. But before the blades, a thin, slightly perceptible, delightful fragrance of incense, whose age was almost five thousand years, broke loose. The brightest of them was the aroma of cedar wood, from the wood of which, according to scientists, the ship was built. It seems that Fortune turned its face to the seekers of artifacts!


The construction of a completely unusual architecture, what to say!

A piece of onboard plating of the ship, which was taken to the chemical laboratory of the British Museum, was taken for examination. The laboratory confirmed that this is the cedar wood of the epoch of Cheops, which is also excellently preserved. Due to the fact that the pit was covered with stones and plastered with plaster, the tree was not exposed to external influences. Due to this, the ship lay in the ground for more than one thousand years and perfectly preserved. In order to keep such a unique discovery intact, a canopy was erected over the pit, then a crane was driven in. Work on the transport of stones stretched for two months.

After the ship was removed from the ground, it was transferred to the restorers. Here the first difficulties began to arise. The main restorer of Egyptian artifacts, Haj Ahmed Yousef Mustafa, had to deal with a number of problems that, in principle, were inevitable. The vessel consisted of several parts. And this “designer” had to be assembled. That's just a little detail prevented this: none of the scientists who worked there did not know at all in what order all this should be collected.


“There is a shadow here!”

Before assembling, each fragment should be photographed (or drawn) according to the rules, in as much detail as possible, from all sides. After all the fragments were painted on paper or photographed, it was allowed to extract them from the pit and immediately treat them with chemicals, since an unprocessed object that had lain in the earth for more than one thousand years could crumble into dust in an instant.

Unfortunately, Mustafa did not have special literature on the assembly of fragments of fossil objects. I had to rely on my own intuition. After making copies of all the 1224 parts at a certain scale, he enthusiastically set to work. The work was creative. After carefully studying the wall bas-reliefs on which the ancient Egyptian vessels were depicted, and examining the fragments of the vessel, they came to the conclusion that the boarding panels at that time were fastened together with a rope, several long pieces of which were found in the same pit. The technology of fastening the boards was magnificent in its simplicity: the rope was passed through a small hole, which was made in the board on its wide side, and it went out through the edge, due to which the rope was not visible from the outside. The know-how was amazing in its essence: it was as if the siding boards had been tied together to one another! And the lacing was very dense, according to the "requirements" of the construction of ships of those times. The ropes had to hold the boards firmly, so that they did not separate, and, moreover, the wood lining a priori should not let water through. That was the main rule of the “shipbuilders” of those times, and of today too.

As a result, the restoration work stretched as much as fourteen years, because at first no one really knew in what order and how the wooden parts of which the ship was made should be joined, and then fastened. Mustafa had to make five variants of the model of the vessel, before something suitable was found. The rebuilt ship had a length of over 43 meters, a width of almost 6 meters. The vessel's displacement was 45 tons. On the ship there were two cabins. Scientists have determined that the draft of the rook was 1,5 meters, this is a bit for the sea vessel, and from this the conclusion followed that the ship was intended to sail exclusively on the Nile. The movement of the rook should have been provided by five oarsmen, who had five pairs of oars at their disposal, different in length.


And this is how the pioneers worked on assembling the vessel.

The very fact of using the vessel for the passage along the Nile also did not cause any doubts. The fact is that on the mounting ropes traces of river silt were found, which eloquently testified that the ship was used specifically for river traffic, because there is only one river in Egypt.

There was one more circumstance in view of which the work on the reconstruction of the ship took so much time. The fact is that the design of the hull of the vessel is absolutely not similar to what we see today. Its essence is as follows: all present ships and even Viking rooks had a keel as their basis - a beam passing along the entire bottom of the vessel. Forms were attached to it - a kind of "ribs" of the hull, the contours of which define a specific profile of the vessel. Here was a completely unique case: the keel and frames were missing from the Solar boat of Cheops! Unbelievable, but it is a fact! And the ship was going to elementary: the board to the board, as if someone was folding a giant mosaic, of course, in a strictly defined sequence. From here it becomes clear the reason why it was so difficult for the Egyptians to decide to walk the sea over long distances: storms, powerful waves could instantly smash such a puzzle into pieces. And so the Egyptians invited the Phoenicians to sail around the African continent and, perhaps, they sailed this way using their ships, made, as is well known, from the very famous cedar tree that they mined in Lebanon.


On such ships the gods of Egypt floated.

The ship of Cheops was intended, probably, as a ritual means of transporting the body of Pharaoh from Memphis to Giza. It was easier to transport it along the Nile, and therefore the vessel was dragged down the river in tow. And after the mummy of the son of the god Ra arrived at the place, the ship was immediately taken apart and buried.

It is worth noting that the Nile was and, by the way, remains for the Egyptians a river of "strategic importance", without which there would be no life in the hot sands of Egypt. This is a source of moisture for all living things, and the vehicle. That is why the ancient Egyptians Nile was considered a sacred river.

As the Nile flows from south to north, the Egyptians went downstream without a sail, and with a raised sail went up, against the current. It is curious that even in the writing of the Egyptians this found its reflection. The image of a boat with a sail mattered to “sail south”, and without a sail, “sail with the current” or “sail north”. The ancient Egyptians were firmly convinced that the god of the Sun, Ra, daily passes the heavenly path in his solar boat, and the Underworld also swims at night.


It looked like the Egyptian ships on which the Egyptians sailed to the country of Punt.

The restored ship has been perfectly preserved to this day. And so that the descendants could look at this miracle, the scientists did everything (and even more!) To keep it safe and sound. In the place where archaeologists found it, a special museum of original architecture was built. Every year it attracts a considerable number of tourists who come to Egypt to gaze at its wonders.

You will be in the Valley of the Pyramids, by all means go to this unusual museum. After all, the ship of Pharaoh, who found his refuge here, certainly deserves that every lover of antiquity would spend a little of his time to pay tribute to the memory of both Khufu and the ancient shipbuilders who built such an amazing vessel, which until today remains one of the most unusual monuments of the "era of the pharaohs".
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  1. 34 region
    34 region 1 July 2016 07: 48
    +4
    Just a fresh stream on VO! The topic is of course interesting. But causing a lot of questions. How old is a carbon analysis tree? How and how were you able to cut cedar? Boards in my opinion are very thick. Why are blocks of perfect cubic shape? How and how did you achieve such accuracy? How and how were they manufactured, transported, mounted? How were very clear hieroglyphs made? Why does the Sphinx have traces of water erosion? Maybe he is 12,5 thousand years old?
    1. kalibr
      1 July 2016 08: 00
      +1
      You would be at the foot of the Great Pyramid! It's good if you come by bus with a guide and then ... And then there is also local guides "organize" "independent tourists" and what they are not told about! "Under the pyramid is the entrance to the kingdom of the Atlanteans ...", "the stones were cut with a laser by aliens", telekinesis, and so on. Meanwhile, there are even images of how such ships were built and so the whole technology is visible. So do not hesitate - "their job." My student worked in an agency that took people to the pyramids. Oh, she told me a lot of interesting things.
    2. Riv
      Riv 1 July 2016 08: 01
      +4
      Or maybe 100500? Why trifle? :)
      1. kalibr
        1 July 2016 09: 10
        +1
        Some guides say something like this ...
    3. rkkasa xnumx
      rkkasa xnumx 1 July 2016 08: 17
      +4
      Quote: Region 34
      Just a fresh stream on VO!

      I would still like this topic - galea-galley.livejournal.com/192013.html - suggested, but I don’t know how to do it request

      There, in my opinion, very interesting material is about medieval shipbuilders who grew ship design elements in special nurseries.
      1. Riv
        Riv 1 July 2016 12: 43
        +2
        And I liked the last figure. Probably Prince Igor was tied to such drevlians when he decided to run into them by lawlessness.
      2. bastard
        bastard 1 July 2016 20: 44
        +1
        Quote: rkkasa 81
        There, in my opinion, very interesting material is about medieval shipbuilders who grew ship design elements in special nurseries.

        I was intrigued by another:
        you open a box of pencils, take them out, sharpen them, and ... a thin woody aroma begins to float in the air, slightly tart, tarry, unobtrusive. This is cedar. Its wood is very strong, fragrant, not subject to decay, and a unique smell can be felt, as it turned out, several hundred years.

        The author did not explain what kind of tree in question: Lebanese cedar growing in the subtropics or Siberian cedar pine. All these trees really smell great and do not rot for a long time, but they are different trees.
        Lebanese cedar pencils are cool, probably the children of Abramovich or Sechin can afford, they can even buy from dendron ones or from baobabs, and the rod there is made of graphite made of burned diamonds. belay Just kidding
        And still?
    4. kalibr
      1 July 2016 12: 22
      +2
      If you want, we’ll continue this topic. I have a colleague who ... well, a fan of Egypt and its history, as I am knights and tanks.
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 2 July 2016 01: 42
        +3
        By style of presentation - this is your article, Mr. Shpakovsky. Or did you, together with your colleague, compose? Do not be shy. smile
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 1 July 2016 07: 53
    +1
    The painstaking work of the restorer ... Thank you, Svetlana ..
    1. ICT
      ICT 1 July 2016 08: 32
      +3
      ... It happened on an October starry night of 1987 of the year. Special drill rig designed by engineers


      the second boat nearby was waiting for new technologies


      TM-1990- 6
  3. Riv
    Riv 1 July 2016 08: 12
    +4
    Cool, of course. But in such a boat, tied with ropes, I would not dare to swim out to the pond, not just in the sea. It is impossible to tighten the ropes so tightly that the body holds water and it cannot maintain rigidity either. From the word "absolutely".

    Want more theory? This is the prototype of the kayak. The boards are nothing more than a frame on which a waterproof leather cover was stretched from below. Pay attention to the illustrations: on the bow and stern of each boat, a kind of "flowers" are visible. Their purpose is utilitarian. These are the edges of the case tightened at the upper points of the case. In this situation, it will be quite possible to sail on rivers on a boat.

    What exactly on the rivers, I think there is no doubt? The boat is ideally suited for shallow water, like any kayak. Of course, it can be scooped up on it and at sea, but three points - and a khan to sailors.
    1. guzik007
      guzik007 1 July 2016 08: 25
      +5
      Cool, of course. But in such a boat, tied with ropes, I wouldn’t dare to swim out to the pond, but I wouldn’t dare to swim.
      --------------
      And here in vain! So that you know, Arkhangelsk carbases and Volga kochi at one time were precisely what were sewn together with the help of spruce roots. And the Arab feluccas that go all the way to India are still sewn under it without a single nail.
      1. Riv
        Riv 1 July 2016 09: 05
        +2
        So after all, both koch and carbas are keel. And the frames are there. If there is a rigid foundation of the structure, there is not much difference than fixing boards. On this and the sea you can go, which was done.
    2. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 4 July 2016 12: 18
      0
      Quote: Riv
      But in such a boat, tied with ropes, I wouldn’t dare to swim out to the pond, but I wouldn’t dare to swim.

      Well, you are in vain so. Tour Heyerdahl has proven a lot.
  4. Dark
    Dark 1 July 2016 11: 17
    +1
    And where in Egypt did they get so much cedar for ships, interesting? Cedar in Egypt does not grow!
    1. kalibr
      1 July 2016 12: 20
      +2
      Nearby was Lebanon, where the famous Lebanese cedar was growing. He was taken as a tribute, because of which both Tutmsos 3 and Ramses the Great went there and made trips!
      1. Riv
        Riv 1 July 2016 12: 41
        +4
        Hmmm ... That's what Lebanese cedar looks like in nature. Did you think that it was very straightforward and you could cut boards from it? How wrong you were!
        Now figure out what it was like for the Egyptians to drag such trunks around in the desert. Poor things ...
        1. Red_Hamer
          Red_Hamer 1 July 2016 16: 05
          +2
          Hmmm ... That's what Lebanese cedar looks like in nature. Did you think that it was very straightforward and you could cut boards from it?
          Very straight, this is when in the grove, due to tightness, trunks stretch upward (see photo with the same Lebanese cedar). And stand-alone, as in your photo, in different directions. laughing For there is where to throw branches. Do not assume that the relict forest has been sawn for millennia. Anyway, the area has changed radically due to climate change?
          Now figure out what it was like for the Egyptians to drag such trunks around in the desert. Poor things ...
          Forest, from time immemorial, was delivered by water, the most logical thing is that in the finished product, built and launched into the water where the forest grew!
          1. Riv
            Riv 1 July 2016 18: 28
            0
            By water? From Lebanon to Egypt? On such a boat ??? Chur me! Chur!
            It is most logical to assume that such cedars once grew somewhat closer to Egypt. Perhaps (heresy !!! 111) in Egypt itself? Since the same cedars are growing in the Crimea, why don't they grow in other places?
            1. Red_Hamer
              Red_Hamer 1 July 2016 20: 19
              +3
              In those days, rarely ventured across the open sea, they walked along the coast. And by the way, about the boats! Tour Heyerdahl and his comrades, including our Senkevich in 1969, didn’t from the cedar, but from the papyrus in a boat, they overcame 2 thousand kilometers of the sea route over 5 months of sailing.
              1. Riv
                Riv 2 July 2016 08: 06
                0
                But sorry ... Heyerdahl didn’t sail on a board ship. "Ra" and "Ra 2" rolled out of papyrus. They did not have a frame, as such. In principle, these were rafts, only of a very peculiar design.

                Now imagine what the Ra feed would look like if its body were covered with a leather cover and the end of the cover were tied around the elongated body?



                that’s what it would look like.
            2. The comment was deleted.
      2. ver_
        ver_ 1 July 2016 17: 33
        +1
        ... to the article about the birds:
        1. During the time of Napoleon, Egypt was one and a half crippled ..
        2. in the museums of Egypt there are "stone blocks from which" fittings stick out of the rods "- which proves that this is primitive concrete ..
        3. In the pyramids there are Christian crosses carved from stone - (there are photos)
        4. Horoscopes from the pyramids indicate the 11-12th century ..
        Not so ancient they are ..
        1. kalibr
          1 July 2016 19: 36
          +1
          Quote: ver_
          ... in the museums of Egypt there are "stone blocks from which" fittings stick out of rods "

          Show me the photo!
          The cross is a long-standing symbol of not only Christianity.
          Quote: ver_
          Horoscopes from the pyramids indicate the 11-12 century ..

          What horoscopes?
          1. Igor V
            Igor V 1 July 2016 21: 04
            +1
            What horoscopes?
            Read about Egyptian horoscopes, very instructive. I don’t knowingly give a link; type in a search engine.
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Red_Hamer
          Red_Hamer 1 July 2016 21: 05
          -1
          1. During the time of Napoleon, Egypt was one and a half crippled ..
          2. in the museums of Egypt there are "stone blocks from which" fittings stick out of the rods "- which proves that this is primitive concrete ..
          3. In the pyramids there are Christian crosses carved from stone - (there are photos)
          4. Horoscopes from the pyramids indicate the 11-12th century ..
          Not so ancient they are ..
          The two authors of "New Chronology", whom, judging by the above text you have read, have, of course, a lot of interesting, a lot of amusing, and a lot of things, frankly far-fetched, for the sake of their concept. If you want to make sure, go to the place yourself and check. More than one generation of geologists, mining engineers, chemists, physicists, architects, builders, even mathematicians, and other intelligent people with technical knowledge have already checked this more than once, and were convinced of the opposite. As for the "fittings", I understand that you meant iron products. Well, on this, and there are completely different points of view, look at www.lah.ru they have a channel on YouTube. And yes, there is also concrete, that's just not at all primitive, but rather super-technological, polymer! If only we can discover the formula of this "granite concrete", at least in the 21st century laughing
    2. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 1 July 2016 12: 24
      +1
      Quote: Dark
      Cedar in Egypt does not grow!

      Actually, what we call the cedar is scientifically called the Siberian pine. But the cedar itself is the Lebanese cedar, which, judging by the name, is not far from Egypt. yes
    3. Rivares
      Rivares 1 July 2016 12: 35
      +1
      It is written that from Phenicia.
      1. Riv
        Riv 1 July 2016 15: 41
        +1
        And why did you decide that the ancient Egyptian under Phenicia understood exactly the area that we understand? Seriously. For example, in Moscow there is Kitay Gorod. After all, he has nothing to do with China, although the concept has been for many years. It is possible that this Phenicia was somewhere near Memphis.
        1. kalibr
          1 July 2016 15: 46
          +1
          I don’t know what they felt like, but everything is written where, from where through which cities and where, what they brought. Lazurite in Egypt is not there either, it was taken from Kashgar, that is, the place that we call Kashgar. There was trade with the most remote areas.
          1. Riv
            Riv 1 July 2016 18: 39
            +1
            Imagine that in the year 2050, some survivor finds a charred letter in the radioactive ruins of Washington. The letter says that a certain John went from Petersburg to Moscow and got married there. After all, he will probably think that same-sex marriage was allowed in Russia at that time. But in fact, John did not go to any Russia, but sold his point there, in the States. There are cities: Moscow and St. Petersburg.

            So what about Kashgar and Lebanon - this is just a generally accepted point of view that no one has yet tried to refute.
            1. kalibr
              1 July 2016 19: 33
              0
              Quote: Riv
              So what about Kashgar and Lebanon - this is just a generally accepted point of view that no one has yet tried to refute.

              And why, if she suits everyone and in everything? And specialists! Non-specialists can be neglected, although they, of course, have a different opinion about themselves. And ... do you really think that there is no one who would know that Moscow also exists in the United States? Just don't add the "if". There are too many of them!
              1. Riv
                Riv 2 July 2016 05: 36
                +2
                There are too many cases where, having made a completely reasonable and probable assumption, you get a coherent and consistent historical picture.

                With the same boat from the details connected by ropes: well, the archaeologist never had anything to do with kayaks. In general, I have not seen closely and do not know how they are arranged. And if he knew, then perhaps he would not be surprised at such a ship set. And do you really think that the specialist will give up his point of view only because someone gave out another, even more logical? He already wrote a hundred articles, three books and grabbed a penny for it.

                Remember the story of the fake Chinese manuscripts in the London Museum? After all, none of the gray-haired people said publicly: "People !!! 111 I got screwed up and my doctoral dissertation is based on forgeries! I'll go write a new one, forget that I was here." Nichrome ... All modestly kept silent.
            2. Igor V
              Igor V 1 July 2016 21: 08
              +1
              Well, Riv, you have examples! laughing
        2. Rivares
          Rivares 1 July 2016 15: 55
          +4
          Quote: Riv
          For example, in Moscow there is Kitay Gorod. He has nothing to do with China.

          Even as it has. Kiitai in Old Russian meant a high fence, a fence. China city meant a high-fenced city. Accordingly, China is a country surrounded by a fence (the so-called Great Wall of China). We call the Chinese the Chinese, the Chinese as a people call themselves differently.
          1. ver_
            ver_ 1 July 2016 17: 42
            +2
            .. the loopholes in this "Chinese" wall are directed towards China, which is Chin ... and which did not exist in the 12th century .. All the "antiquities" of China were created in the 17th century .. (including ancient history) ..
            1. Riv
              Riv 1 July 2016 18: 29
              +3
              ... and if we add that there are more than a dozen of these "walls" in China, and they exist even on the territory of the Russian Far East, then it turns out quite strange.
            2. kalibr
              1 July 2016 19: 31
              -1
              Who told you that?
              Minus for interest? Or for the lack of an answer? I will not say anything, but ... I’ll blame them - oh, how stupid and primitive!
            3. Kenneth
              Kenneth 1 July 2016 20: 19
              +1
              Bushkov again. And besides Bushkov they watched something. I will tell you more than that most fortresses are a relative remake for tourists.
              1. Riv
                Riv 2 July 2016 07: 39
                +3
                There are so many. Is everything a remake?
            4. Mikhail Matyugin
              Mikhail Matyugin 4 July 2016 12: 23
              0
              Quote: ver_
              All the "antiquities" of China were created in the 17th century .. (including ancient history) ..

              I will answer with the words of Islamic theologians - "you are in clear delusion."
  5. Kenneth
    Kenneth 1 July 2016 16: 25
    +1
    Great done. Compared to this, the Norwegian fights in the museum make a rather miserable impression.
  6. ver_
    ver_ 1 July 2016 17: 14
    +1
    Quote: 34 region
    Just a fresh stream on VO! The topic is of course interesting. But causing a lot of questions. How old is a carbon analysis tree? How and how were you able to cut cedar? Boards in my opinion are very thick. Why are blocks of perfect cubic shape? How and how did you achieve such accuracy? How and how were they manufactured, transported, mounted? How were very clear hieroglyphs made? Why does the Sphinx have traces of water erosion? Maybe he is 12,5 thousand years old?

    ..aga .. and how Venice stands on stilts of Siberian larch ..
  7. D. Dan
    D. Dan 1 July 2016 17: 54
    +1
    In Russia, cedar does not grow. Tokmo in Lebanon.
    1. Riv
      Riv 2 July 2016 09: 23
      +1
      Is growing. In Crimea, it grew at least, unless of course ykry was not cut for firewood.
    2. Rivares
      Rivares 2 July 2016 15: 47
      +1
      Yeah, and pine nuts are sold, and at the same time periodically banned from exporting to China))
  8. Denimax
    Denimax 1 July 2016 21: 43
    +1
    All dream of seeing the Egyptian pyramids live. Photos can distort the entire dimension of the structure. I want to appreciate it in reality. Maybe someday I’ll fall off when all the fuss subsides.)
    1. ICT
      ICT 2 July 2016 01: 14
      +1
      Quote: Denimax
      Photos may distort the entire dimension of the structure


      by this link from the air, but from the ground I didn’t find anything right away (I myself bypassed all the ponies somehow)
      http://www.airpano.ru/files/Egypt-Cairo-Pyramids/1-3-2
    2. kalibr
      3 July 2016 13: 31
      +1
      I can tell you a very convenient and profitable route. Without a visa, fly to Cyprus for a vacation, and from there go through a travel agency to Egypt. You can by sea, you can by plane. No documents needed! See the pyramids, the Museum of Egyptology and evening back. And more is not necessary. Well, if you have extra money, you can take a taxi to Saqqara and Dashur - there are not far and you will have time to return to the ship.
  9. Gost171
    Gost171 2 July 2016 01: 22
    +2
    ... Length is over. 43 m., Width-almost 6 m., Displacement of 45 tons, ..., draft 1,5 m .. The rook should have been moving! 5 \ FIVE /! rowers who had at their disposal 5 \ FIVE COUPLES / pairs of oars, different in length ... Svetlana, do you yourself understand what you wrote? Or copied from some kind of translation? It is not destined to live to see the time when articles, scientific papers, dissertations, etc., about the technique \ even very ancient \ will be written by people who understand this \ technique \ understand. it says ... The trouble is that since the boots are being started by the pastry-maker, and the shoemaker's pies.
  10. ver_
    ver_ 2 July 2016 07: 06
    +1
    Quote: Red_Hamer
    1. During the time of Napoleon, Egypt was one and a half crippled ..
    2. in the museums of Egypt there are "stone blocks from which" fittings stick out of the rods "- which proves that this is primitive concrete ..
    3. In the pyramids there are Christian crosses carved from stone - (there are photos)
    4. Horoscopes from the pyramids indicate the 11-12th century ..
    Not so ancient they are ..
    The two authors of "New Chronology", whom, judging by the above text you have read, have, of course, a lot of interesting, a lot of amusing, and a lot of things, frankly far-fetched, for the sake of their concept. If you want to make sure, go to the place yourself and check. More than one generation of geologists, mining engineers, chemists, physicists, architects, builders, even mathematicians, and other intelligent people with technical knowledge have already checked this more than once, and were convinced of the opposite. As for the "fittings", I understand that you meant iron products. Well, on this, and there are completely different points of view, look at www.lah.ru they have a channel on YouTube. And yes, there is also concrete, that's just not at all primitive, but rather super-technological, polymer! If only we can discover the formula of this "granite concrete", at least in the 21st century laughing

    ... just not very distant people will be polymer concrete (very expensive and requiring a lot of both time and cost of raw materials used for the manufacture of luxury goods and ritual items, vessels, bowls, and other similar "utensils" - to use when pouring simple blocks for pyramids .. No one used gold instead of steel in the manufacture of blades. Artisans were quite enough sand, hand mills to turn it into dust, and water from the Nile to make the simplest concrete.
    By the way - in Russia, some temples were built similarly. In ancient times, it was used: clay, lime and other "ingredients" and their strength only grew over time. In WWII, shells could not destroy them.
    When I started to build a dacha and lay down a stove (the Internet did not exist yet), then in the book "How to Build a Country House" I read such things ..
    1. Riv
      Riv 2 July 2016 07: 50
      +2
      In Russia, not only lime, but quicklime was used as a binder. Such a solution hardens very slowly, since the carbon dioxide required for this is taken from the atmosphere. For the first hundred years, the strength of such a masonry is really only growing, but this method has no relation to the Egyptian pyramids. The Egyptians used either clay or gypsum.
      1. ver_
        ver_ 2 July 2016 11: 11
        +1
        ..and who claims this? ..