Military Review

Fighter satellites "Flight"

Fighter satellites "Flight"

The success of the Soviet "satellite fighter" the United States repeated only 18 years

Everyone knows that the Soviet artificial satellite of the Earth was the first. But not everyone knows that we were the first in the creation of anti-satellite weapons. The decision taken on 17 on June 1963 of the year was implemented in practice on November 1 of 1968. On this day, the spacecraft "Flight-1" for the first time in stories intercepted target spacecraft. And five years later, in 1972, the IS-M complex of the anti-space defense system (PKO) was put into trial operation.

The United States was the first in an effort to create anti-satellite weapons. But only after 18 years, September 13 of 1985, the F-15 fighter with the ASM-135 rocket ASAT was able to hit the non-operational American astrophysical target satellite Solwind P78-1.

History of IP

Already in May, the US 1958 launched a Bold Orion rocket from a B-47 Stratojet bomber to test the possibility of a nuclear weapon hitting a spacecraft. However, this project, like a number of others, up to the 1985 year, was recognized as ineffective.

The Soviet “answer” was the creation of a PKO system, the final element of which was a complex called the IS (satellite fighter). Its main elements are an SC-interceptor with an explosive charge, a launch vehicle and a command center (CP). In total, the complex consisted of 8 radar nodes, 2 launch positions and a certain number of spacecraft interceptors.

The PKO and IP system was developed by the team of the Central Research Institute "Kometa" under the direct supervision of Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Anatoly Savin and Doctor of Technical Sciences Konstantin Vlasko-Vlasov. Responsible for the entire project was a famous Soviet scientist and general designer of rocket and space technology Vladimir Chelomei.

The first flight of the KA-interceptor "Flight-1" made 1 on November 1963 of the year, and in the summer of the following year a radio engineering complex was created at the command center of the PKO system. In 1965, the creation of a rocket and space complex for launching an interceptor spacecraft into orbit began. At the same time, the spacecraft X-NUMX spacecraft was created. A total of 394 KA interceptors were launched, of which 19 was deemed successful.

In the course of trial operation, the IS complex was upgraded, equipped with a radar homing head (GOS) and in 1979, the Space Rocket Defense Forces put on combat duty. According to Vlasko-Vlasov, the complex designed to intercept space targets at altitudes up to 1000 km could really hit targets at altitudes from 100 to 1350 km.

The basis of the IP complex was a two-turn targeting method. After the interceptor spacecraft was launched into orbit by the launch vehicle, the radio-technical units detecting the satellites OS-1 (Irkutsk) and OS-2 (Balkhash) at the first turn clarified its motion and target parameters and then transmitted them to the interceptor. He performed a maneuver, on the second turn, with the help of the GOS, he detected the target, approached it and hit it with a warhead. The estimated probability of hitting the target 0,9 – 0,95 was confirmed by practical tests.

The last, successful interception took place on 18 on June 1982 of the year, when the Cosmos-1375 target struck the Cosmos-1379 interceptor. In 1993, the IS-MOU complex was decommissioned, in September 1997-th ceased to exist, and all materials were transferred to the archive.

US response

It is clear that the United States reacted to the creation of IP, and they were the first to begin developing anti-satellite weapons at the end of the 1950s. However, the attempts were not so successful. Thus, the program was closed using anti-satellite missiles from a supersonic bomber B-58 Hustler. The program of anti-satellite missiles with a powerful nuclear warhead, which the United States tested in the 1960-s, has not received its development either. High-altitude explosions and in space led to the electromagnetic pulse of a number of its own satellites and formed artificial radiation belts. As a result, the project was abandoned.

The LIM-49 Nike Zeus missile defense complex with nuclear warheads did not give a positive result either. In 1966, the project was closed in favor of the Program 437 ASAT system based on Thor missiles with a nuclear charge in the 1 megaton, which, in turn, was minimized in March of the 1975 year. The development of the US Navy’s project on the use of anti-satellite missiles from decked aircraft was not received. The US Navy's project to launch anti-satellite weapons with a modified UGM-1970 SLBM Poseidon C-73 ended in misery at the end of 3.

And only the above-mentioned project with the ASM-135 ASAT rocket was implemented. But the successful launch in January of 1984 was the only one and the last. Despite the obvious success, the program was closed in 1988.

But it was all yesterday. What about today?

Our time

Today, officially, no country has deployed anti-satellite weapons systems. At the start of the 1990-s, by tacit agreement, all tests on these systems were suspended in Russia and in the USA. However, the creation of anti-satellite weapons is not limited to any of the existing treaties. Therefore, it would be foolish to assume that no work is being done on this topic.

After all, it is precisely the space means of intelligence and communications that underlie the modern concepts of warfare. Without satellite navigation systems, the use of the same cruise missiles and other precision weapons is problematic; precise positioning of mobile ground and air objects is impossible. In other words, the withdrawal of the necessary satellites from the system will dramatically adversely affect the capabilities of their owner.

And the conduct of work in this direction, as well as the expansion of the club owning such weapons confirm the facts. Earlier, the head of the space command of the US Air Force, General John Heiten, named Iran, China, North Korea and Russia among the leading such works.

Back in 2005 and 2006, China experienced such a system without actually intercepting satellites. In 2007, the Chinese shot down their Fengyun-1C meteorological satellite with an anti-satellite missile. During these years, the Pentagon reported on the facts of the irradiation of American satellites by ground-based lasers from China.

Lead "antisatellite" work and the United States. Today, they are armed with the ship-based Aegis missile defense system with the RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) missile. It was this 21 rocket of February that 2008 was shot down by an American military satellite USA-193, which did not reach the calculated orbit. According to US media reports, the Pentagon has already created a new generation of anti-satellite systems based on the so-called non-destructive technologies, which force the satellite not to execute workers or send "false" commands.

According to other reports, stealth satellites under the MISTY program were developed and tested in the US 1990s. Their detection in orbit by existing means is almost impossible. The presence of such stealth satellites in orbit is admitted by the Canadian Ted Molzhan, head of the international network of amateur astronomers.

And what about Russia? For obvious reasons, this information is secret. However, in May of this year, a number of foreign and domestic media reported on the successful testing of a rocket in the framework of the Nudol development work. And in December of 2015, Bill Hertz, the author of the American edition of The Washington Free Beacon, reported that Russia had tested an anti-satellite missile. In 2014, the Russian media reported on the testing of a “new long-range missile for air defense systems,” and information that this weapon is being developed in the framework of the ROC “Nudol” was confirmed by the Russia Today news agency in 2014 year.

And the last. Currently, a book of memoirs of the creators of the "satellite fighter" and military service veterans is being prepared for publication. In the preface to it, Lieutenant-General Alexander Golovko, deputy commander of the Russian videoconferencing, said: "... at present, work is under way in our country to create new means of conducting a fight with the spacecraft of a potential enemy." Here, the general director, the general designer of Kometa Corporation OJSC, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Victor Misnik expressed his opinion. According to him, “the means created in the country will be able to hit space targets in necessary quantities.”

As they say, he who has ears will hear. In other words, "we are peaceful people, but our armored train is on the siding."
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  1. Tsoy
    Tsoy 2 July 2016 07: 06
    Today, officially, no country has deployed anti-satellite weapons systems.

    Today, they are armed with the ship-based Aegis missile defense system with the RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) missile.

    It is illogical ...

    Such systems are quite suitable for a single strike, but not for mass destruction. A total of 15,55 thousands of artificial objects fly in orbit.

    The largest number of objects in orbit belongs to Russia and the CIS countries - 5,833 thousand vehicles. Of these, 1,402 thousand are satellites, 4,431 thousand are fragments of launch vehicles and other "garbage".
    For the United States, there are thousands of 4,824 objects (including 1,125 thousands of satellites and 3,699 thousands of steps and fragments), 3,388 thousands of objects for China (88 satellites and 3,3 thousands of objects of different origin). Fourth place in the ranking is France - 472 objects.

    Of the 141 satellites operating in Russia. For the destruction of this grouping missiles will be effective, but we need sickly coordination of actions for simultaneous destruction. RF in this regard is easier to jerk a vigorous loaf and everything is "no, more than your gps."
    1. In100gram
      In100gram 2 July 2016 07: 39
      Quote: Choi
      RF in this regard is easier to jerk a vigorous loaf and everything is "no, more than your gps."

      With such crowded satellites, the loaf is poorly effective. You can hook your own. Selectively necessary. I hope we are working on this.
      1. Tsoy
        Tsoy 2 July 2016 10: 02
        There are a total of 957 satellites. Of these, only the United States 423. If you count with the Allied satellites, then I think the figure will be released under 80%. I think that overseas partners will suffer more damage from the loss of the group than the Russian Federation. But this is of course an extreme measure.
  2. Gormenghast
    Gormenghast 2 July 2016 08: 52

    In accordance with the program of space exploration and further improvement of spacecraft in the Soviet Union, spacecraft are being developed that allow for extensive maneuvering in all directions during orbital flights.
    The ongoing work will solve the problem of controlling spacecraft in flight, directing them to the required areas to obtain scientific information related to space exploration.
    In order to carry out the indicated program, on November 1, 1963, the Poet-1 manned maneuvering spacecraft was launched in the Soviet Union, equipped with special equipment and a propulsion system, ensuring its stabilization and wide maneuvering in near-Earth space.
    On board the spacecraft installed scientific equipment, a radio telemetry system and a transmitter operating at a frequency of 19,945 megahertz.
    The spacecraft entered the initial orbit with a maximum distance from the Earth's surface (at the peak) of 592 kilometers and with a minimum distance (at the perigee) of 339 kilometers.
    In full accordance with the established program, multiple engine starts were made to stabilize and sequentially perform spatial maneuvers of the spacecraft.
    The Polet-1 spacecraft made significant lateral maneuvers, changing the plane of the orbit, as well as maneuvers in height, and switched to the final orbit with an angle of inclination to the equatorial plane of 58 degrees 55 minutes, with a height of 1437 kilometers and a perigee of 343 kilometers.
    The initial period of spacecraft in this orbit is 102,5 minutes.
    On-board equipment installed on the spacecraft is operating normally.
    Observation of the Polet-1 spacecraft and reception of telemetric data are carried out by ground command and measurement points located on the territory of the Soviet Union.
    Radio telemetry equipment provides the transfer of necessary scientific information related to space exploration.
    Thus, for the first time, multiple wide maneuvering of a spacecraft in space was carried out.
    As a result of the implementation of the planned test program in the Soviet Union, an important step was taken, necessary for the further study and development of outer space.

    "Truth". November 2, 1963
  3. Gormenghast
    Gormenghast 2 July 2016 08: 53

    In accordance with the program for space exploration in the Soviet Union, on April 12, 1964, the next launch of the Polet-2 maneuvering vehicle was launched. The launch of the Flight-2 spacecraft was carried out in order to further improve spacecraft, allowing for wide maneuvering in all directions, and to work out issues related to solving the problem of approaching and meeting objects in space.
    To perform maneuvers in space and stabilize flight, the Polet-2 spacecraft is equipped with special control equipment and a propulsion system.
    On board the spacecraft installed scientific equipment, a radio telemetry system and a transmitter operating at a frequency of 19,895 megahertz.
    After separation from the launch vehicle and ballistic flight, the Polet-2 spacecraft, using a special propulsion system, was put into its original orbit and, in accordance with the established program, carried out multiple maneuvers in various directions. As a result of one of the maneuvers carried out near the equator, the spacecraft significantly changed the angle of inclination of the orbit plane.
    After completing the entire maneuvering program, the final orbit of the Polet-2 spacecraft has the following parameters:
    - the angle of inclination to the plane of the equator is 58,06 degrees;
    - the height at the peak of 500 kilometers and at the perigee 310 kilometers;
    - the initial period of the spacecraft in this orbit is 92,4 minutes.
    During the flight of the spacecraft, multiple turns of the spacecraft and its orientation according to a given program were carried out. For continuous stabilization and spacecraft maneuvers, a large number of inclusions of rocket stabilization and maneuvering engines were made.
    On-board equipment installed on the spacecraft is operating normally.
    Radio telemetry equipment provides the transfer of necessary scientific information related to space exploration.
    Observation of the Polet-2 spacecraft and reception of telemetric data are carried out by ground command and measurement points located on the territory of the Soviet Union.
    The launch of the Polet-2 spacecraft in the Soviet Union took another important step in improving maneuvering spacecraft and in space exploration.

    Pravda, April 13, 1964
  4. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 2 July 2016 08: 58
    Quote: Choi
    In this regard, it is easier to jerk a vigorous loaf and everything is "no, more than your gps."

    The nuclear loaf is still local, not only the satellites in different orbits and with different inclinations, but do not stack up, the maximum what the loaf is capable of is to cease the existence of satellites in the affected area at the time of detonation, others will continue to work (some of course will die when the cloud passes) .
    1. Tsoy
      Tsoy 2 July 2016 09: 56
      If you need a quick elimination of the satellite constellation, you still have to go back to nuclear weapons. Only here the selectivity of defeat is zero. And his and others will hook. Recall the Starfish Prime test. 62 year, 1,4 Mt, 400 km height of the blast. A third of all satellites went to electronic paradise. A powerful radiation belt in the planet’s magnetosphere burned out solar panels and led to the failure of everything that moved to LEO.

      But do not forget about the damaging factors on the surface. Operation K. Again 62 year. 5 explosions at altitudes 59, 150, 300 km. Power from 1,2 to 300 CT.

      the impact caused interference in the radars of the missile defense system at a distance of about 1000 km. An underground power cable running at a depth of 90 cm and a length of 1000 km connecting Tselinograd and Alma-Ata, was disabled. Also, the electromagnetic pulse caused fires, due to short circuits in electrical appliances. One of the fires occurred at the Karaganda CHP-3, which was connected to an underground power cable. Also, more than 570 km of telephone line above ground was disabled.
  5. Operator
    Operator 2 July 2016 17: 03
    In the case of the transition to non-radiating nanosatellites (in terms of optical observation and radio-technical intelligence), only radiating positioning, communication, and radiolocation satellites will remain as targets of kinetic satellite interceptors.

    The group of radiating satellites of one country can be estimated in no more than 200 units, which is quite lifting for the kinetic satellite interceptors of Russia, the USA or China. In this case, the emitting satellites can go astray gradually as they pass over enemy territory. Such an operation makes sense during the escalation of hostilities.

    To disable non-emitting nanosatellites, it will be necessary to use a high-altitude nuclear explosion - the higher the more effective: for example, an explosion at an altitude of 36000 km will allow EMR to irradiate about 75 percent of the near-Earth space and disable the corresponding number of satellites, unfortunately theirs too.

    In the event of a nuclear conflict, there is no need to plan special actions to disable satellites - ground and air nuclear explosions are guaranteed to disable all types of satellites in the line of sight and form charged particles in the Earth's ionosphere that will disable satellites outside the line of sight.
  6. tolmachiev51
    tolmachiev51 3 July 2016 02: 52
    Apparently, at the moment, the most effective means of struggle is a nuclear charge !!! Can still go to REB. How many satellites have been "lost" due to "loss of communication", maybe this is the hand of the overseas regional committee ??? !!!
  7. tarakan
    tarakan 3 July 2016 18: 06
    Better "core loaf" only a bucket of bolts
    1. ICT
      ICT 4 July 2016 08: 03
      Quote: tarakan
      only bucket with bolts

      so it's simple of course, but there you need very good math on a bucket lol , because orbital flight is quite complicated
      so picture
  8. tarakan
    tarakan 3 July 2016 18: 08
    Damn emoticons do not pass (by censorship) :-)
  9. Zulu_S
    Zulu_S 10 July 2016 02: 07
    The bolts from this bucket are these nanosatellites?
  10. tarakan
    tarakan 10 July 2016 02: 37
    The main thing is not to start nano-nuts
  11. tarakan
    tarakan 10 July 2016 02: 38
    NanoBolt will come and get a screw
  12. tarakan
    tarakan 10 July 2016 02: 42
    I missed. Came nanoBolt and saw nano-nuts