Military Review

Japan wants peace but prepares for war

46



After Shinzo Abe took the post of Japanese Prime Minister for the second time in December 2012, reforms began in the country aimed at ending the ban saying that “land, naval and air forces will never be created, as well as other means of warfare ", enshrined in the 9 article of the Constitution of the year 1946. Reforms on the military "normalization" of the country are carried out against the background of increasing tensions in Sino-Japanese relations because of the rights to the Senkaku (Diaoyu) archipelago. But how are Tokyo's priorities in the area of ​​national security in reality?

Expanded interpretation

From the beginning of 1950, Japan’s Yoshida doctrine (named after Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru) laid the foundation for Japan’s foreign policy, according to which Japan had to rely on an alliance with the United States to maintain its security, keep a low profile in foreign policy and restore the economy countries by expanding foreign economic relations. At the end of the 1970s, its logical continuation was the “Fukuda doctrine”, confirming that Japan retained the status of a nonmilitary state. At the same time, the government followed the principle of sankei bunri - the separation of economics and politics.

The turning point occurred in the 1990-ies, when reproaches from Washington fell on Tokyo due to non-participation in the Gulf War and increasingly persistent recommendations to become more independent in ensuring their security. Then to this was added the economic and military growth of the PRC; Washington’s desire to see Japan as a stronger ally to deter China; the situation on the Korean Peninsula, which is periodically exacerbated in connection with the DPRK nuclear tests; foreign policy ambitions of the current Japanese leadership. All this ultimately led to Japan reconsidering the role that the country could and would like to play in the system of international relations. Military reforms proved to be an important component of this process.

The decision to reform the Japan Self-Defense Forces (ENP) was not simultaneous. At the beginning of the 21st century, ideas about the need to change those articles of the Constitution that restrict the country to having a full-fledged army began to sound louder at the highest political level.

With the beginning of the second term in 2013, Abe reiterated his intention to expand the authority of the NSC, and in September 2015 signed a decree changing the interpretation of the Constitution’s article 9, which allowed them to apply weapon only with an immediate threat to national security or attack. The new law, depending on its interpretation in any particular situation, allows the Self-Defense Forces to participate in military operations abroad, including coming to the aid of the US armed forces, even if there is no direct threat to Japan’s national security.

This state of affairs created the conditions when the existence of the BSS in its current status contradicts the ban imposed on maintaining the army after the Second World War. If the basis for self-defense is an attack on a country, then participation in military operations abroad, not directly related to the interests of Japan, is no longer self-defense. This circumstance prepares the ground for further transformations: in February 2016, Shinzo Abe proposed to amend the article of the Constitution itself, in which the country refuses war as the sovereign right of the nation.

For a more rapid and effective response to crisis situations in 2013, the National Security Council was created - a center for gathering information in the field of security and forming basic directions in the field of foreign and security policy. Its headquarters is located at the disposal of the Cabinet Office, and the prime minister is the chairman.

What situation does the Japanese government consider potentially crisis?

Risk assessment

In the White Books of Japan’s self-defense of the premiership of Abe, among the factors destabilizing the situation in the region is North Korea’s nuclear program and the increase in Russia's military activity. Selected points are devoted to territorial disputes in the South China Sea, cyber security and international terrorism.

Significant attention is paid to the “transformation of China into a maritime power”, “trying to undermine the control” of the states over the islands (the rights to which he claims) in the East China and South China Seas (VKM and SCM). The Japanese government is worried about the establishment of an identification air defense zone in the East China Sea, covering the Senkaku archipelago (Kit. Diaoyu), as well as the emergence of Chinese reconnaissance aircraft in the airspace of Okinawa and Miyakojima and cruising ships of the PRC Navy near disputed islands.

The Books say that the role of Japan’s defense capabilities is constantly growing in response to challenges in the region. The military budget, adopted in December 2015, among the functions that the NSC must perform, indicates the need for effective deterrence and response to security challenges, including the so-called “remote islands” (apparently, this is Sankaku). But does the military "normalization" of Japan exclusively anti-Chinese?

China is not so bad ...

The reforms of the Abe Cabinet, eliminating the restrictions imposed on Japan after World War II, are directed not only and not so much against strengthening the Chinese military presence in the Senkaku region.

First, Sino-Japanese relations are an important factor in ensuring peace and stability in the APR (Tokyo cannot but be aware of this). And, despite the expression of concern about the strengthening of China’s military activities in the VKM and YUKM, Japan will maintain mutually beneficial economic relations with it.

Strengthening Japan’s military presence in the Senkaku area is a natural reaction to Beijing’s territorial claims. In fact, the archipelago, and so is controlled by Tokyo. But since China is trying to demonstrate its control over the islands, the Japanese government is forced to respond by building up its military power. At the same time, Japan refrains from steps that could provoke a collision.

Secondly, the provisions of the White Books of Self-Defense, the National Defense Program, the 2013 National Security Strategies of the Year indicate the response of the military reforms and policies of Japan. He responded not only to the strengthening of China’s military-political influence in the region, but also to the DPRK’s nuclear program, Russia's military presence in the Pacific, and the intensification of international terrorism in the Middle East and North Africa.

After the DPRK nuclear test of 6 in January and the launch of the 7 satellite in February of 2016, Pyongyang’s actions in Tokyo are of greater concern than the visits of Chinese warships to the Senkaku area. For example, on March 15, the Patriot PAC-18 anti-aircraft missile systems were deployed on an ongoing basis on March 15 in Tokyo on the territory of the defense department in case of new launches of DPRK missiles that pose a direct threat to Japan.

Third, maintaining certain tensions with China over the islands is in its own way beneficial to the Japanese government. The Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ), which was in power in the period from 2009 to 2012, focused on internal political issues. And it was during the DPJ that three territorial disputes of Japan escalated at once: President Medvedev visited the Kuril Islands for the first time, the Chinese fishing trawler and two Japanese coast guard ships collided with the disputed islands, and the Republic of Korea Lee Myung-bak paid a visit to the Takeshima Islands (Tokdo) .

Having come to power at the end of 2012, the Liberal Democratic Party began to pay more attention to relations with its neighbors and strengthen the component of military construction. His goal is to demonstrate not only the Chinese political establishment, but also his own citizens the firm intention to assert their rights to Senkaku.

Fourth, take into account the position of the United States. Since Sankaku falls under the obligations of the US-Japan agreement on mutual cooperation and security, maintaining friction in relations between Beijing and Tokyo, which do not turn into open conflict, is beneficial to Washington: it strengthens the anti-Chinese orientation of the American-Japanese alliance.

Fifth, it is important to understand that increasing arms exports is a source of profit for Japanese corporations. In this regard, there is an increase in military-technical cooperation with ASEAN countries and the Japanese side’s aspiration at such sites as ASEAN + 3 to raise the problem of China’s building artificial islands.

It is also worth noting Tokyo’s claims on the status of a permanent member of the UN Security Council and how this is related to the change in the status of the Self-Defense Forces, whose activities in UN peacekeeping missions and anti-piracy campaigns were previously limited. Increasing the mobility of the NSR and simplifying the procedure for approving their use abroad allows Japan to more actively participate in peacekeeping operations, strengthening the country's prestige in the international arena.

Finally, the pace of military reform in Japan is constrained by the potential of its economy: 5 periods of recessions from 6 occurred during the period of “abenomics”. And although the current military budget of the country has become the largest in the post-war period. history, having reached 41,4 billion dollars, there is no way to speak of its rapid increase: in 2014, the increase in army spending was 2,2% compared to the previous year, whereas in 2016, only 1,5%.

Thus, the military reforms in Japan are caused not so much by concerns about the growing military activity of the PRC in the area of ​​the disputed islands, but rather by the international situation in general and the ambitions of the Japanese leadership. And this path is a reflection of the evolution of Tokyo’s approach to shaping foreign policy in the context of global political and economic changes.
Author:
Originator:
http://politicaexterna.ru/2016/06/japan/
Photos used:
United States Marine Corps / Wikimedia Commons
46 comments
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  1. Vend
    Vend 23 June 2016 18: 23
    +2
    I wonder who they are going to conquer. Now is not the time; nothing shines alone in Japan. And who else is ready to get involved in the war on the side of Japan?
    1. oleg-gr
      oleg-gr 23 June 2016 18: 27
      +10
      The Japanese leadership has forgotten history. Creating a full-fledged army and provoking neighbors can re-get a new Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Only from another opponent. The Americans will leave them if they smell fried.
      1. 13 warrior
        13 warrior 23 June 2016 18: 38
        +14
        And it seems to me that they remember very well. The glorious pages of their history, when they bent down Korea, China and the other Philippines, and you won’t erase a word from the song, even Russia, can give the Japanese, as they think, the grounds for revenge. Especially with the support of the United States.
        Another question is that this path is not easy and ungrateful.
        But are they thinking about it now !?
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 23 June 2016 19: 16
          +5
          Quote: 13 warrior
          And I think they remember very well

          Remember, probably remember. Apparently, and in their opinion, the moment is approaching the next redivision of the world. And one of its leading economies does not want to stay away without its piece of cake.
        2. igoryok1984
          igoryok1984 23 June 2016 19: 56
          0
          Yes, but how did it end for Japan? China is not the same, and the Japanese have become different
        3. avt
          avt 23 June 2016 20: 11
          +1
          Quote: 13 warrior
          Japanese leadership forgot history

          No.
          Quote: 13 warrior
          And it seems to me that they remember very well.

          good And most importantly, they stubbornly bend their own! In fact, they already have an army and navy, and they arm it themselves, well, at least from under the USA they creep out with the production of weapons, and now they want to change the constitution and call everything by their proper names. But the joke is by and large not only China, South Korea (DPRK on the drum), but also the USA is not in the bill. So they will jump off the kukan. The Japanese are not Germans, these guys are on the order of the spirits of the current Bundes, even with the influx of the GDR and Soviet blood under and the settlers. With them you can't do something like, well, like in the Russian-Japanese. Macaques pile koekakam at times, if you undress the mitten. Serious men, so oh-oh-oh-chen you need to carefully monitor where, On this night, Sema and Paradise decided to cross the border by the river. "
          1. Amurets
            Amurets 24 June 2016 00: 07
            +2
            Quote: avt
            And most importantly stubbornly bend your own! They actually already have an army and a navy, and they armed it themselves, well, at least they crawl out from under the USA with the production of weapons, and now they want to change the constitution and call everything by their proper names

            These are the principles of the entire "Eastern policy", not just Japan. Be patient like a cat and prey will come to you. But while the Japanese have problems with the "Disputed Territories", they will not do anything serious. The main problem of Japan is the lack of its own raw materials. Therefore, the problem of the Spratly archipelago with oil and gas fields, the problem of the Kuril Islands with their biological resources and mineral deposits comes to the surface. A number of controversial regions, who are interested, google. There is a great interest in our Far East and Siberia, but here the Japanese are ready to trade mutually, and not fight. Having changed the constitution and the status of the Armed Forces, Japan will free its hands on the use of its Armed Forces, and Japan has been producing its weapons for a long time.
            1. avt
              avt 24 June 2016 06: 54
              +1
              Quote: Amurets
              Comrade Japan's main problem is the lack of its own raw materials.

              good Exactly ! Moreover, this was one of the most significant factors in entering the World War in a southerly direction, AFTER the US cut off oil supplies, they practically provoked an attack on Hawaii, as it is now forgotten, but in the course of the hostilities the Japanese got to secondary sources of hydrocarbons.
      2. Normal ok
        Normal ok 23 June 2016 19: 36
        +3
        Quote: oleg-gr
        The Japanese leadership has forgotten history. Creating a full-fledged army and provoking neighbors can re-get a new Hiroshima or Nagasaki.

        History, on the contrary, shows that it is the absence of a full-fledged army that provokes neighbors
    2. Lukich
      Lukich 23 June 2016 18: 31
      +2
      Quote: Wend
      I wonder who they are going to conquer. T

      and whom they say sasha
      The new law, depending on its interpretation in any particular situation, allows the Self-Defense Forces to participate in military operations abroad, including coming to the aid of the US armed forces, even if there is no direct threat to Japan’s national security.
    3. iliitchitch
      iliitchitch 23 June 2016 18: 45
      0
      Quote: Wend
      And who else is ready to get involved in the war on the side of Japan?


      For 8 pebbles, senkaku are ready to cling to each other's throats. Well, the folks are stupid, that some that others. A closer look would be necessary in the Far East. Fuck them, not the islands. Bring to seppuku and say that we are out of business. But don’t poke around where you don’t need to. soldier
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 23 June 2016 19: 40
        +2
        Quote: iliitch
        For 8 pebbles, senkaku are ready to cling to each other's throats.

        They don’t care about the pebbles themselves. They need their rich shelf.
    4. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 23 June 2016 18: 47
      +3
      Quote: Wend
      I wonder who they are going to conquer. Now is not the time; nothing shines alone in Japan. And who else is ready to get involved in the war on the side of Japan?

      The "Three Musketeers" are recalled. Porthos: Only the British could invent beer and boxing. There is not enough space on the island, involuntarily you will start mutuzit each other. I think Japs have similar problems.
    5. siberalt
      siberalt 23 June 2016 20: 26
      0
      My God! What is the article about? Japan was an empire until nuclear weapons appeared. Given the island location and seismic, it has no chance of militarism.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 23 June 2016 21: 05
        +1
        Quote: siberalt
        Japan was an empire until nuclear weapons appeared.

        What is the problem? Do you think that technological lag will not allow creating a nuclear warhead and a missile to it in addition to Japan?))
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 24 June 2016 00: 36
          +2
          Quote: Verdun
          What is the problem? Do you think that technological lag will not allow creating a nuclear warhead and a missile to it in addition to Japan?))

          Don’t tell! Japan has long ago possessed nuclear technology and rocket science and is implementing a space program. Westinghouse has long been owned by the Japanese concern Toshiba, and this is nuclear technology. Http://www.atominfo.ru/archive_westinghouse.htm
          http://spktb.ru/news/373.html
          And these are links to the space programs of Japan. Http://cosmos-japan.ru/
          http://ru.cyclopaedia.net/wiki/%D0%AD%D0%BF%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%BD_(%D1%8
          0%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B0-%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C
          )
          http://army-news.ru/2013/07/doletyat-li-yaponskie-rakety-do-kuril/
    6. Denis Obukhov
      Denis Obukhov 23 June 2016 21: 29
      0
      Everything is clear here. The United States is gradually losing its military power and wants, before it is too late, to replenish it at the expense of Japan, which they still occupy. But puppet armies and mercenary squads will never fight like they would for their country. There are few who wish to become kaikadze to the glory of the American occupiers.
    7. Shick
      Shick 24 June 2016 07: 58
      0
      Firstly, all this happens with the permission of the United States, so as not to drag the burden of spending alone;
      Secondly, the Japanese fleet is one of the best in the region, we don’t need to mock Yapy, remember 1905, nuclear weapons have nothing to do with it, as part of the global war, Yaps are also attacking China, and I think it's silly to doubt the spirituality of these guys
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. old pioneer
    old pioneer 23 June 2016 18: 27
    +9
    -Like a snowflake
    -In a warm palm
    - The life of Samurai has melted ....
    -KALASHNIKOV!
    1. 13 warrior
      13 warrior 23 June 2016 18: 43
      +2
      Or maybe so:
      "Invisible grains of sand,
      We are devoted to our country.
      We follow her on our last journey ... "
      1. Runx135
        Runx135 23 June 2016 19: 13
        0
        Or so:
        We are peaceful people
        But we are short of land
        So you have to fight
        Out of resources however!
        laughing
      2. Runx135
        Runx135 23 June 2016 19: 13
        0
        Or so:
        We are peaceful people
        But we are short of land
        So you have to fight
        Out of resources however!
        laughing
        1. Uncle lee
          Uncle lee 24 June 2016 04: 28
          +5
          Or so:
          We are peaceful people
          But our armored train
          Worth it
          On the siding!

          soldier
    2. ALABAY45
      ALABAY45 23 June 2016 18: 57
      +3
      hi
      Snowflake, melted in the palm of your hand ..
      Samurai life ...
      Kalashnikov ...! ("Tanks", the classic Japanese versification form)
      In the pronunciation, when reading, there should be complete resignation to fate ... complete hopelessness, willingness to sacrifice oneself, the presence of a samurai sword (but what the hell is it needed, based on the physiological characteristics of the Japanese ?!) There, a frail belly, "hara-kiri" you can use a clerical knife to do it: light, cheap, and open the thin-walled abdominal cavity of the "indignant samurai" - 2,47 seconds ... Look on TV - they have a self-cutting sword twice as tall as its owner! But, head-headed ... repeat
  4. SPACE
    SPACE 23 June 2016 18: 45
    0
    Let the fly at least cut down lol
  5. Atlant-1164
    Atlant-1164 23 June 2016 18: 47
    +2
    however, you say peace chocezza .. well, we believe !!
  6. masiya
    masiya 23 June 2016 18: 53
    0
    Their self-defense forces already exceed all reasonable limits of self-defense ... from whom only ...
  7. gladysheff2010
    gladysheff2010 23 June 2016 19: 48
    0
    Where the American politics will lead the Japanese, we guess, but do the Japanese guess?
  8. hirurg
    hirurg 23 June 2016 19: 55
    +1
    Notice that the samurai are again trying to regain everything that was lost as a result of World War II? Why did the attempts begin right now?
    Indeed, in fact, Japan is occupied by the United States. Nearby is not weak China and Russia.
    But because at this stage of time, the contradictions between these gigantic powers have intensified. Well, in these conditions of Japan it is easier to get your small, but 5 cents.
  9. Disorder
    Disorder 23 June 2016 20: 17
    0
    A turning point occurred in the 1990s, when accusations from Washington fell due to non-participation in the Persian Gulf war and increasingly insistent recommendations to become more independent in ensuring their safety.

    That's where the dog rummaged.
  10. vetor
    vetor 23 June 2016 20: 23
    0
    Axis countries again raise their heads.
  11. In100gram
    In100gram 23 June 2016 20: 36
    0
    They first need to get rid of the occupation. And then think about your sun
  12. lexx2038
    lexx2038 23 June 2016 20: 44
    +1
    It’s a pity the Japanese - comrades go the wrong way, but I like their cars.
  13. Neputin
    Neputin 23 June 2016 21: 04
    -1
    These are the laws of capitalism. described by K. Marx. Fighting for territories. natural resources, markets for finished products, all this has already been described and sorted out on the shelves. And Russia, sadly enough, also participates in this process, having renounced public ownership of the means of production, we have already made our choice. Yes, yes, we are also fighting for the same values ​​as our "partners". Therefore, World War 3 cannot be avoided. While there was a deterrent to another economic system, everything was limited to the Cold War. now, when everything is in one system, sooner or later the thirst for profit will overcome fear and then we are all finished. NOW DO YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT WE HAVE DONE? !!!!
  14. Coconut
    Coconut 23 June 2016 21: 25
    0
    Japanese turn on the memory !!! who dropped vigorous bombs on you ..? Well, definitely not the USSR
  15. Erg
    Erg 23 June 2016 23: 03
    -1
    How many cores do you need to wipe this ever-claiming "cherry blossom" nation off the face of the earth? With their anthill habitat? Japanese imperialism is like an untreated disease. One "doctor" did not have enough "medicine", the other, after the destruction of the Kwantung group, had the determination to occupy the islands and finally put an end to this hemorrhoids.
  16. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 23 June 2016 23: 19
    +4
    Japan is afraid of the rapid growth of China. That's all.
    China may want revenge for the 40s.
    For a long time, China and Japan have only considered each other as real civilizations and worthy rivals.
    And all the rest (including Russia and America) are "white barbarians".
    1. Siberia 9444
      Siberia 9444 24 June 2016 03: 36
      +1
      I agree with you. Japan will not do it right now, they are afraid of China because a lot of mischief has come and the island may become a stumbling block. So in a hurry, it will be reloaded.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 24 June 2016 04: 50
      0
      Quote: voyaka uh
      Japan is afraid of the rapid growth of China. That's all.
      China may want revenge for the 40s.

      You are a little mistaken. The war and rivalry between China and Japan goes on forever. We will not deal with myths, or maybe not myths about "Kamikaze", the Wind of the Gods that destroyed the ships of Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281, since the Mongols have already thoroughly settled in China and Korea Since then, there has been a war between China and Japan, and Korea has always been a bone of contention. China has always wanted to control Korea. Japan needed Korea to gain a foothold on the continent. Therefore, wars in this region have always been precisely because of the possession of Korea.
      http://wushu.pp.ua/istoriya-kitaya/6585-mongolskoe-igo-i-drugie-chuzhezemnye-nas
      hestviya-na-kitaj.html? start = 1 Especially hostility intensified at the end of the XNUMXth century and continued until the middle of the XNUMXth.
  17. atamankko
    atamankko 23 June 2016 23: 22
    0
    Understanding their samurai spirit is easy - revenge.
  18. viktor.
    viktor. 24 June 2016 01: 00
    0
    would sit quietly on the islands fool , God forbid. with their territory modern war I think there will be a moment on a prince. I PRESSED AND FORGOTTEN yes who will take off your messing around? wassat
  19. Zomanus
    Zomanus 24 June 2016 04: 33
    0
    Yes, let them arm themselves. So ready to take responsibility.
    Not like these ... from the European Union. And if anything, then there are many countries around,
    who have something to remember the Japanese.
  20. dchegrinec
    dchegrinec 24 June 2016 04: 47
    0
    The Japanese are some kind of tense nation. I want to say: relax guys, life is beautiful. I cannot understand how much they could get into their economy by cooperating with us. But they are disturbed by their post-war strain. And China is also annoying them. It’s direct not life, but continuous torment! wassat
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 24 June 2016 05: 40
      0
      Quote: dchegrinec
      The Japanese are some kind of tense nation. I want to say: relax guys, life is beautiful. I cannot understand how much they could get into their economy by cooperating with us. But they are disturbed by their post-war strain. And China is also annoying them. It’s direct not life, but continuous torment! wassat

      In many ways you are right, but this is the life style of the Japanese. You will understand a lot if you read Ovchinnikov's books "Sakura Branch" and "Sakura Branch-2". Flowers, The Fifteenth Stone of the Ryoanji Garden. These are not love stories, as the name suggests, but serious studies of Japan by our journalists. Moreover, these books are easy to read and with interest. Do not assume that if these books were written during the Soviet era, then something Has changed a lot? Nothing has changed. This is me about the life of the Japanese.
  21. Wolka
    Wolka 24 June 2016 05: 32
    0
    Well, the samurai slept, it seems that awakening will be scary, as usual with physical exercises ...
  22. Enoch
    Enoch 24 June 2016 09: 58
    0
    History moves in a spiral. The Japanese forgot this formula, as did the Germans. Masons again prepare them for us in opposition.