Military Review

20 June 1977, the first flight made a long-range bomber Tu-22М3

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The Tu-22M aircraft were the foremost machines of their time, the designs implemented during their design were then used in the USSR to create both combat and civil aircraft. For the first time in the Soviet Union, the aircraft received an effective and complex set of interconnected digital and analog systems of aviation and radio-electronic equipment. The first experienced missile-carrying bomber Tu-22М3 made the first flight of 20 June 1977. After the flight test program was completed in the 1978, the aircraft was put into serial production, with the aircraft being in final form adopted only in March of the 1989. The last Tu-22М3 aircraft was built in 1993 year (due to non-payment by the customer, this machine became a monument installed near the Kazan Aviation Plant). A total of 268 aircraft of this type were assembled at KAPO-Kazan Aviation Production Association.


The Tu-22М3 (45-03 product), according to NATO Backfire codification (“counter firing”, a method of extinguishing forest and steppe fires), is a Soviet, and then a Russian long-range, supersonic bomber-bomber with a variable wing geometry. The Tu-22М3 bomber was built in a normal aerodynamic configuration with a low-mounted variable geometry wing. The airframe of the aircraft was made mainly of light aluminum alloys.

The fuselage of the aircraft is a semi-monocoque type, in its lower part there is a radar compartment, which is closed by a radio-transparent fairing. The front of the aircraft fuselage has a cross section close to the oval. In the central part of the fuselage there is a weapons compartment, the design of the valves of which allows one X-22 guided missile to be suspended in a semi-submerged position. The crew of the long-range bomber is located in a sealed cockpit, which consists of two compartments: in the front compartment are the crew commander and assistant commander, located next to each other, in the second compartment are also located navigator navigator and navigator-operator.



A long-range bomber wing consists of a fixed part and swivel arms (which can be installed in a position with a sweep angle of 20, 30 or 65 degrees). On the toe of the consoles, slats were mounted throughout the span. On the rear edge there are elevons and three-section flaps, in front of which three-section interceptors were placed. In the wing of the aircraft were located fuel tanks.

The landing gear of the Tu-22М3 tri-axle bomber. The main landing gear, equipped with six-wheeled carts, in flight are retracted into the wing and fuselage of the aircraft by turning it in span. The two-wheeled nose landing gear retracts into the bomber's fuselage by turning back. In the landing gear, tubeless tires are used. To reduce the distance of the aircraft when landing with a large weight or in the case of landing on a limited length of the runway, the parachute-braking system PTK-45, which includes two cruciform parachutes, is used. Containers with them are located in the bottom of the bomber between the two engines.

The power plant of the aircraft consists of two turbojet dual-circuit engines with an afterburner NK-25 (thrust on afterburner - 2x25000 kgf), which were created by specialists of OKB N. D. Kuznetsov. The aviation the engine is a further development of the turbojet engine NK-144, which was specially created for the supersonic passenger airliner Tu-144. The modification of the Tu-22M3 bomber was originally created specifically for this engine.




The Tu-22М3, unlike its predecessors, had a new, bucket-type air intake with a horizontal wedge, which allowed aircraft engines to have more comfortable working conditions. Also, the designers managed to improve the aerodynamics of the bomber by making the nose section of the aircraft’s elongated 0,8 meter sharper. In addition, the appendix of the fuel receiver bar of the aircraft refueling system in the air, which was dismantled on all Tu-22M airplanes according to the SALT-2 contract protocol, disappeared from the bomber (however, the first mass production bomber-bombers of the Tu-22-3 barreled fuel receiver as well. install, it was removed later, after the transfer of combat aircraft in the combat units).

The designers of the aircraft also somewhat “squeezed” the tail end of the machine, in which instead of the two they installed one double-barreled 23-mm cannon installation GSH-23 (the rate of fire to 4000 rds / min). The maximum sweep angle of a long-range bomber wing was increased from 60 to 65 degrees to achieve higher flight speeds. At the same time, the specialists managed to alleviate a number of force elements of the airframe design, in order to reduce the weight, the designers refused to move the middle pair of wheels of the main landing gear (the practice of operating the aircraft showed that using Tu-22M class bombers from unpaved runways is quite a dubious question). Along with this, the wing design of the aircraft was somewhat strengthened (taking into account the accumulated operating experience of the Tu-22M of early modifications). Also, the long-range bomber was equipped with an electric system of alternating current of stable frequency, which included hydromechanical drive-generators of constant speed (this solution made it possible to abandon cumbersome electric machine converters). Batteries and contactless generators of new design appeared in the DC system of the aircraft. The air-conditioning system has become more efficient and compact, the layout of the bomber’s cockpit has been improved.

The Tu-22М3 long-range bomber can carry X-22 type air-to-surface air registers with various equipment for combat units and guidance systems. These missiles are placed on the girder holders inside the bomb compartment, as well as on two points of the external suspension under the wing of the aircraft. It is also possible to complete the rocket armament in the version up to 10 of hypersonic air-to-surface X-15 UR installed on the intra-body multi-position ejection installation and on the 4-x external wing ejection installations. On the beam and cluster holders located inside the bomb compartment and on the external suspension assemblies, 100, 250, 500, 1500 and 3000 kg bombs can be suspended, as well as aircraft mines in the sizes of 500-1500 caliber bombs. The maximum bomb load of the aircraft is 24 000 kg. To protect the rear hemisphere of the bomber from enemy fighter attacks, it was equipped with cannon armament, the GS-23 cannon, as well as the AR-4KM radar shooting sight, the TP-1KM thermal imaging sight and the WB-157AXNX computational unit



According to the 2016, the X-NUMX of the Tu-63М22 and Tu-3МР (reconnaissance aircraft) remain in service with the VKS of Russia. Before 22, KAPO plans to modernize the 2020 of the Tu-30М22 rocket-carrier bombers by installing a new element base on them, as well as expanding the range of weapons used, including models of modern high-precision weapons. In addition, in Kazan it is planned to carry out a complex of works on the extension of the service life of the aircraft to 40 years. Detailed information on the work carried out as part of the modernization program is closed.

Combat use of Tu-22М3

Tu-22М3 airplanes were limitedly used during the final stage of the war in Afghanistan in 1988-1989, where they made powerful bombing strikes against enemy troop concentrations, including using high-power FAB-3000 bombs. They were also used at the early stage of the First War in Chechnya. During the Chechen campaign, Tu-22М3 bombers were limitedly used to illuminate the work of Russian attack aircraft by consistently dropping OSAB type bombs.

In August 2008, long-range Tu-22М3 bombers launched rocket-bombing attacks on ammunition depots of the Georgian army, bases, airfields, and concentrations of Georgian troops in the Kodori Gorge. According to official data, one Tu-22М3 aircraft was shot down by the Georgian air defense system at an altitude of approximately 6 thousand meters. Most likely, the plane was shot down by a Buk-M1 missile system. The downed aircraft was piloted by a crew from the 52 10th Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment based in Shaykovka. The plane was shot down, returning from the departure to the bombing of the base of one of the Georgian infantry brigades, two of the four crew members were killed, one was missing, one was captured, and 19 August 2008 was returned to Russia. After this loss, the Russian Air Force did not use long-range aircraft until the end of the conflict.



Starting in November 17 2015, Tu-22М3 aircraft began to be used as part of the Russian military operation in Syria. On this day, bomb strikes against objects of the IG terrorist organization located in the provinces of Rakka and Dair-ez-Zor caused 12 long-range Tu-22М3 bomber. The reinforced squadron of Tu-22М3 long-range bombers struck, taking off from the Mozdok airfield. During the execution of attacks on terrorists in Syria for one flight, which lasted 5 hours 20 minutes, the bombers covered the distance of 4510 kilometers, the press service of the Russian Defense Ministry reported that day. Thus, the aircraft again proved its combat effectiveness and usefulness, remaining one of the trump cards of Russian long-range aviation.

Flight performance of the Tu-22М3 long-range bomber:

Overall dimensions: length - 42,46 m, height - 11,05 m, wing span - 23,3-34,3 m, wing area - 175,8 м2 (20 sweep degrees) and 183,57 м2 (65 degrees sweep).
Maximum take-off weight - 124 000 kg.
Maximum fuel mass - 53 500 kg.
Maximum payload mass - 24 000 kg.
The power plant - 2 TRDDF NK-25, thrust on takeoff mode - 245,1 kN.
The maximum flight speed is 2300 km / h.
Cruising subsonic speed - 900 km / h.
Tactical range - 2200 km.
Practical ceiling - 14 000 m.
Crew - 4 person.

Information sources:
http://www.modernarmy.ru/article/315/bombardirovshik-raketonosec-tu-22m3
http://www.arms-expo.ru/photo/fotoreportazh/20-iyunya-1977-goda-sovershil-pervyy-polet-dalniy-sverkhzvukovoy-raketonosets-bombardirovshchik-tu-2
http://www.k2x2.info/transport_i_aviacija/bombardirovshiki_tom_ii/p12.php
http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-258.htm
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  1. bober1982
    bober1982 20 June 2016 07: 38 New
    +4
    The article is good, but some comments.
    Tu-22m3 was always called "Fire on the back", and the aircraft was adopted not in 1989, but much earlier.
    1. razmik72
      razmik72 20 June 2016 09: 26 New
      +6
      Quote: bober1982
      The article is good, but some comments.
      Tu-22m3 was always called "Fire on the back", and the aircraft was adopted not in 1989, but much earlier.

      If you literally translate the English name TU-22 M3, it will sound like "Back fire" - "Backfire".
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 20 June 2016 09: 34 New
        +1
        I won’t argue, I only said what it was called. The English translation can be interpreted as you like, the article was translated in its own way.
      2. Alex_Tug
        Alex_Tug 20 June 2016 12: 51 New
        +3
        If you literally translate the English name TU-22 M3, it will sound like "Back fire" - "Backfire".

        backfire [bækˈfaɪər] vi (AUT) give * (give * perf) back flash
    2. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 20 June 2016 09: 33 New
      +3
      The article says that by 1989 it had acquired its final form. Read carefully.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 20 June 2016 09: 37 New
        +1
        And what does it mean - has it acquired its final form?
    3. Lukich
      Lukich 20 June 2016 19: 22 New
      0
      Quote: bober1982
      and the aircraft was adopted for service not in 1989, but much earlier.

      so the author wrote
      The first prototype Tu-22M3 bomber-rocket carrier made its first flight on June 20, 1977. After completing the flight-testing program, the aircraft was put into serial production in 1978,
      1. Bayonet
        Bayonet 20 June 2016 20: 27 New
        0
        Quote: Lukich
        Tu-22M3 made its first flight on June 20, 1977.

        In 1995, for the first time, he transported a cow! laughing JOKE!
        "Peculiarities of the National Hunt"
        (cry)
    4. Bayonet
      Bayonet 20 June 2016 20: 00 New
      +1
      Quote: bober1982
      The aircraft was adopted for service not in 1989, but much earlier.

      Experienced Tu-22M3, made its first flight on June 20, 1977 (test pilot A.D. Bessonov). After the completion of the flight-finishing test program, the Tu-22M3 has been put into serial production since 1978. Until 1983, the Tu-22M3 was being built in parallel with the Tu-22M2, and since 1984 only Tu-22M3 was in the series. In total, several hundred Tu-22M aircraft were built at KAPO. Serial production of the aircraft was discontinued in 1993.
  2. DrVintorez
    DrVintorez 20 June 2016 07: 41 New
    +5
    One of the most beautiful aircraft in the world. Interestingly, is it really possible to re-install refueling rods in the air?
    1. svp67
      svp67 20 June 2016 07: 48 New
      +4
      Quote: DrVintorez
      Interestingly, is it really possible to re-install refueling rods in the air?

      For this, all in all, it is necessary to withdraw from the previously signed treaty between the USSR and the USA.
      The main thing is to understand whether we need it, because it’s not just about refueling rods.
    2. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 20 June 2016 08: 55 New
      +6
      Yes, they put him a refueling system. Here striated ears are furious! His radius immediately doubled. In general, this aircraft was specifically imprisoned against the AUG.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 20 June 2016 11: 13 New
        +1
        Quote: Mountain Shooter
        In general, this aircraft was specifically imprisoned against the AUG.

        Not only. In Soviet times, it was due to the presence of a powerful grouping of such aircraft at the World Cup that overcoming the Bosphorus was a matter of technology.
      2. Bongo
        Bongo 20 June 2016 14: 50 New
        +3
        Quote: Mountain Shooter
        Yes, they put him a refueling system. Here striated ears are furious!

        This is not true and the matter is not only in the bars. there are still nuances.
      3. Denimax
        Denimax 20 June 2016 20: 56 New
        -5
        Quote: Mountain Shooter
        In general, this aircraft was specifically imprisoned against the AUG.

        Yes, a radar for a thousand kilometers and missiles from the s-400 or s-500 can be inserted into such an aircraft. And there will be an interceptor for AWACS or EW aircraft. And without them AUG will be vulnerable. The same missiles can also be fired at the surface fleet itself. In a word, an excellent medium.
    3. Imperialkolorad
      Imperialkolorad 20 June 2016 09: 00 New
      +2
      Quote: DrVintorez
      One of the most beautiful aircraft in the world.

      I fully agree with this statement. He is very beautiful like the Tu 160.
    4. Des10
      Des10 20 June 2016 21: 09 New
      0
      I liked the original Tu-22 smile
      1. Aleksandr1959
        Aleksandr1959 20 June 2016 21: 32 New
        +7
        I liked the original Tu-22

        Ask for the opinion of the flight crew flying on them ... especially about the bailout down.
        1. Des10
          Des10 20 June 2016 21: 41 New
          +2
          Totally agree with you.
          He spoke about the outlines.
      2. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 25 June 2016 00: 01 New
        0
        Well, according to flight data, he was frank .... Even it was forbidden to go to supersonic on it. Andrei Nikolaevich used his authority and pushed his products.
    5. The comment was deleted.
  3. denvar555
    denvar555 20 June 2016 07: 59 New
    0
    A grandiose aircraft corresponding to the era when it was being designed. Then did not reckon with any costs. He and TU-160 are the best in the world !!!
  4. Magic archer
    Magic archer 20 June 2016 08: 10 New
    +2
    They knew how to make airplanes in the USSR! Sometimes I wonder how it is! Su-27, MiG-29, Tu-22, Tu-160! And it’s all like pick-ups!
  5. mik6403
    mik6403 20 June 2016 09: 06 New
    +1
    They still fly .... avionics there is a stone age (128MB RAM - 2.5kg weighs 1/2 the size of a microwave oven), refueling rods in the air were removed by agreement .... 6 tons of kerosene at take-off eats ... although the money for a deep modernization would probably have served for a long time ... in the 90s, the M2 due to the lack of opportunities to modify the wings for the M3 ... even almost new ones were put into scrap.
    1. FID
      FID 20 June 2016 11: 12 New
      +4
      Quote: mik6403
      .avionics there is a stone age (128mb RAM - 2.5kg weighs and is 1/2 the size of a microwave oven)

      That's avionics, what do you mean ??? The on-board computer is not avionics (a small part of it) ...
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 20 June 2016 14: 52 New
        +2
        Sergey Ivanovich, welcome! Please explain to the people about the refueling system, why it cannot be restored.
  6. Amurets
    Amurets 20 June 2016 10: 38 New
    0
    Article plus! And comment? How many copies have been broken this year? The right machine, it’s a pity that it’s getting smaller and smaller. Again one crashed https://topwar.ru/96993-incident-s-bombardirovschikom-tu-22m3-na-aerodro
    me-v-pskovskoy-oblasti.html
  7. Taoist
    Taoist 20 June 2016 10: 52 New
    +1
    An insanely beautiful car ... And when they were working from the Vodopa airfield (Nikolaev), during takeoff on the afterburner, it generally seemed that an earthquake was starting ... The rumble was almost infrasonic and lilac jets of fire in the sky ... 50 tons of afterburner and a huge machine came off from the strip is easier than a fighter ...
    1. FID
      FID 20 June 2016 11: 14 New
      +3
      Well, about the lighter fighter, you got excited ... Here is the take-off of the Tu-160 - similar to the take-off of a fighter: quickly and quietly ...
      1. Taoist
        Taoist 20 June 2016 13: 02 New
        +2
        160 never takes off at an angle of 45% ... and backfire makes it easy. thrust-to-weight ratio is almost exterminating, especially if training flights with half refueling ...
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 20 June 2016 13: 07 New
          +1
          under 45 - it will be too much, not a rocket after all.
  8. sevtrash
    sevtrash 20 June 2016 12: 08 New
    0
    It would be nice if the author indicated the place of the Tu-22M3 now, in the current aircraft. Why is he needed now, what tasks can he perform from those that other equipment cannot? It does not participate in the triad, it seems that there is no AUG in the suppression system as well (like the system itself, apparently not). Of course, you can think of a lot of things, such as - but what kind of load and speed, but if you approach the point of view of the ratio of efficiency / cost. How much is the departure, the number of hours of service, service, etc. Can these funds be more efficiently and better spent on developing new equipment or maintaining the same Tu-160?
    1. Alex_Tug
      Alex_Tug 20 June 2016 13: 13 New
      +3
      It would be nice if the author indicated the place of the Tu-22M3 now, in the current aircraft. Why is he needed now, what tasks can he perform from those that other equipment cannot?

      Not being a military aviation specialist, I can say:
      - to bomb as in Syria (not covered by air defense territory). Or rockets. (depending on rockets).
      There is nothing to replace, so they will still fly (only 60 pieces are written)
      - Departure, how much does it cost yourself, you can calculate ... multiply fuel by the price and depreciation expenses of 5 percent per year of value.
      - About the service, too, in the article. KAZ repairs and modernizes.
      - To maintain the TU-160. They are in the ranks of 14-15 cars. Do not take it easy.
      1. sevtrash
        sevtrash 20 June 2016 14: 21 New
        0
        Quote: Alex_Tug
        Not being a military aviation specialist, I can say:
        - to bomb as in Syria (not covered by air defense territory). Or rockets. (depending on rockets).
        There is nothing to replace, so they will still fly (only 60 pieces are written)
        - Departure, how much does it cost yourself, you can calculate ... multiply fuel by the price and depreciation expenses of 5 percent per year of value.
        - About the service, too, in the article. KAZ repairs and modernizes.
        - To maintain the TU-160. They are in the ranks of 14-15 cars. Do not take it easy.

        You do not understand the essence / meaning of the question. Su25 can bomb in Syria, and much cheaper and, possibly, more precisely. With Hephaestus. Tu22M3 is excessive for this. And the maintenance costs can include quite a lot of things - maintaining the production of spare parts for an airplane of the last century, including engines, training by a specialist for its maintenance, how many hours of service are required per 1 hour of flight, can you imagine the comparative volume of service for su25 and tu22m3?
        1. Alex_Tug
          Alex_Tug 20 June 2016 14: 45 New
          +2
          Su25 can bomb in Syria, and much cheaper and, possibly, more precisely.
          When accuracy is important, yes.

          22nd when loading carpet bombing. (After all, the Americans still hold the B-52). Nobody will drive them with one or two bombs.

          Maintenance costs - this is the depreciation expense. They can reach 10% of the cost of a glider per year. Estimation of the cost of maintenance can be roughly calculated. The amount obtained is not small and depends on the number of flights. And modernization is another expense item.
        2. Vladimir 1964
          Vladimir 1964 20 June 2016 20: 56 New
          0
          Quote: sevtrash
          Su25 can bomb in Syria, and much cheaper and, possibly, more precisely.

          Yes, Sergei, in principle, the Su-25 can be used as an ordinary bomber, but its bomb load and especially the caliber of these bombs is "somewhat" less than the capabilities of the Tu-22m. I hope you won't argue with that, colleague. hi
          By the way, the capabilities of the Su-34 are also somewhat inferior to the Tu-22m in terms of both bomb load and caliber.
  9. Sailor
    Sailor 20 June 2016 14: 25 New
    +3
    A very beautiful bomber, I would even say the most beautiful (in my opinion), but a beautiful plane simply must fly well, and I think it’s necessary to modernize all 60, naval aviation is now weak.
  10. Pate
    Pate 20 June 2016 20: 13 New
    0
    Handsome, the plane is a legend!
  11. Filxnumx
    Filxnumx 20 June 2016 23: 20 New
    +2
    The article is good, but there are inaccuracies:
    1. On the Tu-22M3 there are no elevons, there are ailerons. Tailless planes are equipped with elevons: Tu-144, Concorde, OS Buran. Ochepyatka, byvat.
    2. The immediate predecessor for NK-25 (Product "E" series 1 and 2) was the NK-22 engine (Product "FM", installed on previous modifications: Tu-22M, M1, M2), which in turn became the development of NK -144 (Product "F").
    3. Fuel tanks are located not only in the wing (and across the whole range: in the SChK (middle part of the wing) and both BHP (detachable parts of the wing)), but also in the fuselage between the pressurized cabin and the cargo compartment and above and between the engines, and also at the bottom of the keel.
    In the process of modernization, instead of the APU (auxiliary power plant) based on the TA-6A engine, the aircraft will be equipped with the APU based on the TA-12A (as on the Tu-95MS), the SVP-22 "Gefest" KBO will be installed, the modernized power supply system, and some units will be replaced JSC and REO (primarily those that are already outdated and no longer produced by the industry)
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. cebadores
    cebadores 21 June 2016 18: 03 New
    +1
    Quote: Aspeed
    Quote: bober1982



    But instead of the Tu-22M3, this machine was supposed to fly. T-4 "Sotka".







    T-4

    T-4M
    Speed ​​- 3000 km per hour
    Range - 6000 km
    The combat load is up to 18 tons.

    Heard a lot of Yaroslavna's crying on the "weaving". The aircraft is beautiful and unique, and the experience of its creation was not in vain for the Russian aviation. But the "hundred" load is less than Tu22m3 and the "Sotka" has a bomb bay? I have no more questions ...
  14. Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus 23 June 2016 22: 38 New
    0
    Quote: Taoist
    An insanely beautiful car ... And when they were working from the Vodopa airfield (Nikolaev), during takeoff on the afterburner, it generally seemed that an earthquake was starting ... The rumble was almost infrasonic and lilac jets of fire in the sky ... 50 tons of afterburner and a huge machine came off from the strip is easier than a fighter ...

    I support it! After training, I watched them for another year and a half (to be more precise, the 22M2 version, but the essence is the same), especially at sunset beautifully ... I served in Mongokhto, our unit was just not far from the takeoff (the "Crystal" object). It can be seen and especially heard uh-x-x-how)) I loved to get into the boxes in the car park and watch the flights)) soldier drinks