Military Review

Deck aircraft in World War II: new aircraft. Part II (a)

49
American carrier-based fighters


Deck fighter "Grumman" F6F "Hellcat", the development of which began in 1941 year, was a logical continuation of the line of fighters F4F "Wildcat". "Hellcat" absorbed the rich combat experience of its predecessor, which he had to replace, and, most importantly, got rid of his inherent flaws: insufficient speed, mediocre maneuverability and high accident rate due to the narrow gauge of the chassis.


Grumman fighter Hellcat F6F-3 (Fig. Wardrawings.be site)

The first flight of the F6F "Hellcat" made in 1942 year, and the delivery of serial machines in the combat squadron began in January next year. The main serial modifications of the deck fighter were the F6F-3 and F6F-5 (from May 1944), supplied under the lend-lease to the UK, as “Hellcat” Mk.I and “Hellcat” Mk.II, respectively.


Fighter "Grumman" "Hellcat" Mk.I (F6F-3) (Fig. Site wardrawings.be)

The installation on the Hellcat of a heavier and more powerful engine, additional tanks, an increase in ammunition for six 12.7-mm machine guns, as well as a new chassis led to an increase in the size and take-off weight of the fighter. The plane received a low wing, the folding mechanism of which was like that of its predecessor. The Hellcat became the largest single and single-engine carrier-based fighter of the Second World War.


F6F-3 “Hellcat” in readiness for take-off with the help of an aircraft carrier catapult, 12 May 1944 (Photo by wordpress.com)

Of the shortcomings of the new aircraft, the pilots noted the sagging of the fighter at the time of touch during landing, when the propeller could touch the surface of the deck. The cause of this phenomenon was a large course of the fighter landing gear. With proper observance of the speed and angular parameters of the landing approach, this was avoided.


Fighter "Grumman" "Hellcat" Mk.II (F6F-5) (Fig. Site wardrawings.be)

Modifications of the Hellcat differed from each other mainly in the power of the engine being installed. On the F6F-3, the 2000-strong engine accelerated the plane in horizontal flight to a maximum speed of 605 km per hour and ensured the speed of 990 meters per minute. The F6F-5 horsepower 2250 engine provided the fighter with maximum speed already in 644 km per hour with a 1032 climb rate of meter per minute. F6F-3 had a flight distance (without PTB) 1755 km and a practical ceiling in 11430 meters. For F6F-5, these figures were: 1520 km and 11370 meters, respectively.


In flight, the F6F-3 "Hellcat" fighter that has survived to our days (Photo from www.warbirddepot.com)

Located in the wing (outside the circle of rotation of the screw) machine-gun armament "Hellcat" was supplemented with outboard. Under the center section, one 454-kg bomb or an additional fuel tank could be suspended. Under the wing consoles there were attachment points for two more 454-kg or four 227-kg bombs. At F6F-5, fuel tanks dropped in flight could be suspended instead of bombs. On special units could be placed six 227-mm unguided missiles such as HVAR. On the bomb holders under the wings hung two missiles of a larger caliber - 298-mm. Outdoor units for the suspension of weapons in the factory were installed only for F6F-5. On the F6F-3 modification, similar work was carried out in the field of aircraft repair shops.


Multipurpose fighter F6F-3 "Hellcat" with a suspended arms in flight. (Pic. Site badfon.ru)

The F6F-5 could carry three 454-kg bombs on the external hangers, and the F6F-3 only two. Two central large-caliber machine guns on the "five" could be replaced by 20-mm guns.

The British Hellcats, the Mk.I and the Mk.II, were equipped with quad-rigs for the suspension of eight 76-mm (27-kg) national-made unguided missiles.


Night fighter "Grumman" F6F-5N "Hellcat". (Fig. Site wardrawings.be)

On the released small batch of the Hellcat F6F-3E / N night fighters, the AN / APS-6 radar was installed on the front edge of the left wing console, which allows detecting large enemy aircraft (bombers) at a distance of seven to eight kilometers. All aircraft modification F6F-5 already in the production process received the technical ability to install radar in field conditions, which, if necessary, turned them into night fighters.


F6F-5N Hellcat night fighter with radar on the right wing, two 20-mm cannons and an outboard fuel tank. (Photo site www.mediafire.com)

F6F “Hellcat” inherited from its predecessor “Wildcat” high survivability, which was achieved by reserving the cockpit and oil radiators, retrofitted fuel tanks, as well as the strength of the airframe design. It was the most "hard-to-break" American carrier-based fighter during the Second World War.

Thanks to the powerful weaponry and fire resistance of the enemy, the F6F “Hellcat” was successfully used as a strike aircraft, providing direct support during landing operations.


British fighter "Hellcat" Mk.II missile attack Japanese airfield (Fig. Site www.artes.su)

In air battles with Japanese “Zero”, yielding to him in horizontal maneuverability, the F6F “Hellcat” in most cases won the victory thanks to the tactic of “strike and leave”. Possessing higher speed characteristics, the robust design of the F6F easily left the Zero under the blow, half looped down, first sharply turned over on its back. A major role in the results of the fights was influenced by the experience and quality of pilot training. In this regard, the Japanese pilots were noticeably inferior to the allies.


Fighter F6F-3 "Hellcat" in a dogfight with A6M5 "Zero". (Fig. Site www.findmodelkit.com)


F6F-5 "Hellcat" and A6М5 "Zero" at the airshow. Our days (Photo site www.airshowfan.com)

The results of the air battle over Leyte Bay in October 1944 of the year are indicative, when the Japanese lost one hundred Zero in one day. A quarter of this amount was on the account of the F6F “Hellcat” deck fighters.


In air combat F6F-5 "Hellcat" of the aircraft carrier "Essex", 25 October 1944 g. (Fig. Site warwall.ru)

In air battles with land army Japanese fighters such as the Ki-84 or Ki-100, the results of the fights were not always in favor of the Hellcats, which were inferior to the enemy in speed and firepower. So, in August, 1945, the Japanese ace Iwamoto in his Kawanishi N1K2-J Shiden-Kai, in aerial combat with the six Hellcat, shot down four of them and left the pursuit of the remaining two.


Hellcat Mk.II at our air show in California, USA, our days (Photo site wikimedia.org)


In flight F6F-5 "Hellcat". Our time (Photo site fanpop.com)

The development of the new carrier fighter from Grumman, the F8F Birkat, was launched in the 1943 year. The new aircraft was a further development of the F4F Wildcat and Hellcat F6F deck fighter aircraft and was designed to eliminate one of their main drawbacks: insufficient horizontal maneuverability, to ensure a significant increase in maximum speed and rate of climb.

Deck aircraft in World War II: new aircraft. Part II (a)

Deck fighters of the firm “Grumman” F4F “Wildcat”, F6F “Hellcat” and F8F “Birket” (Photo site avmil.net)

The new fighter resembled the Hellcat in its appearance, and was comparable in size to the Wildcat and made its first flight in July 1944 of the year. On tests, Birkat showed excellent maneuverability and speed characteristics.

The fighter provided excellent maneuverability with a new wing, equipped with firing tips (prevented its destruction when the aircraft reached critical speeds in a dive and provided an opportunity to make a trouble-free landing after exiting the battlefield) and special “combat flaps” operating at high flight speeds and providing the necessary lift force of the wing in the horizontal maneuver. Air brakes installed on the lower edge of the wing helped to maintain accelerating speeds when diving within safe limits.


Fighter "Grumman" F8F-1 "Birket" ("Rossomakha") (Fig. Site www.wardrawings.be)

Production of the first serial modification of Birkat, the F8F-1, was launched in December of the 1944 year. The single deck fighter was equipped with an 2100-powerful engine that provided him with a maximum horizontal speed of 681 km per hour at an altitude of 4570 meters and a climb speed at the ground of 1722 meters per minute. The flight range with the PTB was 1778 km and the practical ceiling 10575 meters.


Fighter "Grumman" F8F-1 "Birkat" at the airshow in Texas, USA, October 17 2015 (Photo by www.airliners.net)

The fighter’s small arms consisted of four 12.7-mm machine guns (300 rounds of ammunition for the barrel) located in the wing outside the four-bladed propeller area of ​​rotation (3.83 m in diameter). On the F8F-1В modification, which was launched into production after the end of the war in the autumn of 1945, four 20-mm guns were installed instead of machine guns.


Fighter "Grumman" F8F-1B "Birkat" (Fig. Site www.wardrawings.be)

At the bottom of the Birkat node, the outboard fuel tank with a capacity of 568 liters was usually suspended, which, thanks to its drop-shaped form, had low aerodynamic resistance and could not be discharged when maneuvering air combat was conducted. Under the wing could be suspended two 454-kg bombs (or 757-l PTB) and four 127-mm unguided HVAR missiles.


Fighter F8F-1В "Birkat" in the Museum of the Air Force of Thailand, Bangkok, 14 January 2010. (Photo site www.airliners.net)

The pilot of "Birkat" was protected by armored pads and armored pods. The plane received a protective fuel tanks and armored protection of the oil system.


Grumman fighters F8F-1 Birkat of the Blue Angels piloting group, August 25 1946 (Photo by site en.wikipedia.org)

The first naval squadron of deck fighters F8F-1 Birket was deployed in July 1945 on the aircraft carrier Langley. Until the end of the war, new fighters did not take part in the hostilities.



References:
1. Shant K., Bishop. Aircraft carriers. The most formidable aircraft carriers of the world and their planes: The Illustrated Encyclopedia / Trans. from English / - M .: Omega, 2006.
2. Beshanov V.V. Encyclopedia of aircraft carriers / Under the general editorship of AE Taras - Moscow: AST, Minsk: Harvest, 2002 - (Library of military stories).
3. Polmar N. Aircraft carriers: The 2 T.T.1 / Trans. from English A. Propulsion Patients. - M .: LLC Publishing AST, 2001. - (Military history library).
4. Patients A.G. Aircraft carriers. Illustrated Encyclopedia - M .: Yauza: Eksmo, 2013.
5. Kudishin I.V. Deck fighters of the Second World War - Moscow: Astrel Publishing House LLC: AST Publishing House LLC, 2001.
6. Haruk A.I. Fighters of the Second World War. The most complete encyclopedia - M .: Yauza: Eksmo, 2012.
7. Kotelnikov V.R. Spitfire. Best Allied fighter - Moscow: VERO Press: Yauza: Eksmo, 2010.
8. Haruk A.I. Shock aviation World War II - attack aircraft, bombers, torpedo bombers - M .: Yauza: EKSMO, 2012.
9. Haruk A.I. "Zero." The best fighter - M .: Collection: Yauza: Eksmo, 2010.
10. Ivanov S.V. Fairey "Firefly". War in the air (№145) - Beloretsk: ARS LLC, 2005.
11. Ivanov S.V. F8F "Bearcat". War in the air (№146) - Beloretsk: ARS LLC, 2005.
12. Ivanov S.V. F4U Corsair. War in the air (№109) - Beloretsk: ARS LLC, 2003.
13. Doroshkevich O. Airplanes of Japan of the Second World War - Minsk: Harvest, 2004.

Internet resources:
http://www.airwar.ru;
http://pro-samolet.ru;
http://wp.scn.ru;
http://www.aviastar.org;
http://wardrawings.be/WW2;
http://www.airpages.ru;
http://www.airaces.ru.


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  1. DrVintorez
    DrVintorez 22 June 2016 06: 16
    0
    Thank! Very interesting! I look forward to continuing.
    1. NIKNN
      NIKNN 22 June 2016 20: 20
      +2
      F6F easily escaped from the impact of the “Zero” with a half-loop down, having previously sharply flipped onto its back. A large role on the results of fights was influenced by the experience and quality of pilot training. In this regard, Japanese pilots were noticeably inferior to the Allies.

      A half-loop to the bottom is called a coup, and I wouldn’t say such an appeal on the training of Japanese and American pilots.
      Thanks for the interesting series of articles.
  2. demiurg
    demiurg 22 June 2016 06: 43
    +6
    Thanks for the series of articles.

    What ugly sheds :)) Very strange planes fought in the Pacific. Lightnings, brought down by everyone on the European Theater, have become one of the most productive aircraft in the Pacific. Fighters with 6 tons of take-off weight, corsairs suddenly became the heroes of that war.
    Yak-3 donated to the French from Normandy Neman in training battles easily twisted Spitfire. Kozhedub shot down two Mustangs, just deciding to protect his wingman.
    And these people tell us about throwing meat at the enemy and the backwardness of Soviet technology lol
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 22 June 2016 08: 47
      +7
      How the thesis of meat filling is related to the topic of the article. As for the characteristics, the Yak was inferior to simultaneously issued planes from the last three columns of the table in speed, climb, ceiling, range, payload, and pilot's safety, somewhat superior in maneuverability, although this is debatable for a corsair, and the turn lightings on the turns went into the tail of the Yak-9 which was noted during a famous collision. And the technologically semi-wooden Yak was all the more inferior to the Americans. And the pilots of Normandy won victories in training battles due to the huge combat experience.
      1. demiurg
        demiurg 22 June 2016 11: 41
        +1
        About meat 1. Just for people like you hi
        2. About TTX responded by quoting below
        3. Can I link where Yak-3 lightning twisted?
        4. Did of what was. made by children and women, and not skilled workers with many years of experience. And it turned out one of the best piston fighters in the world.
        About a newcomer to spitfire 5. If something, the duel was between the two best pilots, each of whom had rich front-line experience, and I will say in advance that the reference to the fact that the spitfire was high-altitude and lost near the ground in the performance characteristics would not work when the French had a snack ours in 44 on the benches, proving whose car is better, the machine guns did not reveal the winner, although the La-7 pilots used high altitude engines.

        The story still comes to mind when in 1944 the pilots flying on lagg-3 did not want to change to a mustang, which they were given for front-line tests.
        This is the same Lagg, which was considered heavy and oak in the Soviet Air Force.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 22 June 2016 13: 05
          +1
          1 / the question is merged by you.
          2 / Learn to read. I wrote about the Yak-9, the link https://reibert.info/threads/vozdushnye-boi-mezhdu-sovetskimi-pilotami-i-letchik
          ami-sojuznikov.74037 / there is a link to the BATTLE REPORTING OF STAFF 866 IAP
          Nish, 7.11.1944/16.00/XNUMX, XNUMX p.m.
          .
          CONCLUSION: A flying group of LIGHTING planes, obviously, mistakenly attacked a convoy of our troops in connection with the loss of detailed orientation, taking this area as enemy territory.
          In the aerial combat of Yak-9 aircraft with LIGHTING aircraft, the latter showed good horizontal maneuverability, and when conducting air combat on turns, the advantage remained for LIGHTING aircraft, which easily went into the tail of Yak-9 aircraft, which have a significantly larger bend radius than LIGHTING aircraft.

          On a vertical maneuver, the Yak-9 had an advantage over LIGHTING aircraft.

          / TsAMO RF, f.866 IAP, op.223502, d.3 /

          3 / Received in the report below
          4 / I agree here. Unskilled workers did it on broken-up machine tools, although in reality the workers had to be recalled from the army when it became clear that qualifications in aircraft construction were needed. But all the same, there were problems with quality right up to the breakdown of the skin from the planes, and the disgusting electrician, painting, tensioning and adjusting the cables did not even keep the problems - they brought them in parts. And the Americans made their planes in excellent conditions by skilled workers. Therefore, their aircraft, by definition, QUALITATIVE. This is an objective reality that you would not come up with in response.
          5 / According to the Mustangs - train your memory. The first series of Mustangs with an Allison engine arrived from the USSR, from which the British still turned their nose. Arrived in 1942 to study. On military trials, combat sorties were not made. But the conclusions of the British were confirmed. But after changing the engine to Merlin and Packard - it was already a completely different plane that made itself famous since 1944
          1. demiurg
            demiurg 22 June 2016 22: 32
            0
            Quote: Kenneth
            1 / the question is merged by you.
            2 / Learn to read. I wrote about the Yak-9, the link https://reibert.info/threads/vozdushnye-boi-mezhdu-sovetskimi-pilotami-i-letchik

            ami-sojuznikov.74037 / there is a link to the BATTLE REPORTING OF STAFF 866 IAP
            Nish, 7.11.1944/16.00/XNUMX, XNUMX p.m.
            .
            CONCLUSION: A flying group of LIGHTING planes, obviously, mistakenly attacked a convoy of our troops in connection with the loss of detailed orientation, taking this area as enemy territory.
            In the aerial combat of Yak-9 aircraft with LIGHTING aircraft, the latter showed good horizontal maneuverability, and when conducting air combat on turns, the advantage remained for LIGHTING aircraft, which easily went into the tail of Yak-9 aircraft, which have a significantly larger bend radius than LIGHTING aircraft.

            On a vertical maneuver, the Yak-9 had an advantage over LIGHTING aircraft.

            / TsAMO RF, f.866 IAP, op.223502, d.3 /

            3 / Received in the report below
            4 / I agree here. Unskilled workers did it on broken-up machine tools, although in reality the workers had to be recalled from the army when it became clear that qualifications in aircraft construction were needed. But all the same, there were problems with quality right up to the breakdown of the skin from the planes, and the disgusting electrician, painting, tensioning and adjusting the cables did not even keep the problems - they brought them in parts. And the Americans made their planes in excellent conditions by skilled workers. Therefore, their aircraft, by definition, QUALITATIVE. This is an objective reality that you would not come up with in response.
            5 / According to the Mustangs - train your memory. The first series of Mustangs with an Allison engine arrived from the USSR, from which the British still turned their nose. Arrived in 1942 to study. On military trials, combat sorties were not made. But the conclusions of the British were confirmed. But after changing the engine to Merlin and Packard - it was already a completely different plane that made itself famous since 1944


            Merged so merged hi
            I read it. Despite the advantage in bending, and conducting a defensive battle, while trying not to shoot down for no reason, five were shot down.
            By the way, why was Yak-9 mentioned at all if the conversation was about Yak-3.
      2. Verdun
        Verdun 22 June 2016 12: 16
        +1
        Quote: Kenneth
        As for the characteristics, the Yak was inferior to simultaneously issued planes from the last three columns of the table in speed, climb, ceiling, range, payload, and pilot's safety, somewhat surpassing in maneuverability, although this is debatable for a corsair, and lightning turns turned into the tail of the Yak-9 which was noted during a famous collision.

        The technical characteristics of American aircraft, found in publications, vary and are often very overestimated. You can meet the performance characteristics of the same Corsair, where data on maximum speed vary up to 100 km / h. At the same time, aircraft with weapons located in the wings cannot compete in horizontal maneuverability with aircraft whose weapons are located in the fuselage. Pure physics is a diverse center of mass.
        And the technologically semi-wooden Yak was all the more inferior to the Americans.
        Deltadrevesin, used in the construction of Soviet aircraft, today would be called composite material. Incidentally, German designers also later used it on their machines. In particular, the Heinkel He-162 Salamander was made of delta wood. Such material not only made it possible to create a cheap, but technically perfect aircraft, but also had some advantages. In particular, when breaking through the hole there were no torn edges that greatly reduced aerodynamics in flight and even prevented the tightening of holes in the protected fuel tanks. Oddly enough, the design of tanks with special cardboard also had its advantages. Soaking, it is better than rubber to tighten holes with torn edges. And all the talk about the best security of American and German aircraft is also quite specific. On the one hand, I would like to recall that the Bf-109 armored belly, which reliably opposed revolving bullets fired from Hurricane machine guns, did not give any protection against Soviet aviation guns and even ShKAS machine guns. The same Ishak with a successful attack messed up Messer in half. On the other hand, all this booking is local. When you board a WWII fighter and understand that bulletproof glass is almost narrower than your physiognomy, and it is better not to straighten your shoulders so that they do not get out of the front of the armored back, you understand the whole relativity of such armor protection.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 22 June 2016 12: 39
          +3
          We rely on those characteristics from the article and compare them with the characteristics of yak from the wiki. If you have more worthy sources of leads. In the meantime, your thesis has not been proven. In terms of horizontal maneuverability, everything is not so simple. More advanced mechanization rules, however, I wrote that the yak is superior in maneuverability. The yak was not made from delta wood. You can clarify. Delta wood, by the way, is expensive and difficult, but if there is no aluminum then it will do. Booking is a very useful thing if there is an idea to survive. Bullets can come at an exit, tangentially, and they will not kill you or they will kill you if there is no armor, as well as fragments and fire from the ground.
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 22 June 2016 13: 31
            +1
            Quote: Kenneth
            The yak was not made from delta wood.

            I wrote about deltodrevesin not in relation to the Yaks, but as an illustration of technology. In fact, I take Yakovlev’s planes quite calmly and believe that, in terms of the characteristics of the aircraft, Lavochkin’s aircraft were more successful. But the technological backwardness of Soviet aviation is far from obvious. After all, the USSR managed to produce such a sophisticated and far from technologically sophisticated machine as the IL-2, and even produce it in huge quantities. But to other countries, no. After all, percale and plywood were used not from a lack of technology, but from a lack of raw materials.
            We rely on those characteristics from the article and compare them with the characteristics of yak from the wiki. If you have more worthy sources of leads. In the meantime, your thesis has not been proven.
            When giving the characteristics, it is necessary to clearly indicate what years and modifications of cars we are talking about. It is completely incorrect to compare the Yak-3, an air fighter optimized for combat at low altitudes, with the R-38 Lightning high-altitude escort fighter. Naturally, at high altitudes, the Yak will be inferior, and at low and medium altitudes, Lightning will not have a chance. But the Yak-9U with the VK-107A high-altitude engine can be compared with the Lightning directly. In this case, the American will have only one advantage - a long range. As for the discrepancy in the data, as an example I can cite a short encyclopedia "Aircraft of the Second World War", published in 1999 by Brown Packagins Books Ltd. On different pages of this encyclopedia, performance characteristics of the Corsair aircraft are given, and in one case the maximum speed is 635 km / h, and in the other - 715 km / h, and this is with one engine power.
            1. Kenneth
              Kenneth 22 June 2016 14: 03
              -4
              You wrote about deltadrevesin in response to my speech about yak.
              Light was not very tall. He fought on equal footing with zeros at low altitudes.
              Yak 9u was not high-altitude, he had good characteristics until 6000.
              Deal with your reference yourself. Maybe you missed letters or some kind of injection.
              1. Verdun
                Verdun 22 June 2016 14: 33
                +1
                Quote: Kenneth
                Light was not very tall. He fought on equal footing with zeros at low altitudes.

                An airplane with a ceiling of 13 meters, don't you consider it particularly high-altitude? At the same time, conversations about how he fought on equal terms with “Zero” in the horizontal direction strongly resemble an invention.
                At altitudes above 4000 m, Lightning surpassed the Me 109G and FW 190A in all respects, except for horizontal maneuverability, not to mention the Oscars or Zeros. In order to prevent opponents from realizing their superiority in maneuverability, American pilots were taught not to get involved in "dog fights", but to always use hit and run tactics - a dive attack, hitting a target with a powerful volley and a quick escape with a climb ...
                You can also give the following excerpt:
                The P-38 in New Guinea was often used in mixed groups with single-engine Airacobra. "Cobras" went in the lower echelon and drove enemy vehicles up, under the blows of "Lightnings".
                The main reason for the success of the R-38 in the Pacific Ocean is their long range, reliability and survivability, which was critical when intercepting enemy bombers and escorting their own. But, judging by your posts, you are one of those who considers only their own point of view to be true, and only sources used to confirm it are trustworthy. Here, unfortunately, these are enough.
                1. Kenneth
                  Kenneth 22 June 2016 15: 38
                  0
                  Naturally, I consider my point of view to be true, because it is mine and is based on my knowledge. If you feel different about your point of view, I feel sorry for you. About lighting, I’m our ideal source for you https://topwar.ru/83599-mnogocelevoy-istrebitel-p-38-lightning.html. When you smoke, pay attention to the engine and the fact that the most successful pilots flew and shot down on it . There by the way examples with zero
                  1. Verdun
                    Verdun 22 June 2016 15: 59
                    +1
                    Quote: Kenneth
                    when you smoke it, pay attention to the engine and the fact that the most successful pilots flew and shot down on it. There by the way examples with zero

                    It would be extremely strange if the Lightnings won most of the victories not over the most massive Japanese fighter "Zero" - 10449 aircraft were produced in various modifications, but over some Ki-102b produced in an amount of 15 pieces.)) At the same time When referring to Western sources, one must be extremely careful. Some of them indicate, for example, that 5156 Japanese aircraft were shot down on Hullket aircraft during the WWII with losses of 270 Hellkets proper, which looks little real, since this is almost half of all Japanese aviation losses in the Pacific theater of operations ...
            2. vadim dok
              vadim dok 22 June 2016 19: 11
              -1
              Due to the lack of raw materials (aluminum)! Only through Lend-Lease aluminum was supplied much more than the needs of Aviaprom! And aluminum was also produced in the USSR!
              1. Kenneth
                Kenneth 22 June 2016 20: 18
                +1
                The engines of the tanks were made of aluminum. By the way, the closer to the end of the war, the more aluminum in fighters
              2. Alf
                Alf 22 June 2016 20: 41
                0
                Quote: vadim dok
                Due to the lack of raw materials (aluminum)! Only through Lend-Lease aluminum was supplied much more than the needs of Aviaprom! And aluminum was also produced in the USSR!

                As colleague Kenneth correctly said, the crankcases of B-2 engines were cast from aluminum. And also aluminum went to electric wires, which were produced in thousands of kilometers.
        2. vadim dok
          vadim dok 22 June 2016 19: 08
          -1
          At the expense of the semi-wooden Yak: in 1945, after the end of hostilities, the number of losses of the Yak3 and Yak 9 did NOT DECREASE due to the destruction of the wings and the breakdown of the wing skin.
        3. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 23 June 2016 21: 25
          0
          Quote: Verdun
          Deltadrevesin, used in the construction of Soviet aircraft, today would be called composite material. Incidentally, German designers also later used it on their machines. In particular, the Heinkel Non-162 Salamander was made of delta wood.

          Well, this is from hopelessness. In the event of a hit, this composite material COULDLED IN PIECES - then on an all-metal glider - only holes remained.
    2. castle
      castle 22 June 2016 09: 58
      +1
      What airplane models do you like to compare? Yak - 3, which began to operate in April 1944 and Supermarine Spitfire, which began to be used in August 1938? Which Supermarine Spitfire model do you mean?
      The first acquaintance of Soviet pilots with the Spitfire Mk.IA took place in Germany in 1940. Then military specialists from the friendly Soviet Union visited Germany. And test pilot Stepan Suprun got into the cockpit of the captured Spitfire Mk.IA and fought in a training battle with the German Bf 109E-4, at the helm of which was Fritz Wendel. The Soviet delegation became very interested in this "Briton". The next meeting with the Spitfire from the Soviet pilots took place in August 1941, when a delegation from the Soviet Air Force Research Institute was in Britain. There Soviet pilots flew the Spitfire Mk.VB. They liked the plane very much, if, for political reasons, they did not write that they were delighted. In December 1941, Comrade Molotov turned to Mr. Cherchel with an official request to sell these aircraft to the Soviet Union. This request was politely denied. In Britain, then, they themselves did not have enough aircraft to protect their own airspace. But over time, the Spitfire also fought with red stars on its wings.
      For example, the Mk.VB model proved to be excellent at fighting at high altitudes, so the Soviet command quickly transferred them from subordination to the command of front-line aviation to submission to the air defense of the Soviet Union. But deliveries of the Mk.IX models to the Soviet Union continued until June 1945. The Soviet Union then bought 1194 aircraft of the Mk.IX models in different subversions. And in 1944, the issue of mass production of Spitfire aircraft in the Soviet Union was even decided.
      1. demiurg
        demiurg 22 June 2016 11: 29
        +1
        The USSR did not have a high-altitude engine, the need for high-altitude fighters of which it was necessary 1-1.5 thousand was easier to block due to imports than to deploy a new production. And I did not call spitfires sheds.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 22 June 2016 13: 09
          +2
          Engine AM-35A
          1. demiurg
            demiurg 22 June 2016 22: 38
            0
            If I remember correctly, then one of the shwalb shot down instantly-3. On high. Caught up and knocked down.
            But by the year 42, IL-2 was more necessary than high-altitude fighters.
      2. Alf
        Alf 22 June 2016 20: 50
        0
        Quote: hrad
        And in 1944, the issue of mass production of Spitfire aircraft in the Soviet Union was even decided.

        And where would they take Merlin engines for them?
    3. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 23 June 2016 21: 09
      0
      Quote: demiurg
      Lightnings on the European theater of operations brought down by all

      Oh well. Why so many did not consider.
  3. Predator-74
    Predator-74 22 June 2016 06: 47
    +1
    As far as I know, a more powerful engine (2250 hp) was used on the later modifications of "Birkat"!
  4. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 22 June 2016 07: 04
    +3
    And here is the continuation about the carrier-based fighter. Thanks to the author!
    In my childhood I had a prefabricated plastic model of "Hellket", if I am not mistaken of the Tashkent Toy Factory. True, the packaging of this good 1:72 model did not stand up to criticism - it was made of bad cardboard, with a nondescript pattern and a complete lack of information about the prototype aircraft. Even the type of aircraft was not indicated, but it says "sea attack aircraft". I learned that it was the Grumman F6F Hellcat much later from a good article about this aircraft in the Wings of the Motherland magazine. In the same place, I read for the first time that the specialists of the Grumman company, in order to accelerate and increase the production of aircraft badly needed by the fleet, went for a technological simplification - the tail boom of the fuselage was sheathed with sheets of duralumin of 2,6 mm thickness overlapping. The designers came to the conclusion that such insignificant skin steps located in the boundary layer zone will not affect the speed. By the way, during operation, these steps were often polished with a cutter and painted over. The maximum speed of aircraft "modernized" in such a simple way increased by 10-15 km / h.
    In December 1944, comparative tests of the F6F-5 with the captured A6M5 Zero were carried out. It was revealed that the Hellcat has a higher horizontal speed at all altitudes - at 66 km / h at sea level, at 100 km / h at an altitude of 4572 m. By 106 km / h at an altitude of 9144 m. However, the Zero had the best the rate of climb by 3 m / s at altitudes up to 2743 m, the rate of climb of the F6F and A6M5 were approximately the same up to 4267 m, above the Hellket it was better by 2.5 m / s. "Japanese" showed the best roll speed. especially at speeds up to 370 km / h, the Hellcat won at high speeds. In a steady bend, the A6M5 had a significant advantage, especially at low speeds and altitudes (3,5 full bends gave it an advantage of 1 turn). In any descending maneuvers, the Hellcat was preferred.

    - unusual for us altitude values, expressed not in round numbers, are associated with the fact that the British and Americans measured the flight altitude in feet, as well as the speed in knots or miles per hour. To this it remains to add that the very robust design of the Hellket airframe, made according to the inflated strength standards for aviation, not only led to the expected increase in the weight of the aircraft, but also to the fact that it turned out to be much more tenacious and resistant to combat damage than the re-lightened design "Zero".
    All 4401 (but other data 4402) F6F-3 (until April 1944) and 7870 (7868) F6F-5 (until November 1945) of various options were manufactured. During the war, "Hellkets" under the Land Oise were supplied only to Britain (the rest were returned after the war back to the States), after the war, "Hellkets" were supplied to France, which actively used them as attack aircraft in the skies of Indochina, as well as a small number of F6F was transferred to Argentina and Uruguay under the aid program. The last group of 12 F6Fs was withdrawn from the Uruguayan fleet only in 1961 - these were the last of the Hellkets in combat formation.
    We are waiting for the sequel about the "Corsairs" (which is Chance Vought F4U Corsair) and the British "Sea Fury".
    1. AlexanderBrv
      22 June 2016 14: 45
      +3
      We are waiting for the continuation about the "Corsairs" (which is Chance Vought F4U Corsair) and the British "Sea Fury". [/ Quote]

      Regarding Sea Fury: unfortunately it will not be in this cycle. About this post-war piston carrier-based fighter-bomber in another cycle (about the Korean War).
      Author...
  5. netslave
    netslave 22 June 2016 07: 55
    +1
    Thanks to the author for the article. And a request in each subsequent article in the series to provide links to previous ones.
  6. Kenneth
    Kenneth 22 June 2016 08: 48
    +1
    Great article. With a wonderful selection of photos
  7. unknown
    unknown 22 June 2016 09: 07
    +1
    Quote: demiurg
    Thanks for the series of articles.

    What ugly sheds :)) Very strange planes fought in the Pacific. Lightnings, brought down by everyone on the European Theater, have become one of the most productive aircraft in the Pacific. Fighters with 6 tons of take-off weight, corsairs suddenly became the heroes of that war.
    Yak-3 donated to the French from Normandy Neman in training battles easily twisted Spitfire. Kozhedub shot down two Mustangs, just deciding to protect his wingman.
    And these people tell us about throwing meat at the enemy and the backwardness of Soviet technology lol

    The Yak-3 is the most lightweight fighter for medium and low altitudes due to armament, equipment, survivability and fuel reserves. The fuel supply was so small that it just took off, at the request of the ground units, conducted a fleeting battle and quickly landed until it "dried up". The reason for the appearance of such an "outstanding" fighter is simple - it was necessary to somehow improve the characteristics of fighters with water-cooled engines, and there were no powerful serial engines of this type in the USSR.
  8. demiurg
    demiurg 22 June 2016 11: 21
    +2
    Quote: ignoto

    Messerschmitt had a small flight range, and for some reason no one is reproaching him. Looked at wiki, 800+ km flight range, much more for a front-line fighter? Three-point exchange rate weapons were enough for both us and the Germans to destroy fighters and light bombers.
    Quote: Kenneth

    If we compare with the last three columns, then the Yak-3 with the VK-108 or the Yak-9 with the same engine would look very nice there. Moreover, the Yak-9 was already a typical beaver with a replaceable central gun from 20 to 37 mm.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 22 June 2016 13: 14
      0
      It would look good - it would be well said. Yes, only VK-108 for two years and could not finish. The Yak-9U would also be good if it had not warmed up like a samovar
  9. Verdun
    Verdun 22 June 2016 12: 20
    +1
    A large role on the results of fights was influenced by the experience and quality of pilot training. In this regard, Japanese pilots were noticeably inferior to the Allies.
    This remark can only be attributed to the second phase of the war, when the elite of the Japanese aviation was lost in the battles. Until that moment, the level of training of Japanese and American pilots was in the ratio of heaven and earth. At the same time, we can say that the Americans are very lucky. For various reasons, the development of the Reppu carrier-based fighter by the Japanese was delayed. Had this car appeared in a timely manner, the Hullkets and Corsairs would look rather pale.
    1. castle
      castle 22 June 2016 12: 46
      -3
      What has appeared! History does not have such concepts: "IF IT IS YET." History has only facts. Whether you like it or not. And what you dream or "repent" is not for VO!
  10. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 22 June 2016 15: 33
    +2
    The Grumman F6F Hellcat carrier-based fighter, the development of which began in 1941, was the logical continuation of the F4F Wildcat fighter range.

    Not certainly in that way. Work on a new fighter to replace the F4F "Wildcat" began as early as 1938: first under the G-33 program, and then under the G-35 program - "an enlarged F4F with a Wright R-2600 engine".

    In January 1941, the future "Hellcat" was already in the layout, and in February a technical specification was issued for it.
    The chief designer of the company Grumman William T. Schwendler began work on a new aircraft, received the working designation G-50. As the starting point, he took the need to provide a greater range, good armor and greater fire power. As a result, the dimensions of the aircraft had to be significantly increased, although the silhouette as a whole remained the same.
    A life-size model was made, which was demonstrated on January 12, 1941 by the Mock Commission of the Bureau of Aeronautics.
    Finally, the size and shape of the aircraft was determined January 15, 1941 on the drawing SP-799. Final documents: Technical Specification SD-286 and Technical Description (Report) No 2421 - dated February 24, 1941. In this form, the project was proposed to the Navy command for approval. In accordance with the terms of reference, the aircraft was supposed to install the Wright R-2600-10 engine. Before giving a positive resolution, the Bureau of Aeronautics blew a model of the aircraft in a 1:16 scale in a wind tunnel.
    A preliminary contract (No. 88263) for the construction of two prototypes was signed on June 30, 1941.
  11. oreh72
    oreh72 22 June 2016 17: 45
    0
    Good article series! We look forward to continuing!
  12. DimanC
    DimanC 22 June 2016 19: 45
    +2
    So, for fun: the comparative sizes of Soviet, as well as American, German and Japanese aircraft. Scale 1:35
    1. Alf
      Alf 22 June 2016 21: 00
      +1
      Quote: DimanC
      Scale 1:35

      What, what scale? 1/35? You didn’t confuse anything? Maybe 1/72? Mustang something academician.
      By the way, Hellket should be dark blue, not black.
      1. DimanC
        DimanC 23 June 2016 06: 55
        0
        Yes, mixed up with ground equipment. Scale 1:72. I have everything the Americans are modeling (I don’t know already under whose license they did it). Ours and the Germans (there are still models, it was just too lazy to take off the shelf) - Star.

        I painted with what was at hand, so the colors do not fully correspond to what we should :-)
  13. The comment was deleted.
  14. Alf
    Alf 22 June 2016 21: 16
    0
    Quote: Alf
    Hellket must be dark blue

    For example, like that.
    1. DimanC
      DimanC 23 June 2016 06: 57
      0
      judging by the illustrations given in the article - not only dark, but also light blue, as well as silver and protective color :-)
      1. Alf
        Alf 23 June 2016 21: 12
        0
        Quote: DimanC
        judging by the illustrations given in the article - not only dark, but also light blue, as well as silver and protective color :-)

        Hellket was never olive green.
        Quote: DimanC
        (and already under whose license they did, I do not know).

        All planes of the Modelist-copy of the Academy, only the deck is better.
  15. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 23 June 2016 21: 45
    +1
    Quote: Alexander Bryukhanov
    The results of the air battle over Leyte Bay in October 1944 of the year are indicative, when the Japanese lost one hundred Zero in one day. A quarter of this amount was on the account of the F6F “Hellcat” deck fighters.
    Question to the author - and the rest is due to whom? there almost other then deck fighter like and nebylo? apparently air defense carrier groups?