Military Review

Soviet-German submarine duel in World War II

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During the Second World War, duels were fought not only on land and in the air, but also at sea. And, remarkably, submarines also participated in duels. Although the bulk of the German Navy was involved in battles on the Atlantic, a significant proportion of the battles between submarines took place on the Soviet-German front - in the Baltic, Barents and Kara Seas ...


The Third Reich entered World War II, having not the most numerous submarine fleet in the world - only 57 submarines. Much more submarines were in service with the Soviet Union (211 units), the USA (92 units), France (77 units). The largest naval battles of World War II, in which the German Navy (kriegsmarine) participated, took place in the Atlantic Ocean, where the main enemy of the German forces was the most powerful group of the US and British Navy. Nevertheless, a fierce confrontation took place between the Soviet and German fleets - in the Baltic, in the Black and North Seas. Submarines took an active part in these battles. Both Soviet and German submariners showed tremendous skill in the destruction of enemy transport and combat ships.

In the Baltic. Soviet submariners began to perform combat missions already in the summer of 1941. Until the end of 1941, they were able to send German transport vessels to the bottom of the 18. But the submariners were paying a huge price - in the 1941, the Baltic Navy lost 27 submarines.

The first victory in the duels between the submarines of the USSR and Germany was won by the soldiers of the Kriegsmarine. This happened on 23 on June 1941, when the German U-144 submarine under the command of Lieutenant Friedrich von Hippel was able to send a Soviet submarine M-78 (under the command of Senior Lieutenant Dmitry Shevchenko) to the bottom of the Baltic Sea.

[Center]Soviet-German submarine duel in World War II

But U-144 failed to increase its combat list. 10 August 1941 The German ship was discovered by the Soviet medium diesel submarine U-307 Pike (commanded by Lieutenant Commander N. Petrov) in the area of ​​Fr. Dago in Soalosund Strait (Baltic). "Pike" produced a two torpedo salvo. Both torpedoes hit the target exactly, and the U-144 along with the entire crew (28 man) was destroyed.

21 July 1941 The Soviet submarine M-94 under the command of Senior Lieutenant Nikolai Diacov was the victim of another German submarine - U-140. At the Kõpu lighthouse, the submarine M-94 got into the stern. It was a torpedo, released from the German U-140 submarine (commander J. Hellrigel). The crew of the U-140 did not re-attack the Soviet submarine, and the German submarine disappeared. M-94 soon sank. Killed 8 crew members "Baby". The rest of the crew rescued M-98.

Another Malyutkoy, who died in a collision with German submarines, was the M-99 submarine under the command of Senior Lieutenant Popov Boris Mikhailovich. M-99 was destroyed during combat duty off the Utö Island by the German submarine U-149 (commander Lieutenant Commander Horst Höltring), who attacked a Soviet submarine with two torpedoes. This happened on June 27 of the year.

In addition to the Baltic submariners, fiercely fought with the German troops and their colleagues from the Northern Fleet. The first submarine of the Northern Fleet, which did not return from the military campaign of the Great Patriotic War, was the submarine M-175 under the command of Lieutenant Commander Mammoth Lukich Melkadze. M-175 fell victim to the German ship U-584 (commander lieutenant commander Joachim Decke). This happened on 10 on January 1942 in the area north of the Rybachiy Peninsula. The German car moved under water and overtook the Soviet ship and attacked it, firing 4 torpedoes, two of which hit the target. The M-175 sank, taking the crew member 21 with them into the sea.

Successful for Soviet submariners was the attack of the Soviet C-101 middle-class submarine of the German U-639 submarine, conducted by 28 on August 1943 in the Kara Sea. German submarine U-639, under Lieutenant Wichmann, carried the combat mission of laying mines in the Gulf of Ob. The German submarine was moving on the surface. Trofimov ordered to attack the enemy vessel. C-101 fired three torpedoes, and the U-639 sank instantly. In this attack, the German submariners 47 died.

Thus, the total score of fights between German and Soviet submarines - 4: 2 in favor of the German submariners. In a duel between submarines, the one who quickly calculated the location of the enemy and was able to deliver accurate torpedo strikes won.
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  1. moskowit
    moskowit 25 June 2016 07: 23
    +2
    Some kind of pragmatic, football account 4-2, offends the memory of the dead submariners!

    Eternal memory to them! Eternal Glory!
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 25 June 2016 08: 19
    +2
    Thus, the total score of fights between German and Soviet submarines is 4: 2 in favor of German submariners...And how did the Germans play with the rest of the teams? England, USA ..? And from the subgroup who went to the finals ..?
  3. bbss
    bbss 25 June 2016 09: 48
    +6
    Cars only attack ships in your mental hospital, Mr. author.
  4. Tsoy
    Tsoy 25 June 2016 09: 57
    +4
    cynically like that ... because the people protected their homeland under a layer of water. And despite the low intense opposition of submariners, in comparison with the Atlantic, it is still a feat. The 4: 2 account is not allowed in this context.
    1. DmitriyDonskoj
      DmitriyDonskoj 25 June 2016 18: 05
      +4
      and war, like medicine, is primarily cynicism and pragmatism. Impressive die without completing the task
    2. ava09
      ava09 27 November 2016 13: 40
      +2
      Quote: Choi
      Account 4: 2 in this context is not valid.

      It seems that the "accountant" wrote about submariners and submarines - "sank", "ship", "car" ... Besides, this "accountant" from the "Pepsi" generation ...
  5. Georg Shep
    25 June 2016 10: 00
    +5
    Submariners, a special type of sailors, like no other under God walk. German submariners gave a light to the fleet of England and the United States, albeit with huge losses, and the Soviet - to the German transport fleet. So both ours and the Germans are courageous guys. They proved it in practice.
    1. overb
      overb 25 June 2016 13: 20
      +3
      Quote: Georg Shep
      Submariners, a special type of sailors

      Submariners are about the same sailors as pilots are foot soldiers.
      It is high time that the submarine fleet was isolated as a separate branch of the army.
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
      In my opinion, an interesting article, a really little-known moment - dueling submarine!

      As far as I remember, in Sev. the Navy had such a duel. And her Soviet submariners won.
      At least in the memoirs (Kolyshkin) there is definitely such a duel.
      1. Roy
        Roy 25 June 2016 13: 46
        +1
        So about this fight here it is written:
        "Successful for the Soviet submariners was the attack of the Soviet medium submarine S-101 of the German submarine U-639, carried out on August 28, 1943 in the Kara Sea. The German submarine U-639 of Chief Lieutenant Vikhman was carrying out a combat mission of laying mines in the Ob Bay. The German submarine moved on the surface. Trofimov ordered an attack on the enemy ship. The C-101 fired three torpedoes, and U-639 sank instantly. "
        1. overb
          overb 25 June 2016 22: 05
          +1
          Quote: Roy
          So about this fight here it is written:

          No, it was not a duel. Just a rare prey for a submarine. I suspect that the Germans did not work sonar.
          Kolyshkin has a very vivid description of the M-176 duel with the "enemy submarine". And in fact there was such a case. But after the war it turned out that German boats could not be there. Therefore, the duel was most likely, but with a British boat. Or ... from the Soviet.
      2. kamikaze
        kamikaze 27 June 2016 22: 42
        0
        the most important thing is that Soviet submariners sank fascist evil soldier Glory to the heroes of the USSR submariners
  6. max73
    max73 25 June 2016 10: 48
    +3
    I do not understand why such nonsense to publish at all. Let the author know, the combat use of submarines and the conditions for this use were completely different for us and for the Germans. As you know, the main task of the submarine is to destroy surface combat and transport ships of the enemy. The Germans in the Black, Baltic and Barents Seas used coastal shipping, so the Navy of the RKKF had to solve the very difficult task of overcoming anti-submarine defense in confined spaces. The Germans, on the contrary, used the tactics of free hunting. Again, in the Baltic, our submariners suffered huge losses in overcoming minefields when leaving the Gulf of Finland ..... and here 4-2 ... pah. deuce.
  7. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 25 June 2016 11: 57
    +5
    In my opinion, an interesting article, a really little-known moment - dueling submarine! This is a much more dangerous version of the battle than the attacks of the same convoys - that in the Atlantic by the Germans, that ours in the Black and Baltic Seas.
  8. Army soldier2
    Army soldier2 25 June 2016 12: 27
    0
    Nevertheless, a fierce confrontation took place between the Soviet and German fleets - on ..., on the Black and ... seas.

    I would like to have examples.
    1. Roy
      Roy 25 June 2016 13: 56
      +1
      One example: on the Black Sea in August 1942 near Feodosia, the cruiser Molotov was severely damaged by German torpedo boats. But he stayed afloat.
  9. Kim Klimov
    Kim Klimov 25 June 2016 14: 34
    0
    German submariners defeated this submarine duel, and in general during the Soviet-German war, the loss of submarines was deafeningly not in favor of the USSR. 5: 123 ratio.
  10. ARES623
    ARES623 25 June 2016 16: 47
    +7
    I do not want to comment on the "football" score of the duel, but I will share some information about the effectiveness of the actions of the Soviet submarine fleet.
    During the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet navy had 267 submarines, of which 170 (59%) took part in hostilities (this does not include the Baltic submarines L-1, M-72-76 (6 units in total). At the beginning of the war they were under repair, soon they were mothballed and never put into operation. In addition, the "B-1", which left the UK, but did not arrive at Polyarnoye, was not taken into account). Of these, 81 (48%) of the submarine died from the impact of enemy weapons, 8 were blown up themselves, and 8 more were withdrawn from the fleet for technical reasons. Now let's see how matters stood with the effectiveness of the use of submarines of the main belligerent states.
    The USSR fought submarines - 170, sunk targets 126, sunk 1 active submarine 0,74, submarine 81 died, sunk 1 dead pl 1,56
    Germany: 965 fought, 2840 targets sunk, 294 sunk, one 644 killed, 1 sunk, 4,41 sunk targets
    England: fought 209, sunk targets 485, sunk 1 warrior 2,32, killed 59 submarines, sunk goals 1 dead 8,22

    The data presented are largely arbitrary, in the sense that they cannot be taken as absolute numbers. This is primarily due to the fact that it is rather difficult to accurately calculate the number of submarines of foreign states participating in the hostilities. And their number must be known, which can be clearly seen in the example of Germany, since if in 1945 all the built German submarines of the XX1 and XX111 series went into military campaigns, the losses of the Allies would be completely different. There are still discrepancies in the number of sunk targets. However, the values ​​given give a general idea of ​​the order of numbers and their relationship to each other. And, therefore, we can draw some conclusions.
  11. V.ic
    V.ic 25 June 2016 19: 21
    +3
    Marinesco put the winning point by sending to the bottom the crews of the submarines that had escaped on the Wilhelm Gustlov.
    1. Kim Klimov
      Kim Klimov 25 June 2016 20: 34
      0
      This is a myth of propaganda. There were refugees.
      1. zombirusrev
        zombirusrev 25 June 2016 21: 37
        +1
        Yes, they all became refugees when the Red Army signaled them, only bloody refugees ... hell followed them!
      2. V.ic
        V.ic 26 June 2016 09: 50
        +6
        Quote: Kim Klimov
        This is a myth of propaganda. There were refugees.

        Well, if they skidded, then the goat understands that they are refugees. Only for some reason Otto von Läsch did not turn into a refugee, but led the defense of “König”. Moreover, the "great leader of the German people" declared Koenigsberg "an impregnable fortress." Fascist bastards creeping on that ship were. This is what a person who is undoubtedly close to you in spirit writes.
        http://gorlis-gorsky.livejournal.com/38748.html
        "figures about the passengers of" Gustlov ":
        918 military sailors, 373 from the female auxiliary of the fleet, 162 wounded soldiers, 173 crew members (civilian sailors) and 4.424 refugees. Total 6.050. In addition to those included in the lists, up to 2 refugees managed to get on board the Gustlov. A total of 876 people were rescued. Killed 16 officers of the training division of the submarine forces, 390 cadets, 250 female military personnel, 90 crew members, and wounded military personnel. Such is the military damage caused by the sinking of the Gustlov.
        As for those who drowned on the Steuben, it really (as it is written in Soviet sources) had more than 3 thousand soldiers and officers - 2680 wounded and 100 healthy servicemen, 270 medical personnel, as well as 285 crew members and about 900 refugees. A total of 659 people were rescued. "
        And here is the "so beloved" Vicky "on the same occasion:" Wilhelm Gustloff "was an auxiliary ship of the Navy, which allowed six thousand refugees to climb. All responsibility for their lives, from the moment they boarded the battleship, lay with the respective officials Thus, "Gustloff" was a legitimate military target of Soviet submariners, in view of the following facts:
        1. "William Gustloff" was not an unarmed civilian vessel: it had weapons on board that could deal with enemy ships and aircraft;
        2. "William Gustloff" was a training floating base for the German submarine fleet;
        3. "Wilhelm Gustloff" was accompanied by a warship of the German fleet (destroyer "Loew").
        Your card is a bit.
      3. Kenneth
        Kenneth 26 June 2016 18: 22
        0
        In addition to the refugees, there were cadets of the training center and officers. But of course it’s impossible to talk about some crews. The most that they shone street fights in Berlin
  12. Gost171
    Gost171 26 June 2016 03: 02
    +1
    In the Black, Baltic and NORTH Seas? After all, there are wonderful books like “G.M. Trusov. Submarines in the Russian and Soviet Navy, Heroic Panther, First Crab submarine mine layer, etc., etc., please read. I’m not negative in the hope that next time I’ll be better.
  13. dionis
    dionis 26 June 2016 21: 15
    +1
    Crazy article! Is it true that during the whole war our submariners sank only 2 submarines? Complete nonsense!
    1. Andrey Zh
      Andrey Zh 27 June 2016 08: 08
      0
      I think that very little can not be! And with the Finnish boats, what, in general, were no collisions ??? Or how?
  14. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 28 June 2016 17: 19
    +1
    Quote: Kim Klimov
    German submariners defeated this submarine duel, and in general during the Soviet-German war, the loss of submarines was deafeningly not in favor of the USSR. 5: 123 ratio.

    In the Black Sea, 3 German boats destroyed Soviet aircraft and 3 German boats destroyed their crews in September 1944 due to their stalemate, 6 Italian boats were also destroyed by the USSR, and 4 Roma boats became trophies of the Red Army. In the North, at least 3 German boats were killed by Soviet forces, including mines.
    In the Baltic Sea, only in 1944-45 in hostilities against the Soviet fleet at least 7 German boats were killed + 1 boat in 1941. In other words, before May 1, 1945, Soviet trophies of at least 27 axle boats were lost or became Soviet trophies.
    But the most important thing ahead is at the end of the war, in the last week before the surrender, more than 180 German boats were sunk by the Germans, and another 120 boats were captured as trophies. At least 300 boats were killed by ground forces of the anti-Hitler coalition. This is mainly the new 21 and 23 series electric boats. Since the victory on earth is 70% the business of the Red Army, the losses of 210 German submarines are at the expense of the USSR. The ratio of 210 + 27 = 237: 102 in favor of the USSR.
  15. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 29 June 2016 10: 45
    +2
    Soviet and German boats used not only torpedoes but also mines.
    In the 1944–45 Baltic Sea, Soviet boats sank more than 20 targets with torpedoes and more than 12 targets with mines (including 3 destroyers and 1 boat of the 7th series), losing only 2 boats.
    German boats sank only one ship and a dozen boats and barges, but lost at least 6 boats during the fighting.
    As for Gustlov, 406 dead cadets are at least 10 crews of future electric boats. In January 1945, there were still no ordinary refugees. On Gustlov there was a Nazi party activist with families and donors (16 and 17 years old) from East Prussia.
  16. ava09
    ava09 27 November 2016 13: 55
    +1
    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
    In my opinion, an interesting article, a really little-known moment - dueling submarine! This is a much more dangerous version of the battle than the attacks of the same convoys - that in the Atlantic by the Germans, that ours in the Black and Baltic Seas.

    Indeed, the thinking of "Pepsi" ... Read the memoirs and documents of the DKBF submarine war. It was a war, literally: IN THE MINING FIELD.