First, let's return to the post-war competition for a new pistol for the army and police of the USSR.
Revolver Nagant was adopted in tsarist Russia and the beginning of the Second World War was considered a morally obsolete model. In Nagan, cartridges were used with a cylindrical bullet recessed into the sleeve with a low stopping and stopping effect. The advantages of the revolver were the simplicity and reliability of the design, the subsonic speed of the bullet and the ability to use a silencer, the absence of a breakthrough of powder gases between the drum and the barrel due to the drum pulling on the barrel, high accuracy and accuracy of shooting at a distance up to 50 m. The disadvantages include a weak cartridge and the inconvenience of reloading the 7-m charging drum.
The TT pistol was created in 1930 by the famous gunsmith Fyodor Tokarev and was put into service under the name TT-33. The weapon uses the scheme of automation with recoil of the barrel, coupled with the shutter. The design resembles the Colt M1911 and Browning 1903 pistols. Used for firing ammunition 7,62x25 mm, created on the basis of the German Mauser cartridge. The 7,62 mm bullet carries energy around 500 J and has a high penetration effect (capable of penetrating Kevlar body armor without rigid elements). The gun has a single-action trigger trigger in the form of a single unit, instead of a safety catch, the trigger is applied to the safety platoon, the single-row magazine for 8 cartridges is used in the pistol. The advantages of the TT include high accuracy and accuracy of shooting at a distance of 50 m, a powerful cartridge with high bullet penetration, simplicity of design and the possibility of minor repairs. The disadvantages include the insufficient stopping effect of the bullet, the rather low survivability of the structure, the danger of circulation due to the lack of a full fuse, the possibility of spontaneous loss of the magazine when the latch tooth is worn, the inability to effectively use a silencer due to the supersonic speed of the bullet, the absence of a self-dial.
Makarov pistol was developed in accordance with the requirements of the military in the competition 1947-1948. To replace the TT pistol and Nagant revolver.
The weapon was put into service in the pistol-cartridge complex. For firing, 9x18 mm cartridges with a 9,25 mm caliber round bullet are used, which are slightly more powerful than a foreign cartridge 9x17 K. A bullet weighing 6,1 grams leaves the PM barrel at a speed of 315 m / s and carries energy around 300 J. forms to increase the breakdown of action in non-solid objects. The stopping effect of a blunt-nosed bullet is quite high for an unprotected target, but the penetrative action leaves much to be desired. In 2000, the 9х18 mm PBM cartridge was created with an armor-piercing bullet weighing just 3,7 g and speed 519 m / s. The armor penetration of the new cartridge is 5 mm at a distance of 10, while the recoil impulse increased by only 4%. A small increase in recoil impulse allows the use of new ammunition in old PM pistols.
Cartridges 9X18mm PBM
The gun looks like Walter PP, but it is only a superficial resemblance. The internal structure is significantly different from the German. In the 32 pistol parts, many design elements perform several functions. The PM has a double-action trigger trigger with a convenient and reliable fuse (it blocks the trigger, trigger and bolt), uses a simple scheme of automatic operation with a free gate, the single-row magazine on 8 cartridges is used in the gun. This is one of the most powerful pistols with a similar principle of operation of automation. The accuracy of shooting for a gun of this class is quite normal and is not inferior to other compact samples. On the basis of PM created a silent pistol for special forces PB.
The advantages of the gun include: the highest reliability in operation and high resource, simplicity of design, the presence of a pick-up machine, compactness and the absence of sharp corners, sufficient stopping effect of a bullet on an unprotected target. The disadvantages include: low penetrating ability of a bullet, inconvenient descent (skill case), inconvenient location of the magazine latch, insufficiently high accuracy of shooting in comparison with full-sized army pistols, insufficient capacity of the shop by modern standards.
Despite the moral obsolescence of the design, the PM for many years will be in service with many countries of the CIS and the satellite states of the USSR. The gun was manufactured under license in the GDR, PRC, Bulgaria, Poland and a number of other countries.
To eliminate the shortcomings of the PM in the framework of the "Grach" program, a modernized pistol was created, which received the name PMM.
By design, unification with PM is about 70%. The gun has a modification with a magazine for 8 or 12 cartridges (double row with rebuilding in one row). Constructive difference from the PM is the presence of Revelli grooves in the chamber for slowing the opening of the shutter when fired. For firing, high-pulse cartridges 9x18 mm PMM are used with an initial speed of a conical bullet about 420 m / s and a recoil momentum 15% more than the standard. The use of new ammunition in a conventional PM is prohibited due to the danger of destruction of the structure during long-term firing with more powerful ammunition.
Cartridge 9X18mm PMM with a conical bullet weight 5,8 g.
Although one of the shortcomings of the PM was eliminated - insufficient bullet penetration, the modernization was not able to correct all the shortcomings of the old design. The issue of increasing the accuracy of shooting was not resolved, the capacity of the store was still inferior to foreign analogues of similar dimensions and mass, the store spring was working with overvoltage. In addition to all this, the quality of the manufacture of weapons after the collapse of the USSR has plummeted. Formally, the gun was adopted by some services. The task of completely replacing the PM in the army and the police was not solved.
Another gun developed under the Rook program was the Yarygin PY pistol. Adopted by the army in 2003.
The gun uses a widespread scheme of automation with a coupled shutter. The frame of the gun is made of steel, although a version with a polymer frame was created. USM pistol trigger double action, double row magazine holds 18 cartridges. For firing, 9x19 mm 7H21 cartridges are used with a speed of 5,4 g. Bullets around 450 m / s. These cartridges are somewhat more powerful than their Western counterparts and have an increased bullet penetration effect with a bare armor-piercing core.
The advantages of a pistol include: high accuracy of fire, good stopping and penetrating action of a bullet, good balance, large capacity of the store. The disadvantages include: poor workmanship (especially the first batches), low resource when shooting with 7H21 cartridges, insufficient reliability of the automation, angularity of the structure and the presence of sharp corners, a very tight spring of the store with sharp sponges.
For all its merits, the PJ turned out to be raw and could not fully replace the outdated PM. Many employees of power structures preferred the old reliable PM. According to some experts, the level of technology of the Yarygin pistol is the middle of the 70-s and at the moment the pistol is inferior in many respects to foreign analogues. On the basis of PJ, a sports pistol with a polymer frame "Viking" is produced, having a weakened construction and a magazine for 10 cartridges.
The next candidate for an army pistol was Tula GSH-18. The gun was created in the KBP under the command of two outstanding designers of rocket-gun armament, Vasily Gryazev and Arkady Shipunov. Adopted in 2003 g. Produced in limited quantities with 2001 g.
The gun has an automatic based on a coupled shutter with a barrel rotation, trigger type with two automatic fuses, the capacity of the 18 magazine ammunition. The frame of the gun is made of polymer, the shutter-casing - stamping of 3-mm steel using welding, the barrel has polygonal grooves. The weapon turned out compact and light. For firing, very powerful 9x19 mm PBP cartridges (index 7Н31) with 4,1 bullet weight, 600 speed m / s and muzzle energy around 800 are used. The bullet is able to pierce a sheet of steel 8 mm thick at a distance of 15 m or armor 3 protection.
Cartridges from left to right: regular 9х19 mm, 7Н21, 7Н31
The advantages of a pistol: small size and weight, good application, high accuracy of fire, powerful cartridge with high stopping and stopping effect, large magazine capacity, high safety in circulation. Disadvantages: strong recoil due to the powerful cartridge and the small mass of the weapon itself, the front part of the housing-shutter open for dust and dirt, the store's spring is low, the low quality of workmanship and finishing.
The gun adopted by the prosecutor's office and is a premium weapon. Sport-18 and Sport-1 sport pistols are produced on the basis of the GSH-2, with minor differences from the combat model.
The SPS pistol was developed in Klimovsk by Peter Serdyukov in 1996. It is in service with the FSO and the FSB.
The weapon was created for firing at the enemy protected by a body armor or the enemy in transport. The gun has an automatic with a coupled shutter with locking, swinging larva (as in the 92 Beretta). Due to this, when fired, the barrel always moves parallel to the shutter-casing, which increases the accuracy of fire. The frame is made of polymer, trigger double action with two automatic fuses, the magazine has a capacity of 18 cartridges, sights are designed for a range of 100 m. For shooting use powerful cartridges 9x21 mm. SP-10 (armor-piercing), SP-11 (low-skull), SP-12 (expansive) and SP-13 (armor-tracer) munitions were created. The cartridge SP-10 has a bullet of mass 6,7 g with an initial speed 410 m / s. The bullet has a bare armor piercing core and is able to pierce 5-mm steel sheet at a distance of 50 m or a standard US body armor.
Armor-piercing cartridges 9x21 mm SP-10
The disadvantages of a pistol include large dimensions and weight, the use of rare ammunition, the inconvenience of an automatic fuse on the handle for people with short fingers.
On the basis of the ATP, a CP-1MP pistol was created with an enlarged fuse button, a Picatinny rail, a mount for the muffler and an improved stopper delay. At the moment, on the basis of the ATP created and tested pistol "boa".
There were attempts to adopt and weapons of foreign manufacture, for example, the Austrian “Glock” or the Russian-Italian “Strizh”. But these pistols did not pass the Russian state tests for reliable operation in harsh conditions. The developers of the Swift pistol declared that it was possible to use Russian 9x19 mm 7H21 and 7H31 Russian armor-piercing cartridges in their pistol.
A prototype of the Kalashnikov concern pistol designed by Lebedev PL-2015 was presented at the Army-14 forum. The gun has an automatic with a coupled shutter, USM shock type, aluminum frame and shop on 15 cartridges. The ergonomics of the pistol is created taking into account the human anatomy, the pistol is very applied and easy to use. When creating it, the developers consulted with IPSC athletes. When shooting used in the world widespread ammunition 9x19 mm. In the future, it is planned to produce a version of the PL-14 with a polymer frame and trunks of various lengths.
The prototype pistol concern "Kalashnikov" PL-14
The most promising, it seems to me, is the development from scratch of an entirely new complex pistol cartridge for a small caliber pistol cartridge. An example of a successful introduction into the power structures of pistols under a powerful small-caliber cartridge is the Belgian FN Five-Seven caliber 5,7 mm and the Chinese QSZ-92 caliber 5,8 mm. The Belgian uses the 5,7x28 mm cartridge with an SS190 armor-piercing bullet. Powder charge accelerates light bullet mass 2 g. To speed 650 m / s. The bullet can pierce a bulletproof vest with a titanium plate with a thickness of 1,6 mm and a package of kevlar fabric in 20 layers. Cartridges with expansive and tracer bullets were created. Automatic pistol uses the principle of semi-free shutter, trigger only double action, the magazine capacity is 20 cartridges. The frame of the gun is made of polymer, and the steel casing-shutter is covered with a polymer shell.
The gun was widely used among Mexican drug cartels for its ability to pierce a standard police bulletproof vest, and was also used by the US secret service.
FN Five-Seven Pistol
Not much is known about the Chinese pistol. It uses 5,8x21 mm cartridges with a 3 bullet mass and an initial speed of 500 m / s. The bullet is able to pierce a bulletproof vest that protects against the standard army 9x19 mm of NATO. There is a version chambered for 9x19 mm. The rest of the gun is unremarkable and inferior to the Belgian competitor in the power of the cartridge and the capacity of the store.
Chinese gun QSZ-92
In the USSR, a PSM pistol for a small caliber cartridge caliber 5,45 mm has already been created. The gun was created for concealed carrying of the leadership of the KGB and the Ministry of Interior. The bullet weighing 2,6 g. Had energy around 130 J, but due to its shape it punched dozens of Kevlar layers.
As you can see, pistols for a powerful small-caliber cartridge have huge advantages over more large-caliber counterparts. The argument of critics of small-caliber weapons is supposedly a small stopping power, but there are expansive bullets. And besides, even an ordinary high-speed bullet creates around itself an extensive pulsating cavity. The main advantages are the large BC, the high flatness of the trajectory due to the high initial velocity of the bullet, low recoil and barrel toss, good armor penetration and high slaughter effect. So what prevents the Russian gunsmiths from creating a worthy analogue, taking, for example, the bullet of a standard low-impact 5,45XNNXX mm bullet?