Military Review

"The relations of the Golden Horde with the Principality of Bulgaria"

53
During the Kypchak campaign, Batu Khan turned his gaze to the Bulgarian principality. Tsar Ivan Assen II intended to confront the Mongols. However, 24 on June 1241, he unexpectedly passed away, and seven-year-old Koloman Assen took his place, who had to accept an offer to pay tribute to the Mongols who made their first foray into the territory of the Bulgarian principality at the end of 1242. Sources confirm that during the reign of Koloman and also in times Michael and Assen, the Bulgarian principality continued to pay tribute to the Mongols. Thus, the Bulgarian principality turned out to be dependent on the Golden Horde.


"The relations of the Golden Horde with the Principality of Bulgaria"


And soon the Bulgarians were forced to turn to the help of their protectorate. The Bulgarians asked for help from the Khan of the Golden Horde when, in 1261, Mikhail Paleolog VIII restored the Byzantine Empire and began to seize the southern and western territories of the Bulgarian principality. The Golden Horde Khan Berke in response to a request from the Bulgarian Tsar Konstantin Tikh intervened in Balkan affairs. By order of Burke Khan, the Nogai, led by 20 000, riders advanced to the Danube. Mikhail decided to resist Nogai, however, according to George Pachimer, when the Byzantines approached the border of the Bulgarians and saw the Mongols, they panicked and left the battlefield. Running away panically, they for the most part fell victim to the Mongol sabers. Michael returned to Constantinople on the Genoa ship. We can explain the support of Burke Khan to the Bulgarian tsar with the relations of the Golden Horde and Byzantium for that period. First, Byzantium blocked the trade route between the Golden Horde and the Mamluks through the Black Sea and the Bosphorus, which had an extremely important role for the Mamluk state, which relied on an army of slaves brought from the Kipchak steppe, the Black Sea coast and the Caucasus.



Michael’s retention of the ambassadors of the Mamluk sultan sent to Berke, because at the same time there were ambassadors of Hulagu, the common enemy Berke and the Mamluk sultan in Constantinople, and the detention of the former Seljuk sultan Izzeddin Keykavus and his relatives who sought his refuge, also caused deterioration in relations between Burke and Michael VIII. In view of all these reasons, the Golden Horde made two campaigns against Byzantium, as a result of which Izzeddin II was liberated, and Byzantium opened up a trade route through the Black Sea and the Bosporus. The army of the Golden Horde, passing through the areas of Thrace, surrounded the fortress of Ainos, freed Izzeddin and his loved ones and returned back (1262). The assistance of the Foot of the Bulgarian Tsar Tikhu also falls on this period. The actions of the Golden Horde troops with the Bulgarian detachments, the Bulgarian historian Nikov, explains the Bulgarian vassalage with respect to the Golden Horde, that is, the Bulgarians subordinate to the Golden Horde were to participate in the Tatar campaign. Istvan Vasari, on the contrary, writes that the Bulgarians and Tatar troops wanted the anti-Byzantine campaign in the hope of rich booty to join this expedition with pleasure. Anyway, both Nogay and the Golden Horde Khan Berke, and especially the Bulgarians with the Mamluks, were satisfied with the results of these campaigns. Leg, in view of his military and diplomatic abilities, was an authoritative figure in the Golden Horde, and the territory from the Danube to the Dnieper in southern Russia, to Bulgaria and Moldova, was under his control. No wonder the Russian chronicles call him the king. After Mengu-Timur, Nogay became even more influential, and Nogai’s influence in the Balkans is explained precisely by this fact. His marriage to the illegal daughter of Emperor Michael Euphrosyne (1272) also strengthened his power. This marriage was beneficial to Michael, as he was entrusted with the support of Nogai, who controlled most of the Balkans. Strengthening his authority Nogay demonstrated in his policy towards the region. For example, at that time, along with Bulgaria, the regional principalities of Vidin and Branichev fell under the authority of Nogai.

In the year 1277, after the death of Bulgarian Prince Konstantin Tikh in the Bulgarian principality, the struggle for the throne began again. Since Nogai and Mikhail supported various candidates, the Khan of the Golden Horde Mengu-Timur began to interfere in the affairs of the Balkans in order to limit the power of Nogai, but he was not particularly able to influence the course of events.


Mengu-Timur


After the death of Khan of the Golden Horde Mengu-Timur (1282), his younger brother Ascen ascended the throne and reigned until 1287. But he became a friend of dervishes and sheikhs and refused the throne in favor of Tula Buk. Real power in the country, as well as control over the Balkans, was still in the hands of Nogai. The attempt of Mengu-Timur to intervene in Balkan affairs and the struggle for the Bulgarian throne spoiled the relations between Nogai and Mikhail VIII. But after the death of Mengu-Timur, Nogai appeared an opportunity to improve relations. At that moment, the Byzantine emperor was preparing a campaign against the insurgent ruler of Tesalia, Ionnes Doukas. For this case, Michael called for help his son-in-law Nogai. Leg sent to help Michael 4000 best of his riders. The emperor was very pleased with such an act of Nogai. However, the planned campaign did not take place, because in 1282, Michael VIII died.

With the death of Emperor Michael and the Bulgarian Tsar Konstantin Tikh, Byzantium and Bulgaria became even weaker, and Noghai, on the contrary, grew stronger. Soon this force on itself was tried by the new Bulgarian Tsar Georgi Terteri, who was of Kuman origin. Despite the fact that Svyatoslav, the son of Terteri, was held hostage in the Nogai Palace, and the Tsar's sister married the son of Nogai, Cheke, Nogai wanted a puppet ruler on the Bulgarian throne, completely under his control. Therefore, on the Bulgarian throne Nogai planted his own man, the Bulgarian prince Smilets (1292 – 1298). After the death of Smilets in 1298, Svyatoslav came out of imprisonment and elevated Cheke to the throne of Bulgaria (the end of 1300 was the beginning of 1301).
Thus, Bulgaria’s dependence on Nogai and his son, as well as their influence in the region, became even stronger. One of the proofs of this influence are coins with Greek letters found on the Lower Danube, on which Nogai and his son Cheke are mentioned together. Also found coins with Arabic inscriptions mentioning the names of Nogai and Cheke and the place of minting of the city of Sakci. Istvan Vashari, based on these data, asserts the founding of the Nogay new Ugus Nogidov with the capital Sakchy.



Nogay did not disregard the Serbian principality. In 1280, the vassal Nogaya, the Vidin prince Shishman, led a Bulgarian-Tatar army, made a campaign in Serbia and caused destruction as far as the Tail. In response, the Serbian king captured Vidin and raided the principality of Branichev, which was under the rule of Nogai. Upon learning of this, Nogai immediately ordered to assemble an army of Mongols, Kipchaks, Alans, Ases and Russians. Serbian king Milutin, realizing that he could not resist the troops of Nogai, sent the embassy to him in recognition of Nogai’s power, supplying him with expensive gifts, and also sent his 17-year-old son Stefan to him as a hostage. This was enough to Nogay refused to hike. Thus, in 1292, the Serbian principality from the northern and middle parts of the Balkan Peninsula__ fell under the control of the Golden Horde. In a short time, the Golden Horde managed to unite the Eastern and Balkan Slavs "under one roof". Later in the XVIII – XIX centuries. Russia pursued the same goal, but in spite of all efforts, it did not manage to repeat the success of Nogai.

Among the reasons for the forgiveness of the Serbian king Nogai was not only the recognition by Milyutin of his power, but also the internal political position in the Golden Horde. In 1287, the year of Tula-Buka, nominated to the throne of the Golden Horde by Nogai, fell victim to intrigues arranged by Nogai himself, and again with his help, Tokta ascended the throne. However, Tokta, unlike the previous khans, could not tolerate the interference of Nogai and his children in the affairs of the state, and during the battle of two Golden Horde troops (Tokta and Nogai) in 1300, Nogai was killed. When Tokta Khan really seized power in the Golden Horde, Svyatoslav was not sent to provoke Tokty Khan, the son of Nogai Cheke was sent to prison (and later with the consent of Tokta he was strangled) and declared himself the prince of Bulgaria and the vassal of the khan. In this way, Chingizid Cheke (singled out by me, Mengel Olys) sat for two years on the throne of Bulgaria.

With the death of the Foot, the influence of the Golden Horde on the Bulgarian and other principalities of the region weakened. Sons and grandchildren tried to stay in the region and continue to control the Balkan principalities, but Tokta could not feel completely safe while the descendants of Nogai were alive. Therefore, after Nogai he dealt with his sons. Thus, the domination of the Golden Horde in Bulgaria lasted 59 years (1242 – 1301). The heir to the Serbian principality, Stefan, who was taken hostage by Nogay, taking advantage of the unstable situation in the Golden Horde, fled and, on returning to his homeland, became in power. It was the day when the power of the Golden Horde over the Serbian kingdom (1292 – 1297) ended.

The death of the Foot affected the position of Byzantium. The Bulgarian prince Svyatoslav, due to his relative emancipation, made the most of the weakening of the Byzantine Empire. He raided the north of Thrace and captured the Byzantine port cities on the Black Sea. However, the emperor did not have the strength to fight the Bulgarians and in 1307, he meekly signed an agreement on all the occupied territories and married one of his granddaughters to Svyatoslav. If Nogay were alive, then we can assume that events would have developed in the opposite direction.
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  1. Cartalon
    Cartalon 25 June 2016 07: 29
    +4
    The article is interesting, but for some reason the map with borders of the middle of the 11th century, and ridiculous passages with about the Russian Empire and that if the foot were immortal everything would be different
    1. ver_
      ver_ 25 June 2016 08: 00
      -9
      ..and again the Mongols from 1920 "invaded" ... kar r raul ..
      1. Max_Bauder
        Max_Bauder 25 June 2016 17: 29
        +5
        Quote: ver_
        ..and again the Mongols from 1920 "invaded" ... kar r raul ..


        I will probably upset you even more, "these" Mongols and their descendants are mentioned (about a miracle) in history, medieval artifacts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, even India, China, Turkey, Japan, of course the countries of Central Asia, Mongolia itself, the whole a number of East European countries, and of huge Russia itself - the direct heir of the Golden Horde. Probably all countries have conspired smile
        1. co-creator
          co-creator 26 June 2016 01: 34
          +1
          Quote: Max_Bauder
          medieval artifacts ....... of a number of East European countries, and of the most, vast Russia


          So many that they cannot still))
          1. Max_Bauder
            Max_Bauder 26 June 2016 13: 16
            +2
            Quotation: blooded man
            So many that they cannot still))


            Can you read Old Slavonic? annals? no? then at least listen to who can read it, I’m specially trained for it, I’ll also add that there are a lot of correspondence of the Horde khans with Persians, Arabs, go to at least visit them, read their sources, and how many coins were found with tamga, but what I tell you as a schoolboy funny even :)

            1. co-creator
              co-creator 26 June 2016 16: 03
              0
              Are artifacts written sources which, for example, for example, Russians are not originals.
              It’s funny to read about coins with tengue. You are not surprised at dollars in the Russian Federation, no?

              Horde princes can correspond with anyone they want, but what does Russia have to do with it?
            2. co-creator
              co-creator 26 June 2016 16: 46
              0
              Why is this video here? What does it prove? That there are no Mongolian traces on the territory of Russia (houses, temples, fortifications, and this is due to the fact that Russia was part of the Horde? If so, then this is the only case in the history of planet Earth.
        2. TұrKBөrӨ
          TұrKBөrӨ 27 June 2016 01: 17
          -2
          Not Mongols, they may be Turks, I generally wonder why in Russian history they don't talk about Turks (specifically about Turks and not about "Turkic-speaking peoples").
          1. co-creator
            co-creator 27 June 2016 14: 17
            0
            So while there is a fairy tale about the Mongols, what else is there about the Türks?
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 25 June 2016 07: 50
    +2
    I liked it too. I didn't even think about such an ulus. And I agree with the previous remark: it is not entirely correct to compare the times of Nogai and the Russian "plans" of the XNUMXth century.
  3. venaya
    venaya 25 June 2016 08: 05
    +9
    From article to article, information about the mysterious people is constantly encountered "Mongols", and the appearance of this people is attributed to the 19th century. Researchers have determined the time of appearance of this term: at the beginning of the 1817th century, Europeans decided to creatively approach the matter of distorting history and came up with" Mongol-Tatars. "It is believed that this term was first introduced by the Germans, the father and son Kruse in XNUMX.
    In the book “The History of Genghizcan the Great, First Emperor of the Antient” Moguls and tartars). The author is François Pétis (1622-95). As we can see, in French in black and white then they still wrote about the Mughals and Tartars, but not about the Mongols and Tatars, who were invented only in the 3500th century. The word "Mogul" itself is very ancient, Russian-speaking, it is found in the language of ash in XNUMX years, that is, in Sanskrit (sanskrit - the language of sacred writing), in modern Russian now also means "mighty" or "great", which is actually one and also. Still, it is advisable to deal with these incidents in historical science and continue to prevent, even in Russian-language texts, such absurdity in the terminology of articles on a historical topic. If the state of Mongolia was already formed in the XNUMXth century, then only people from this state who have lived there since the XNUMXth century, who did not exist in the XNUMXth century on the territory of modern Mongolia, should be called Mongols.
    1. Max_Bauder
      Max_Bauder 25 June 2016 17: 39
      +4
      Quote: venaya
      temporary Russian language now has a meaning and "mighty" or "great"


      You reminded me of Zadornov, with his interpretation of the word "hero", he believes that it is from "God" "tyr", ie hide your God, God is supposedly the personification of good. Although in fact this is a Turkic-Mongolian word meaning a warrior, commander, hero, like the Persian "Dastan". "Bahadur" in Uzbek, "Batyr" in Kazakh, Mongolian "Baator". Such names are often given to boys in these peoples. Funny people smile

      P.S. I advise you to study Turkish-Mongolian borrowings in the Russian language, there will be a lot of them, believe me, it will be an opening for you. Almost the same amount of borrowings from the Arabic language from the Spaniards, all the same, 5 centuries of the Cordoba caliphate in the Pyrenees could not go unnoticed, and here. A foreign language does not voluntarily settle. smile
      1. venaya
        venaya 25 June 2016 20: 02
        +3
        Quote: Max_Bauder
        Quote: venaya - temporary Russian ...

        You reminded me of Zadornov ... I advise you to study Turkish-Mongolian borrowings in Russian ...

        Well, advice !? Please provide reliable examples of Mongolian writing of the time before the XX century, or at least examples of the alphabetic-phonetic writing of at least one language of the Turkic language group. Only examples of syllabic-runic forms of writing do not need to be provided, their phonetics, that is, the original sound, in principle cannot be determined, and they usually originate from the "Russian runic writing", there are scientific works on this matter. In addition, the settlement of modern Mongolia (now the tribes of Airov and Khalkov live there) and a little later of present-day Kazakhstan by tribes of the Mongoloid type (haplogroup "C" and even "O") began only in the 1th century. Before that, tribes of the "Caucasian" species lived there, usually of the haplogroup R1aXNUMX.
        And one more thing: How to understand your pulling out - "temporary Russian"??? I write clearly"in modern Russian"Is this not a subtle form of insulting the language in which we all communicate here? And also:""Bahadur" in Uzbek, "Batyr" in Kazakh, Mongolian "Baator". "All these languages ​​were born much later than the Russian language and Russian by day, the word" dad "in the Russian language has been present for a long time, but the Uzbek, Kazakh and Mongolian languages ​​appear much later, not to mention the writing of these languages.
        1. Rivares
          Rivares 25 June 2016 21: 03
          +2
          Quote: venaya
          the word "dad" in Russian has been present for a long time,

          As I remember "tyatya" is the father, and the father of the wife from Babin Tyatya is the father.
        2. Max_Bauder
          Max_Bauder 26 June 2016 13: 33
          +3
          Quote: venaya
          the word "dad" has been present in Russian for a long time, but the Uzbek, Kazakh and Mongolian languages ​​appear much later, not to mention the writing of these languages.


          You are a natural chauvinist. Have you heard at least about the Turkic Khanate? it existed in the 5th century, when there were no Slavs yet, and Kievan Rus itself was created on the remains of the Khazars, natural Turks by origin, present-day Hungary, the language is closer to the Turks, direct evidence to you that the Turkic language prevailed in the past. And Kazan, and Crimea ?! where do not spit the Turkic language. As for the Turkic Kaganate, there is a real historical monument a stone slab, on it a runic inscription (similar to the Scandinavian but not it) is inscribed with words that are understandable to any Turkic person. The drawing of this monument on the Kazakh banknote denoting 1000 is. Have you heard about the Orkhon-Yenisei inscription? as I understand it, you do not read your books anymore. They reminded me of a joke: Two friends are talking, one - I do not like Carruzo? - And what did you hear him? No, my friend sang smile
          By the way, about haplogroups, if you know most of the Turkic peoples are divided into tribes, or rather remember what kind they are. Kazakhs are no exception. So you will find in the news and on Google, our guys checked their roots by genes and learned that our ancestors lived here, on the territory of modern Kazakhstan since the time of the ancient Turks, 2-3 century AD. I hope you won't argue with science. The Kanly tribes still exist, we have such a clan as the Kipchaks (Polovtsians). Then, in those days, the Slavs did not even think of settling beyond the Urals smile
          1. Goga101
            Goga101 26 June 2016 20: 11
            0
            Max_Bauder - Colleague, this type of venaya - he is not a "chauvinist" - he is a provocateur.
            Exactly the same types as he suddenly appeared in Ukraine and began to tell local idiots that everything and everyone came from the "Great Ukrov" - and everything else is a "distortion of history", what this led to - we all see.
            Now this abomination has taken up Russia, they also carry a complete nonsense - and the Mongols appeared in them in the 20th century, and the Slavs built the Chinese wall and much more, all for the same purpose - to fool the new generation not burdened with education, what they managed in Ukraine.
            Remember the video footage, a humanoid fully oskotinivshiesya creature with white eyes yells - Ukraine on a mustache! “That is the purpose of what venaya, conscripts and the like do.”
            The history of Russia is the history of a great country and the great peoples inhabiting it, and this history does not need embellishment at all, let alone such "writers".
            1. co-creator
              co-creator 27 June 2016 14: 25
              0
              Quote: Goga101
              Max_Bauder - Colleague,

              So your colleague is the same as these Ukrainians, only from the Turks. What do you not understand what he writes about?
          2. co-creator
            co-creator 27 June 2016 14: 19
            +1
            Quote: Max_Bauder
            present-day Hungary, the language is closer to the Turks,

            Do you even understand what you are writing about? This is a Finno-Ugric family. Damn, it looks like the Ukrainians have already begun to carry nonsense.
          3. co-creator
            co-creator 27 June 2016 14: 23
            0
            Quote: Max_Bauder
            Speaking of haplogroups, if you know most of the Turkic peoples are divided into tribes, more precisely remember what kind they are. Kazakhs are no exception. So in the news and google you will find our guys checked their roots by genes and found out

            You can remember anything, then you and the tribes. This is your maximum. By the way, Russian Old Believers also remember their clan to the hundredth knee and continue to be villagers, just like you pastoralists.
            You can’t find out where your ancestors lived by genes, it’s impossible.
        3. Max_Bauder
          Max_Bauder 26 June 2016 13: 56
          0
          Here, listen to the linguist

      2. co-creator
        co-creator 26 June 2016 01: 13
        +2
        Quote: Max_Bauder
        "Dastan". "Bahadur" in Uzbek, "Batyr" in Kazakh, Mongolian "Baator". Such names are often given to boys in these peoples. Funny people

        So where is the word RICH? It turns out that you, as Zadornov, distort words as you prefer.
        Quote: Max_Bauder
        P.S. I advise you to study Turkish-Mongolian borrowings in the Russian language, there will be a lot of them, believe me, it will be an opening for you. Almost the same amount of borrowings from the Arabic language from the Spaniards, all the same, 5 centuries of the Cordoba caliphate in the Pyrenees could not go unnoticed, and here. A foreign language does not voluntarily settle.

        Advise to study with whom? What are the names of linguists? Speak voluntarily do not settle. You generally know that today there are almost as many Latin-English words in the Russian language as there are Turkic ones and they are used more often. If you follow your logic, then the British won us?))
        Well, lastly. In the Russian language, almost 100.000 words of which about 1.000 only have Turkic roots. That’s all the influence.
        1. Max_Bauder
          Max_Bauder 26 June 2016 13: 51
          +1
          Quotation: blooded man
          So where is the word RICH? It turns out that you, as Zadornov, distort words as you prefer.


          Not at all, I showed you where the words Bogatyr came from, it is all derived from the Turkic-Mongol Baator, i.e. it was not originally a Slavic word smile

          Quotation: blooded man
          Advise to study with whom? What are the names of linguists?


          Fasmer M. Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language
          Chernykh P. Historical and etymological dictionary of the modern Russian language
          Etymological Dictionary of Slavic Languages
          E.A. Kozhevnikova. Türkisms in the modern Russian language // "Faces of knowledge." No. 1 (2). May 2009
          Kislovsky Yu.G. Smuggling: history and the present .. - IPO Author, 1996. - 430 p.
          Baskakov N.A. Russian names of Turkic origin. - M., 1993
          Etymological dictionary of the Russian language = Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch: in 4 volumes / auth. M. Fasmer; trans. with him. and add. Corr. USSR Academy of Sciences O. N. Trubacheva, ed. and with the foreword. prof. B. A. Larina [vol. I]. - Ed. 2nd, erased - M.: Progress, 1986-1987.
          Golovastikov K. And all the Tatars are more pleasant. “31 controversial questions” in history: how the Turks changed the Russian language. Lenta.Ru (October 28, 2013). Retrieved October 31, 2013.

          Quotation: blooded man
          Speak voluntarily do not settle. You generally know that today there are almost as many Latin-English words in the Russian language as there are Turkic ones and they are used more often. If you follow your logic, then the British won us?))


          Not the British, but the United States, although both of them can be called Anglo-Saxons. Is not it so? Whose money do you use, not the dollar, when you sell oil or buy "clothes", iPhones in China? From whom does the CBR take a loan at 4-5% to give its population at 15-17% interest? and finally, who is now "strangling" Russia, openly blackmailing it to act according to their will, with all sorts of sanctions, local wars, now doping scandals? And you are here about the superiority of the Russian language, which has already been modified to the point smile
          1. co-creator
            co-creator 26 June 2016 16: 32
            +1
            Quote: Max_Bauder
            Not at all, I showed you where the words Bogatyr came from, it is all derived from the Turkic-Mongol Baator, i.e. it was not originally a Slavic word

            It’s ridiculous. You are just like Zadornov Baator words transformed into a RICHER and pretend that you do not understand. For example, the words SKIN, SARAI etc. are Turkic and simply copied.


            Quote: Max_Bauder
            Fasmer M. Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language
            Chernykh P. Historical and etymological dictionary of the modern Russian language
            Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages ​​.......

            Are they also Baator to the Bogatyr? belay
            Quote: Max_Bauder
            Not the British, but the United States, although both of them can be called Anglo-Saxons. Is not it so? Whose money do you use, not the dollar, when you sell oil or buy "clothes", iPhones in China? From whom does the CBR take a loan at 4-5% to give its population at 15-17% interest? and finally, who is now "strangling" Russia, openly blackmailing it to act according to their will, with all sorts of sanctions, local wars, now doping scandals? And you are here about the superiority of the Russian language, which has already been modified to the point

            What is it? Did this dollar bring English words in Russian? Maybe it's all the same science, trade, literature, sports?
            Я
            Quote: Max_Bauder
            And you are here about the superiority of the Russian language, which has already been modified to impossible

            The Russian language, like all the great languages ​​of the world, is alive and changing in a natural way. Including he took the words of his neighbors and other peoples. Of course, no one in the Russian Federation speaks like in the 16th century, just like the English do not speak the language of the 16th century.
            Excuse me, where did I talk about the superiority of the Russian language over the Turkic? The fact that the Turkic language does not play a big role in Russian fact. 1000 Turkisms against 98000 Slavic words proves this.
    2. Goga101
      Goga101 26 June 2016 19: 57
      -1
      venaya - You won't believe, but beyond the Moscow Ring Road - there is life! And the Mongols can seem "mysterious" only to the finished "Europeans". And the statement that, the quote - "to call Mongols only people from this state living there since the XX century, who were not in sight in the XII century in the territory of modern Mongolia." - Have you been to Mongolia? Or do you see better from your window? I live not far from the border and often go there - it is difficult to think of a more stupid statement about the Mongols than what you have uttered here.
      You that, "laurels" of neighbors who dug the Black Sea do not give rest? And about the "Russian-language word" with an age of 3500 years ... - well, it's just about the "great ukrov", from which all peoples went.
      There remains only one question for you - have you already started jumping on the square, like your colleagues "istrics" from "Square", or are you just going?
      1. co-creator
        co-creator 26 June 2016 20: 52
        0
        Quote: Goga101
        I live near the border and often go there - a more stupid statement about the Mongols than what you have spoken here and it’s hard to come up with.

        Well, what do you see there?
      2. Max_Bauder
        Max_Bauder 27 June 2016 17: 20
        0
        Quote: Goga101
        Goga101 (1) Yesterday, 19:57 ↑ New

        He is argued like a pellet to an elephant, as tight as a felt boot, I told him about Roma and he told me about Erema. How do some people finish school. Knowledge is zero! In general, it is clear from those who believe about the Aryans and Hyperboreans, Tartars, still reptilians, Ren TV, Fomenko and other shnyaga. In short, the nationalist of the local spill, and they also think this about us, but our peoples live much friendlier than yours, illiterate chauvinists, damn it.
        1. co-creator
          co-creator 28 June 2016 13: 38
          0
          Written by an admirer of the Turks and the production of Genghis Khan from the Kazakhs))) It is especially significant "yes, our peoples live much more amicably than yours, damn illiterate chauvinists". Apparently you are a literate chauvinist of Kazakh bottling)) Baatyr - Bogatyr. wassat Storytellers are still those laughing
    3. TұrKBөrӨ
      TұrKBөrӨ 27 June 2016 01: 25
      -1
      Mughals - the conditional name of the Turks of the Jagatai ulus, the ancestors of the Kazakhs of the Elder Jus.
      New explanatory and derivational dictionary of the Russian language, T. F. Efremova.
      1. co-creator
        co-creator 27 June 2016 12: 13
        +1
        Fomenko and others disagree with him. What we are going to do?
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 25 June 2016 08: 35
    +2
    Bulgarian prince SvyatoslavMore correctly ... Theodore Svyatoslav Terter is a rather interesting historical figure .. Thank you, not a bad article, I liked it ..
    1. Bagatur
      Bagatur 25 June 2016 09: 48
      +11
      Tsar Theodor Svetoslav Terter 1300-1321 -sin tsar Georgi I Terter, after he was taken hostage by the Tatars, he came to Bulgaria .. There was a war in the Golden Horde and Nogai lost, his syn Chaka is married to Svetoslav’s sister, and they came to Turnov with a small army .. Very soon, Svetoslav chopped off Chuck’s head and send her a hut Tokt, in gratitude he returned Bessarabia to Bulgaria .. Tsar Theodore Svetoslav himself is a tough guy! He crushed and subjugated the boyar-sparatism, strengthened the imperial power. He defeated Byzantium and returned the south coast of the Black Sea ... He executed the patriarch himself for challenging the tsar’s power ...
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 25 June 2016 13: 03
        0
        You wrote about it in more detail than I did ... But apparently, who put the cons to me does not recognize this .. smile
  5. erased
    erased 25 June 2016 09: 12
    +5
    I'm sorry, but why is this material on the site? His section of myths and legends is necessary.
    Even the guarantor of the constitution himself admitted that the tale with the Tatar-Mongols no longer rolls, and Tartaria - something else and not at all. This means that the events of those times reached us mostly in a distorted form. Well, what's the use of repeating old legends?
    1. The comment was deleted.
  6. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 25 June 2016 09: 37
    0
    I didn't like the article. First, what does the Russian Empire have to do with it? Did she really strive to "reach the last sea"? to conquer all of Europe or all the Slavs?

    The issue of internal strife in the Horde and especially the issue of interreligious war in the former "ulus of Jochi" is not touched upon at all.
  7. Bagatur
    Bagatur 25 June 2016 09: 44
    +4
    The state is so strange ... Since the 9th century, only one title of ruler "In Christ God is the Tsar and Tsar of the Bulgarians" and Simeon the Great and the same Ivan Asen II were added by the "Greeks" ... After the defeat of the Epirian despotate in the battle of Klokotnets March 1230, 1235 all Bulgaria became the first force in the Balkan-Misia, Thrace, Macedonia, Wallachia ... In 1241, the Bulgarian Pariarchia was restored at the gathering of the eastern patriarchs and the end in union with Rome ... After the death of Ivan Asen II, his sin Kaliman 1246-1246, they say he was cut off by the maschech Irina Komnina that Michael II Asen will reign his sin. 1256-1257, this guy fucked up everything that his father finished off and his two-year-old brother Koloman, nephew Iva Asen II, was killed .. Koloman himself was also killed, and the Asen dynasty ceased to exist in a straight line. In 1277, the boyars were chosen for the tsar boyars from Skopie-Constantine Tikh, from the Byzantine emperor, the granddaughter of Ivan Asen II, married to his daughter ... Tsr himself, became disabled after an incident with a horse ... and the country was ruled by Queen Mary ... Tatars regularly robbed the people They were ruled by Emperor Michael VIII Pleologus, his daughter was in the harem of Nogai ... In 1278, the Bulgarian cross was led by Ivaylo ... He defeated the tara, the tsarist troops and himself became tsvdov Konstantin Tikh ... Tsar Ivaylo 1280 -XNUMX "baptismal king" ...
    1. ver_
      ver_ 26 June 2016 02: 08
      +2
      ..contrast to vomit when the nationalities by all means available to them (minus, defamation, falsification and theft of the history of other nations) are trying to prove the "exclusivity and greatness" of their clans in the history of the World .. How they want the whole world to "spin" and fulfill them great Wishlist from the "bast hut" on the outskirts of the World - where they were driven out by stronger tribes and peoples and where they vegetated due to their weakness .. At least they "... in the eyes, all the same, the dew of God .." stood and will stand in spite of everything .. A vivid example is the ancient Ukrainians - who "dug the Black Sea, khe - with spoons" ...
      1. Chisayna
        Chisayna 26 June 2016 05: 24
        -4
        Vera, your critical days have begun. Take "Nurofen" and don't be nervous.
  8. victorrat
    victorrat 25 June 2016 11: 11
    +5
    Some kind of historical nonsense, collected in a cacophony. Where did the author get these "facts" from? Probably from Soros's school textbooks. Poor Mongols, who had no writing or epic. How much nastiness was poured on the heads of the peaceful arats !!!
  9. ver_
    ver_ 25 June 2016 13: 07
    -6
    Quote: bagatura
    Tsar Theodor Svetoslav Terter 1300-1321 -sin tsar Georgi I Terter, after he was taken hostage by the Tatars, he came to Bulgaria .. There was a war in the Golden Horde and Nogai lost, his syn Chaka is married to Svetoslav’s sister, and they came to Turnov with a small army .. Very soon, Svetoslav chopped off Chuck’s head and send her a hut Tokt, in gratitude he returned Bessarabia to Bulgaria .. Tsar Theodore Svetoslav himself is a tough guy! He crushed and subjugated the boyar-sparatism, strengthened the imperial power. He defeated Byzantium and returned the south coast of the Black Sea ... He executed the patriarch himself for challenging the tsar’s power ...

    ..Konstantinopol founded by Dmitry Donskoy -Konstantin the Great. The name Constantine is the name received at baptism ..
    Constantinople is 40 km away. from the destroyed Troy (which Schliemann unearthed) ..
    He founded Constantinople after 1380 - when he became the ruler of Russia ..
    ..so that "chopped off the head of the patriarch" Theodore does not "roll" ..
    1. Bagatur
      Bagatur 25 June 2016 17: 04
      +2
      Oh, I didn’t know ... that the ancient Byzantion by 330g. it’s already the capital of Eastern Rome and, having accepted the name of Constantine the Great, actually created ... 1000 then Dmitry Donskoy .. I wonder ... where was it taught ??? Patriarch Joachim II was against the arrival of Svetoslav Terter in Turnov and when he became king .. well, as our people and Romans wrote, he ordered the patriarch to drop from the city walls. I assure you, even now there is no chance to survive after such a flight)))
      1. co-creator
        co-creator 26 June 2016 01: 32
        +2
        Quote: bagatura
        .interesting ... where is it taught ???

        Like where, with Fomenko. We have such a storyteller))
    2. V.ic
      V.ic 25 June 2016 18: 00
      +1
      Quote: ver_
      Constantinople is 40 km away. from the destroyed Troy (which Schliemann unearthed).

      "The remains of Troy are located on the Hisarlik hill in Asia Minor, in the territory of modern Turkey."
      http://sitekid.ru
      "The distance in a straight line Istanbul Canakkale of 235 km."
      http://transport.marshruty.ru/Transport/Timetable/68686-127726-Constantinople-Ca
      nakkale /
  10. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 25 June 2016 16: 25
    +1
    but I liked it .. thanks for the article
  11. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 25 June 2016 17: 31
    +2
    the article at least somehow illuminated a rather dark period of Balkan history, namely, the influence of the Golden Horde in that region .. I just didn’t know that they invaded Serbia .. thanks again
  12. Seraphimamur
    Seraphimamur 26 June 2016 04: 49
    +5
    The article is good, but again confusion with the Mongols. What kind of Mongols are we talking about? Pictures of the khans of the Golden Horde are given, but something they are not like the MONGOLS. It is time to define in terms of and not repeat the fabrications of 19th century German historians. All the same, it’s more correct to talk about the conquerors of the MOGOLS who have nothing to do with the Mongols.
    1. Mangel olys
      26 June 2016 06: 58
      0
      There is no confusion.
      “Let us consider the questions about the correlation in the history of the names“ Tatars ”and“ Mongols ”, about the origin of the“ name of the Mongols ”, which are also considered“ hitherto unresolved researchers ”and, moreover,“ far from satisfactory resolution. ”As we will see, these questions are also were quite clearly and reasonably clarified in the works of Academician V.P. Vasiliev:
      “Meng-hun clearly says that the Tatars did not even know where the name of the Mongols came from. Mukhuri (the closest comrade-in-arms and fellow tribesman of Chyngyz Khan - GE) when meeting with Chinese officials, constantly called himself a Tatar man. Consequently, the name Mongol was, at first, purely scientific and official, and thus, these two names (of which the latter overpowered by virtue of the same officiality) perplexed not only European scientists, but also Rashid-Eddin and, perhaps "of his contemporaries, who thought that the name Mongol should or should have existed since ancient times."
      As we see, “the name“ Mongol ”was purely official,” meant the dynasty of subjects of the Chyngyz Khan Power, therefore, it was weakly attached to the Tatars as an ethnos (since the name of the established nationality was already Tatars). Also, approximately, in the former USSR, in addition to the Russians, the predominant nation, by the name of which the foreigners of all Soviet people were called Russians, the Soviet people included many other nationalities, and among the subjects of the Mongolian empire there were “Mongols,” besides the Tatars there were subsequently many other ethnic groups (tribes, peoples). Naturally, there were also the ancestors of the modern nation of the Khalkha-Mongols.
      Let us dwell in more detail on the information of V. P. Vasiliev about the origin of the name “Mongol”.
      As Meng-hun writes, “... there used to be a Mengu people who were terrible to the Jurchen people, and whose foreman proclaimed himself emperor. After they were exterminated; However, when Genghis Khan founded an empire, the Jin subjects who ran to him taught him to accept the name of this people in order to bring fear to the Jin people, then the word "Mongol-Tatars" appeared - in Chinese it sounds "men-da".
      “The name adopted by Genghis Khan had two meanings: the hieroglyphs had meaning, and the sound resembled a people once hostile to the Jins.”
      Since the proclamation of the Empire in 1206, "Temuchen takes the title of Genghis Khan ... and gives his power the name of the Mongols." The name of the state literally sounded, according to the Chinese author, "Meng-gu", meaning "received the ancient" in accordance with the hieroglyphs, which were written in Chinese, in letters to them and to the Jin, the name of the Mongol state. Another version of the translation of this hieroglyph by VP Vasiliev is “to preserve the ancient” (1890). Note that the word "Mengu" in "ancient Türkic" meant "eternally" ... Below we will see how the creators of the legend about the "ethnic Mongols - compatriots of Chyngyz Khan, enemies of the Tatars" used this consonance of the name of the ancient people, once "terrible jurchens "and destroyed by them long before the events in question, with the name of the Chyngyz Khan State, which passed to its subjects -" Mongols ". This word-name "in no way" meant ethnicity at that time, although at first it mainly referred to the medieval Tatars, the first founders and ideologists of the Chyngyz Khan State and his fellow tribesmen. "
      G.R. Enikeev, "Crown of the Horde Empire"
      1. venaya
        venaya 26 June 2016 08: 43
        +1
        Quote: Mangel Olys
        ... then the word "Mongol-Tatars" appeared - in Chinese it sounds "men-da."

        What are you writing? In Chinese??? What Chinese dialect? China is a multinational, multilingual empire, the use of the hierographic form of writing is simply compelled, for only writing connects all these numerous, multilingual peoples into a single whole. The Tiananmen Square hung the newspapers "People's Daily" and various gloshati in their dialects read aloud the same hieroglyphs each in their own language dialect. Himself at work had to use the Chinese tech. documentation, and out of 300 of the available ethnic Chinese, none of them managed to translate the document. Spetsov found only at the Department in. languages ​​in state. university.
        So, such statements about how and what sounds, all the more sounded 800 years ago, by no means rolling, all this looks more like an ordinary chutzpah and nothing more. Where is the evidence that in the XII century on the territory of modern Mongolia there were tribes of the Mongoloid race with haplogroups "C" or even "O", and even speaking Chinese or Mongolian, their first representatives were first discovered there only in the XIV century, not earlier. What is needed here is not the statement or work of any representative of historical science, which is not difficult to buy or intimidate, but real and recognized factual evidence by representatives of various scientific directions, that is, experts in their fields of science. Representatives of historical science a long time ago for no one are not In this sense sufficient authorities! Fucked up to the fullest. In general, are there any real documents dating back to the 3000th century today, and which can be read in real and guaranteed? By the way, the drurdzhenes had a runic, that is, a syllabic letter that does not have a guaranteed phonetic interpretation, and still has no translation. A similar situation is with the so-called Türkic runic scripts, which also do not have a reliable phonetic interpretation and therefore cannot in any way serve as an evidence base for accurate pronunciation identification. Everything here is written with a pitchfork on the water. Another thing is the guaranteed recognized Sanskrit language with an alphabetic-phonetic form of writing, more than XNUMX years old and the closest relative to modern Russian, where the word "Mogul" can easily be correlated with the words "mighty", "mighty", even "moget", that is, it can the other cannot. There is a tendency to obscure this issue, which is a pity.
        1. Mangel olys
          26 June 2016 12: 32
          +1
          Tell me, where can I see your scientific papers? Or at least something from the published in VO. I really want to get acquainted, judging by your thesis - you, a smart person.
      2. V.ic
        V.ic 26 June 2016 16: 16
        +1
        Quote: Mangel Olys
        There is no confusion.

        Confusedly write. Shake / Shake. Mr. Enikeev is this your / our EVERYTHING?
        1. Mangel olys
          26 June 2016 20: 32
          0
          Quote: V.ic
          Quote: Mangel Olys
          There is no confusion.

          Confusedly write. Shake / Shake. Mr. Enikeev is this your / our EVERYTHING?

          Yes, read Vasiliev, Gumilyov, Bartold, Firsov, Atlasi, Rychkov, etc. Maybe you can find the truth.
  13. ver_
    ver_ 26 June 2016 08: 28
    +3
    Quotation: blooded man
    Quote: bagatura
    .interesting ... where is it taught ???

    Like where, with Fomenko. We have such a storyteller))

    .. unlike some "comrades", these people have the status of RAS and mathematicians, and not idle talkers of historians, storytellers .. History is not a science - these are fairy tales written by order of the rulers, by the churchmen they served .. However, he is very smart ..
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 26 June 2016 16: 18
      0
      Quote: ver_
      History is not a science - these are tales written by order of the rulers, by the clergy whom they served .. However, they are very smart ..

      Are you talking about the history of the CPSU?
  14. dionis
    dionis 26 June 2016 18: 19
    +1
    So the article is amazing and informative for me, no words. Thank!
  15. Zhivko Popov
    Zhivko Popov 19 October 2016 11: 07
    0
    Brad!
    The author e blurted out an incredible jumble of truth and hallucinations on the subject of history. Mauger bi e grabbed yes siep hapchetata.
    Tova, the truth of the controversy and unfaithfulness for the Ruskath has been brought up, the story didn’t hate, but to the oath and to the other, and uttered also for the Bulgarian.
    See the map itself.