The revitalization of the United States in the Asia-Pacific Region (APR), their desire to weaken Russia's influence in the Far East necessitates a search for countermeasures from the Russian side. In this regard, the friendship of Russia with its long-time partner and one of the main actors in this region, China, can be invaluable.
The friendly relations of the USSR and China have developed since the time of the Sino-Japanese War (1937 – 1945).
In the 1930s, the USSR systematically pursued a course of political support for China as a victim of Japanese aggression. In August 1937, the Nonaggression Treaty was signed between China and the USSR, and from 1937 to 1941 the USSR regularly supplied arms and ammunition to China. In total, over this period China was supplied with: 1285 aircraft, 1,6 thousand guns, 82 tank, 14 thousand easel and light machine guns, 1850 cars and tractors.
In 1937-1941, over 5 thousand Soviet citizens worked in China. Among them were military advisers, volunteer pilots, teachers and instructors, assembly workers for aircraft and tanks, aviation and road specialists, bridges, transporters, doctors, etc.
The outbreak of the Great Patriotic War and the deployment of military operations in the Pacific Theater led to the curtailment of cooperation between the USSR and China, but immediately after the surrender of Germany, the Soviet Union began to deploy its troops to the Far East.
August 8 The USSR SNK 1945, following the decisions of the Potsdam Conference, declared war on Japan. Soviet troops launched a decisive offensive in Northeast China. At the same time, Chinese troops also launched an offensive against the Japanese.
14 August, when it became clear that the Kwantung Army suffered a crushing defeat, the Japanese emperor announced the surrender of Japan.
2 September 1945 in the Tokyo Bay aboard the American battleship Missouri by representatives of the United States, Great Britain, USSR, France and Japan signed an act of surrender of the Japanese Armed Forces, and 9 September 1945 of the Chinese General He Inqin, representing both the government of the Chinese Republic and the Allied Command Southeast Asia, accepted the capitulation from the commander of the Japanese troops in China, General Okamura Yasuji.
After the end of the war, friendly relations between the USSR and China began to grow stronger and develop successfully.
On February 14 on February 1950, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong signed the Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance in Moscow. This document designed the highest level in the history of bilateral relations - the military-political union.
Within a few months, this alliance passed the test of strength during the Korean War (1950 – 1953). For three years that the war lasted, the Chinese "people's volunteers" fought with the Americans and their allies, and the USSR at that time covered the "volunteers" and the industrial base in the north-eastern provinces from the air.
In the future, the USSR provided China with all kinds of assistance, transferring to the People's Republic of China all rights under the joint management of the CER, withdrawing its troops from the Port Arthur naval base, giving the Soviet military property in the city of Dalian (Dalny). Construction and reconstruction of 50 large industrial facilities was in full swing, hundreds of Soviet specialists from various industries, agriculture, science and technology, public administration and the media came to China, and thousands of Chinese students studied in Soviet universities.
In the 1949 – 1956 years, with the help of the USSR, basic industries were created in China, industry was nationalized and the collectivization of agriculture was carried out, massive socialist construction was developed, and as a result, China became a state with a rapidly growing economy.
From 1949 to 1969, China was supplied with weapons and military equipment for a total of about 4,1 billion dollars. In addition, 1949 licenses for the production of weapons and military equipment were transferred to 1962 – 650 years. During the period of cooperation, 5250 military advisers and specialists were sent to the People's Republic of China, and 1578 Chinese military personnel were trained at the universities of the USSR Ministry of Defense.
However, from the end of the 50 of the last century began the so-called Soviet-Chinese split, caused by the arrival of liberal-minded leaders headed by Nikita Khrushchev in the USSR. Harsh criticism of Stalin and his policies began in the USSR, which began, as it was called in the PRC, a “great war of ideas between China and the USSR.” The conflict culminated in border clashes around Damansky Island in 1969 on the Ussuri River between parts of the Soviet Army and the People’s Liberation Army of China. Owing to these clashes, the military ties of the USSR and the PRC were terminated.
COOPERATION IS RESUMED
After a break of many years, military-technical ties between Russia and China resumed only in 1992, on the basis of an intergovernmental agreement on military-technical cooperation, signed on November 24 and 1992, and a Memorandum of Understanding between the governments of Russia and the PRC on military-technical cooperation, which was signed December 18 1992 of the year. In accordance with the agreement, a Russian-Chinese commission on military-technical cooperation was formed, which meets once a year in Moscow and Beijing.
November 11 The 1993 Agreement was signed on military cooperation between the defense ministries of the two countries. From this point on, direct links were established between the Armed Forces of Russia and the People’s Liberation Army of China.
The legal framework for Russian-Chinese relations was the signing of 16 on July 2001 in Moscow by the President of the Russian Federation and the Chairman of the People’s Republic of China of the Treaty on Good-Neighborhood, Friendship and Cooperation, which was concluded for 20 years with the possibility of automatic extension for the next five-year periods. In accordance with the agreement, Russia and China pledged to develop an equal partnership and strategic cooperation on a long-term basis, including in the military sphere. In the event of a threat to the world or a threat of aggression, Moscow and Beijing immediately come in contact and hold consultations in order to eliminate the threat that has arisen. The Treaty also provides for joint efforts of the parties to maintain the global strategic balance and coordinate international action in the prevention and resolution of conflicts.
Within the framework of the Cooperation Agreement, Russia supplied a large number of military equipment and weapons to China.
In particular, in the 1992 – 2000 years, Russia delivered the 281 heavy fighter Su-27 / 30, 1 thousand of Krasnopol, 1,2 thousand short-range air-to-air missiles to the People's Republic of China. In addition, the Russian side transferred to China licenses for the production of Su-27 fighters.
In 1999 – 2000, China received two 956 project destroyers with supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles 3M-80 "Mosquito". The cost of the deal on destroyers was approximately 800 million dollars, the cost of 48 missiles was about 100 million dollars. Under the second contract in 2005 – 2006, two more destroyers of the improved 956EM project were transferred to the Chinese Navy. At the same time, China bought four deck-based anti-submarine helicopters Ka-28 for these destroyers, and in 2009 – 2011 years - another nine Ka-28 helicopters and nine helicopters of the radar patrol Ka-31.
In 1997 – 2001 years, 35 anti-aircraft missile systems “Tor-М1” were supplied to the People's Republic of China, in 2002 – 2003 - two shipboard C-300М “Rif-M” air defense systems.
From 2000, China began to supply Buk and Tunguska anti-aircraft missile systems, various guided missiles and bombs, C-300 PMU1 anti-aircraft missile systems, T-80U tanks, etc.
In 2002, Rosoboronexport signed a contract for the supply of eight diesel-electric submarines (diesel-electric submarines) of the 636 project, equipped with the Club-S missile systems (cost - about $ 1,5 billion), for the Chinese Navy. The last, eighth, diesel-electric submarine was set up in 2006 year.
In addition, over the years, the Smerch multiple rocket launcher, Metis and Konkur anti-tank missile systems and other weapons were supplied to the PRC.
In 2011, the Russian Military-Industrial Company sent 25 vehicle sets of Tiger for an armored car to China for assembly in that country, then China received another 25 Tigers and signed a contract for the supply of 10 vehicles.
In 2011 – 2012, Rosoboronexport concluded a contract with the Chinese Ministry of Defense to supply more than 400 aircraft engines AL-31Ф / ФН.
In 2013, Russia and China signed an agreement on the supply of four Lada-type submarines and agreed to purchase China's 117C heavy engines, the Il-76 military transport aircraft and the Il-78 tanker aircraft.
At present, China has successfully launched the production of modern weapons systems, including space, naval, nuclear missile and other military equipment. Nevertheless, it is impossible to do without Russian assistance to the Chinese military-industrial complex. China failed to overcome the lag behind Russia and highly developed Western countries in the field of electronic systems, engine-building, ship and aviation energy.
Considering that, historically, the PLA was armed with most of the equipment of Soviet-Russian production, then, proceeding from the national interests of the PRC, it is more expedient to acquire the latest technologies and certain types of weapons from Russia, rather than Western production, especially since Russia has the ability to use such technologies and weapons to offer. In turn, for Russia, it is essential that the Chinese side is sufficiently solvent.
Today, China is interested in acquiring Su-33 deck-based fighters for its aircraft carriers under construction, the newest Su-35 fighters, guided bombs, aircraft engines, cruise missiles and submarines, high-precision electronics for guidance systems, sonar stations, radars and other equipment, where Chinese manufacturers lag behind Russian ones noticeably
In 2015, China entered into a contract with Russia to purchase the C-400 anti-aircraft missile system. In the same year, Russia and the PRC signed the largest aviation contract for the purchase of X-NUMX Su-24 multi-purpose fighters. The amount of the transaction is estimated at no less than 35 billion dollars. The Chinese military, therefore, became the first foreign customers of the C-2 air defense system and Su-400 fighter jets, before that they were operated only by the Russian space forces.
It should be noted and the outlined cooperation in the Russian-Chinese military-technical cooperation. We are talking about the joint production of new heavy transport helicopters, wide-bodied aircraft, diesel-electric submarines from Russian parts with partial use of Chinese. In addition, Russian and Chinese experts are conducting various research and development work in the field of creating new and modernizing old weapons.
Thus, at present, China is interested in military-technical cooperation with Russia in the following areas:
- import of modern fighters, aircraft and ship engines, high-precision electronics;
- the acquisition of licenses for the production technology of complex high-tech weapons and equipment;
- joint research and development;
- repair and modernization of previously supplied weapons, military and special equipment.
Military cooperation between China and the Russian Federation is developing in many areas, including the training of Chinese military specialists: Chinese military personnel are trained at Russian universities, crews of submarines and surface ships, as well as air defense pilots are trained at Russian training centers.
The exchange of military delegations is expanding, joint Russian-Chinese military exercises are held annually, and a consultation mechanism is established on strategic security issues.
The Russian-Chinese military exercises being conducted are an example of a strategic partnership between Moscow and Beijing to neutralize US policy. Thanks to cooperation, Russia and China not only vividly demonstrate their unity in the confrontation with the United States, but also show the world a powerful force in this confrontation.
In general, military-technical and military cooperation strengthens the mutual confidence of the two countries and leads Russia and China to establish mutual relations on economic and political issues, as well as on issues of global and regional security.
CAUSES OF MILITARY AND POLITICAL RADIATIONS OF RUSSIA AND CHINA
Russia and China are moving in the same direction today. Reuters Photos
At present, the situation in the Asia-Pacific region is becoming increasingly tense. This is due to the nuclear tests of the DPRK, aggravated territorial disputes between Russia and Japan, China and Japan, Vietnam, Pakistan, India and other countries, and the joint military exercises of the United States, Japan and South Korea.
The “Turn to Asia” strategy proclaimed by US President Barack Obama in 2011, is frankly directed against China and Russia. The US naval forces are being pushed into the Pacific basin, the US military treaties with Japan, South Korea and Australia are becoming more active, and new US military ties are being established with Vietnam, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia.
At a conference on security in Asia, held in June 2013 in Singapore, the US Secretary of Defense announced Washington’s intention to redeploy 2020% of naval and air forces currently based outside his country to the Asia-Pacific region.
At present, the United States, together with its allies, is creating obstacles to the development of China and Russia in the APR, is restraining the influence of Beijing and Moscow, and strengthening its hegemony in it. US policy is aimed at fueling territorial disputes and other acute problems of the PRC and Russia in the APR. In addition, the United States is attempting to prevent China and Russia from entering the Trans-Pacific Trade Partnership hastily created by them.
Under these conditions, Russia and China are obliged to clearly define their positions in the interests of stabilizing the situation in the APR.
Both countries do not accept the US policy of intervening in the affairs of other states and the idea of a unipolar world. Therefore, in order to resist the hegemony of the United States, Russia and China are forced to create their own powerful alliance.
Washington’s risky decisions at the beginning of the 21st century to unleash wars in the Middle and Middle East, which led to disastrous consequences for Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and destroyed stability around the world, make their contribution to the rapprochement of Russia and China.
CONFRONT "THREE FORCE OF EVIL"
Russia and China are united and brought together by the need to confront the "three forces of evil" - separatism, extremism and terrorism.
Russia and China are taking a tough stance on the territorial integrity of their countries and need each other’s mutual support in defending their interests before the world community in eliminating hotbeds of separatism. For Russia, this is primarily the North Caucasus, for China - the problem of Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang.
Attempts by the West to organize color revolutions in Russia, as it was in 2012 on Bolotnaya Square in Moscow, and in China, as it was in 1989 on Tiananmen Square in Beijing and in 2014 in Hong Kong, are forcing both countries to look for ways to counter internal extremism and the export of “soft power”, both independently and through joint efforts.
Russia stresses the importance of practical cooperation with China in the fight against radical Islam, especially in the zone adjacent to the territory of the two countries - in Central Asia, since the possible strengthening of Islamic extremism in this region is capable of hitting both states.
China is concerned about the influence that radical Islam can have on its Muslim population. For example, in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region there are about 1 million Kazakhs, 375 thousand Kyrgyz and many representatives of other Central Asian peoples.
Russia, in turn, is concerned that the growing influence of radical Islam will adversely affect the millions of Russians who remain in the countries of Central Asia and will create complex problems along the long border with the Muslim world.
Therefore, Moscow and Beijing cannot indifferently look at the penetration of radical Islam from this region from other Muslim countries, especially Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, etc.
Cooperation in the fight against international terrorism is of great importance for Russia and China. In this regard, there is a deepening of cooperation within the framework of the Regional Antiterrorist Structure of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (RATS SCO) and giving new impetus to strengthening the legal base of the RATS SCO, saturating the antiterrorist interaction with new practical content, which ensures a successful solution of security issues regional conflicts in the APR.
TERRIBLE DREAM FOR USA
The United States and its allies, pursuing a policy of containing Russia and China in the APR, themselves push the two neighboring countries towards each other.
"As the international situation becomes more complex, the intensification of contacts and coordination between China and Russia will become increasingly necessary, the head of the Chinese state stressed," reports the news agency of the PRC Government Xinhua.
In turn, the Daily People's Daily, published by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, frankly writes that "a strategic rapprochement between China and Russia is becoming an anchor of world stability."
The Russian-Chinese axis being created, in contrast to the existing American-Japanese axis, is aimed at forming a multipolar world and ensuring a global strategic balance.
At the beginning of 2012, the Russian-language electronic version of the Renmin Zhibao newspaper published an article by a researcher at the Center for Strategic Studies of China, Dai Xu, entitled "China and Russia should create a Eurasian alliance." The article, in particular, says: “... rapprochement between China and Russia is the inevitable result of US strategic pressure, as well as the choice made by the parties for their own survival ... China and Russia separately lag far behind the US and only together possess a powerful force ... The interaction between China and Russia will not only help advance the security and development of the two states, but can also attract the attention of other countries in Eurasia, including Iran and Pakistan, in order to disrupt the strategic plans Ana USA in the region ... "
Experts warn that “the involvement of the Russian and Chinese armies in the integration process turns this formation into a powerful bloc that will become even more powerful than NATO led by the United States ... the mere addition of the Russian and Chinese military potentials can lead to discouragement for Washington and its allies the result - if the military integration of China and Russia is realized, it will be a serious counterbalance to the existing "devouring" NATO policy. "
The futility of countering (at least the military) to such a union is understood in the West — and the “US nuclear war projects with Russia and China” voiced by American experts will remain only “virtual exercises” by American generals.
No wonder the leading ideologist of US foreign policy, Zbigniew Brzezinski, warned that "the cohesion of Eurasia is a bad dream for the United States." In his opinion, the combination of political forces in Eurasia will lead to the fact that the United States will not be able to dominate the world.
MILITARY UNION OR STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP
“Despite the large-scale military cooperation, Russia and China do not plan to create an official military alliance ... Creating a military organization like NATO would contradict the principles that guide Russia and China. The countries intend to develop cooperation in the military sphere, but not to form blocs, ”said Tian Chunshen, an analyst at the Russian Research Center at the State Council of the PRC.
It should be noted that the Chinese leadership, in 1982, formulated a line on non-entry into alliances with great powers, explaining that allied relations "can weaken the will of the PRC to resist the negative actions of a partner, attempts to use China to the detriment of its interests." It was pointed out that such a union would “impede normal contacts with other countries of the world.”
The weak side of military alliances is that each country that belongs to the union has its own interests. Therefore, the creation of a military alliance leads to the appearance of a large number of risks. The Union restricts diplomatic independence and freedom of its member countries, while China and Russia clearly do not intend to make these factors dependent on others.
In 2010, at the suggestion of China, Russian-Chinese relations were characterized using a new formula - a comprehensive strategic partnership.
“We believe that in today's rapidly changing conditions, the strategic partnership relations that exist between China and Russia are most appropriate. They have absorbed historical lessons and experiences that best fit the law of development of relations between the two countries and their internal political realities. This type of relationship is supported by both the ruling elite and the peoples of the PRC and the Russian Federation. All this contributes to long-term and stable relations between countries, the report says, which was prepared based on the results of research by the Fudan University Research Center and the Russian Council on International Affairs. - Strategic partnerships have a functional elasticity and wide opportunities for development. If Russia and China encounter important issues in the international arena, such relations can be transformed into closer relations, allied, without defining mutual long-term obligations. ”
Thus, it is not necessary to conclude a Russian-Chinese military alliance, since the existing strategic partnership relations correspond to the level of bilateral relations, and their capabilities are sufficient to respond to the emerging challenges and to meet the conditions of strategic interaction.
At the same time, during a meeting between Chinese President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin in September 2014, the Chinese side expressed a desire to increase the level of strategic partnership with Russia, create new development opportunities through mutual exchange and offer joint resistance to external challenges and threats. Chinese-Russian cohesion is designed to resist external pressure and threats, maintain strategic balance and international stability.
JOINT SOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS
China and Russia have common interests and adhere to similar positions on a wide range of international problems (multipolarity and polycentricity of the world, ways to resolve situations in a number of problematic countries and regions, etc.).
“Russia and China have created joint mechanisms for solving international problems, and often come up with common global initiatives. The main multilateral regional platform is the SCO, its regional anti-terrorism structure has been operating since 2002. In the future, the BRICS union will play a similar role, but already at the global level, ”says Oleg Timofeev, Ph.D.
In 2011, the Russian-Chinese tandem demonstrated unity in the UN resolution on Syria.
China supported the actions of Russia in connection with euromaidan, the Ukrainian coup and other events in Ukraine. 21 November 2014, the Chinese Foreign Ministry explicitly stated that China supports the Russian approach to resolving the Ukrainian crisis. This was announced to journalists by the Acting Director of the Department of Europe and Central Asia at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC, Gui Tsunyu In addition, Gui Tsunyu approved the reunification of the Crimea with Russia. "We know well the history of the ownership of the Crimea," - said the representative of China.
In turn, Russia supports the principle of the PRC’s territorial integrity. After the adoption by the People’s Republic of China in March 2005 of the law “On Countering the Split of the Country”, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation expressed “an understanding of the motives” of the adoption of this law. According to Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Alexander Yakovenko, "we believe that there is only one China in the world, of which Taiwan is an integral part."
China has not withdrawn from Russia and in solving the problem of the Syrian crisis. As the Austrian newspaper Presse writes, in addition to Russian, Iranian and American weapons, Chinese are also supplied to Syria. Also, China supplies weapons to Iran, which is an ally of the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
China has four times blocked anti-Syrian resolutions in the UN Security Council. And on November 14, 2015, representatives of Chinese diplomacy joined the negotiations in Vienna on a Syrian settlement.
At present, joint efforts of Russia and China are aimed at solving the nuclear issue of the DPRK in the framework of the six-party talks.
In general, at the present stage, Russian-Chinese international relations are characterized by a wide range of areas of interaction, including intensive top-level contacts, cooperation in the UN Security Council, joint participation in international and regional organizations, such as the SCO, APEC and BRICS.
BASIC GUARANTEE FOR MAINTAINING PEACE ON THE PLANET
At present, the achieved level of Russian-Chinese relations meets the modern needs of ensuring the national security of Russia and China.
23 August 2015, in an article for Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov noted that Russian-Chinese relations "are the best in history and continue to develop steadily."
“Russia and China need each other,” political analyst Timofey Bordachev notes. - For Moscow, Beijing is the largest international political partner in the history that you can rely on. And for China, Russia is a guarantee that no one will crush him in the political arena. ”
In the future, Moscow and Beijing will be able to change the model of behavior of any state if its actions pose a threat to the modern world.
At the same time, leaders in Beijing and Moscow have repeatedly stated that “Russian-Chinese rapprochement is not directed against third countries, including against the United States, and this is true in the sense that the United States and the West are not considered by China or Russia as an enemy . On the contrary, both sides are extremely interested in economic and political cooperation with the West. It is the most important factor in the development of both countries and, therefore, is fully consistent with their strategic goals. ”
In conclusion, let us quote one more quotation from the article of Dai Xu in Renmin zhibao: “The interaction of China and Russia provided a basic guarantee for maintaining peace in the world in the 21st century.”