Military Review

Arctic Admiral

30
“Swim more, fly more! This is what our motto should be. ”

Why, with the enormous contribution of the North Sea inhabitants to the Victory and having such awards as four Orders of Lenin and four Red Banners, two Ushakovs of the first degree, many others, Arseny Golovko is the only commander fleets never became a Hero of the Soviet Union, remains a mystery.

Among the figures who restored the sea power of Russia in Soviet times, who led the fleets during the Great Patriotic War, Admiral Arseny Golovko, whose 110 anniversary of his birth falls on June 23, occupies a more prominent place. The Northern Fleet under his command played an important role in the defense of the Soviet Arctic, in the defeat of the Nazi troops in the High North and the liberation of Northern Norway.

Arctic AdmiralTo serve on warships Arseny Golovko is sent to 1925, according to the Komsomol call-up. After graduating from the Frunze School in 1928, the forge of the command personnel of the Navy, the future admiral went through all the stages of the formation of a naval officer. He was even a participant in the war in Spain as an adviser to the commander of the Cartagena Naval Base in 1937 – 1938.

In 1940, he is already an experienced naval commander, the country's top leadership is aware of this, so the Central Committee Politburo without hesitation asserts him as commander of the Northern Fleet. The sailors' enthusiasm in mastering the theater of operations and pride in the fleet were high, but they needed to be sent in the right direction, because the overall picture looked disappointing. The ship’s combat capability is low, the ship-repair base is weak, ship-borne mechanisms are worn out, and in submarines a large displacement of command personnel has had to think about a lot. In strengthening the fleet, the key role belonged to the USSR People's Commissariat of the Navy, and Golovko received this assistance. There were objective difficulties, for example, in 1940, due to the lack of bases, it was not possible to accept all the ships built for the Federation Council.

But there was an area where success was almost entirely decided by the people, their energy, diligence, organization and initiative. This is a combat training. Wise with the experience of battles in Spain, Golovko demanded that commanders build the training of personnel, taking into account the peculiarities of the modern war, not to allow simplifications and relaxation. “Swim more, fly more! This is what should be our motto in combat training, ”he stressed more than once at meetings and exercises.

At the first opportunity, the commander himself went to sea. Of particular concern to Golovko was the preparation of a large detachment of young officers who had recently come to the ships. The Admiral knew from his own experience: they become a real commander at sea, in difficult campaigns, in the struggle with the elements and dangers, when the sense of responsibility for the fate of people and the ship is exacerbated.

No matter how weak the Federation Council is in terms of the number of ships and airplanes, Golovko and the Military Council saw their duty in making it strong due to excellent combat and naval skills, high ideological and political training, discipline and organization of personnel. Time has shown that these daily efforts have produced results. When the war broke out, the North Seamen were on full alert.

The Northern Fleet, which Admiral Golovko commanded from 1940 to 1946 for the year, rose to the occasion at the crucial moment of the war. The forces of the Northern Fleet not only disrupted the enemy’s sea communications, restrained its onslaught on land, but also protected the Allied convoys.

Admittedly, Lend-Lease played a prominent role in the victory over fascism, and the bulk of supplies went through the northern ports. In only two years (1943 – 1944), the Federation Council met 368 and conducted 352 allied transport (excluding its own), which is hundreds of thousands of tons of military cargo. Only ten transports were lost - less than three percent, an excellent indicator.

The victories of the fleet in the war, the skillful leadership of its activities brought Arseny Golovko to the ranks of the best military leaders and naval commanders of the Great Patriotic War. In 1944, he became a full admiral, but he never received the Gold Star, although all North Sea residents are Heroes of the Soviet Union (82 only once and three times) owe their high rank to the commander. And how many parts and ships awarded honorary titles and titles - all and not to mention. The fleet commander invariably assumed responsibility for the actions of subordinates.

From 1947 to 1950, he was in the post of Chief of the General Staff of the Navy, and from 1950 to 1952, he was Chief of the Naval General Staff, but didn’t show much of himself in this position. Still, staff work requires different skills than teamwork. And the admiral is returned to the ships. Since 1952, he has commanded 4 in the navy, then the combined Baltic fleet. In this position, doing his usual business, he served until 1956, when he was appointed first deputy to Admiral Sergei Georgievich Gorshkov, who was the commander-in-chief of the Navy for nearly 30 years (and whatever they say, this is a great naval commander).

In the sixties, the Cold War was gaining momentum, the Soviet fleet went out into the ocean, becoming an instrument of big politics. The Arctic is becoming strategic. And the Northern Fleet begins to play the role of one of the first violins. Golovko analyzes the experience of fighting in this maritime theater, and works on articles on topical issues, where he emphasizes the special importance of creativity, innovation, and initiatives in the struggle with a likely adversary, urging to be on the alert: “Vigilance is the law of our time, created by experience stories. And this experience includes events connected with the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, which each of us is obliged not only to remember, but to remember. Always remember! ” We feel the truth of these conclusions today when we lose all positions in the oceans.

Arseny Golovko lived only 56 years, his heart stopped from the tensions that fell to his lot.
Author:
Originator:
http://vpk-news.ru/articles/31046
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 19 June 2016 07: 35
    +5
    The wife of Kira Nikolaevna Golovko considers Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev as her mortal enemy: it was he who sent the admiral to certain death - to test "Kuzka's mother", that is, the most powerful thermonuclear bomb in the history of mankind. The first deputy commander-in-chief of the Navy was in the explosion zone, and radiation sickness then they were not very good at recognizing. So they didn't save ...
  2. midshipman
    midshipman 19 June 2016 09: 41
    +8
    Admiral A. Golovko was respected in the Northern Fleet. My good friend, Vice Admiral A. Shabalin, Twice Hero of the Soviet Union, spoke very warmly about him. On his account two divisions of fascists resting at the bottom of the Barents Sea. Throughout the war, this torpedo boat commander was never wounded and did not lose a single boat. Bright memory to you Admiral A. Golovko. I have the honor.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 19 June 2016 11: 34
      0
      Can be a little more detailed about the two divisions
      What are we talking about.
      1. midshipman
        midshipman 19 June 2016 12: 48
        +1
        Dear Konstantin, by the nature of my work, I had to create many systems for the Soviet Navy, and then for the Russian Federation. I met Alexander Osipovich (it was a long time ago) and in the magazine "YUNOST" I published the story "MOSKITNIKI" about him. Then I was asked to make an article from this story for "VO". I did it and published the article "First Attack" in VO. Read it, please. I have the honor.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 19 June 2016 23: 09
          0
          Respected. I heard about Shabalin and looked at how much is written to his account. I became interested and I decided to clarify with you as a source of information
          You would not break the answer by directly and not referring to your work, even without reference. Two divisions are 30 thousand people. Shabalin sank 4 vehicles. It turns out that each had more people than the guslav. So epic successes should have left a bigger mark than your mention
          1. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 20 June 2016 05: 44
            0
            Could there be more tanks or artillery? Break yourself and see what a division is ... Do you need a link to Wikipedia?
      2. midshipman
        midshipman 19 June 2016 12: 48
        +1
        Dear Konstantin, by the nature of my work, I had to create many systems for the Soviet Navy, and then for the Russian Federation. I met Alexander Osipovich (it was a long time ago) and in the magazine "YUNOST" I published the story "MOSKITNIKI" about him. Then I was asked to make an article from this story for "VO". I did it and published the article "First Attack" in VO. Read it, please. I have the honor.
        1. max73
          max73 19 June 2016 13: 42
          0
          dear, you did not answer a simple question ... some references somewhere out there ...)) Yes, Shabalin, he fought well, this is not discussed. tell about 2 divisions, and ..?
          As for Admiral Golovko, he was surprised to learn that he was not given the Hero, although he had read his memoirs several times in his youth. And this despite the fact that the SF with a modest military composition did much more at sea than did it, locked in the port of the Baltic Fleet, and suffered heavy losses to the Black Sea Fleet at low efficiency. It seems that I.V. Stalin had a certain prejudice towards naval commanders, for neither Tributz nor Vladimir were awarded the Hero. I think this is due to the large and unjustified ship losses of the Black Sea Fleet ... IMHO ..
          1. Alex_59
            Alex_59 20 June 2016 06: 38
            0
            Quote: max73
            for neither Tributs nor Vladimir, too, were awarded the Hero.

            But Oktyabrsky was honored. Here is such a paradox. And so he had to give the last hero from the Soviet admirals ...
  3. King, just king
    King, just king 19 June 2016 13: 36
    +2
    I'm so smart. The author is wrong about the Heroes. Tributs was not at all, and this young lice (the censor does not miss) cowardly October already in 58 became.
    To forget, the Pacific Fleet forgot, yes, Yumashev was given 14.09.45/XNUMX/XNUMX.

    I, personally, was surprised by this event (not heroes). About two years ago, I rummaged through the commanders for some reason, I see that all comflot are not heroes.
  4. unknown
    unknown 19 June 2016 15: 02
    +3
    Quote: max73
    dear, you did not answer a simple question ... some references somewhere out there ...)) Yes, Shabalin, he fought well, this is not discussed. tell about 2 divisions, and ..?
    As for Admiral Golovko, he was surprised to learn that he was not given the Hero, although he had read his memoirs several times in his youth. And this despite the fact that the SF with a modest military composition did much more at sea than did it, locked in the port of the Baltic Fleet, and suffered heavy losses to the Black Sea Fleet at low efficiency. It seems that I.V. Stalin had a certain prejudice towards naval commanders, for neither Tributz nor Vladimir were awarded the Hero. I think this is due to the large and unjustified ship losses of the Black Sea Fleet ... IMHO ..


    In 1941, during the so-called Tallinn crossing, the Baltic Fleet suffered such losses that some historians called this crossing the "Baltic Tsushima".
  5. V.ic
    V.ic 19 June 2016 17: 19
    0
    Only for two years (1943–1944) Federation Council met 368 and spent 352 allied transport Author Vadim Kulinchenko

    And why not since 1942 do you think? DO NOT WANT PQ-17 to mention?
    1. Veteran
      Veteran 19 June 2016 19: 47
      +6
      In the composition of the Union convoys (41 in the USSR and 36 reverse), there were a total of 1464 ships, the losses in them amounted to 103 vehicles (7%), of which 12 were Soviet. Almost 30% of these losses on the conscience of the British Admiralty: 23 ships from the convoy PQ-17 and 7 ships from the convoy QP-13, which negligently went to the English minefield. Another 38 of single transports from 44's marching unguarded reached their destinations. The results are quite satisfactory.
  6. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 19 June 2016 17: 20
    +2
    The Northern Fleet also suffered heavy losses, especially in submarines (23 units). In addition, the leadership of the fleet missed the dangerous raid of the battleship "Admiral Scheer", which reached Dixon itself. Then only an accident saved the caravan going through the North Sea Route.
    1. Veteran
      Veteran 19 June 2016 20: 28
      +6
      Compared to other fleets, the Northern Fleet still suffered the smallest losses - in terms of EM and leaders, submarines, minesweepers, submarine hunters, torpedo and patrol ships (except for the TFR, former "fishermen"). The initial success in penetrating Adm.Sheera into the Kara Sea was ensured by its route, which rounded Novaya Zemlya from the north, by reconnaissance flights of the Arado seaplane and taking into account the experience of the Kometa navigation. But with the crash of the Arado, the raider "went blind", and the DPs could not provide him with vital information. His only military victory was the sinking of the steamer "Sibiryakov", but he could not pass into the Vilkitsky Strait, it was dangerous to remain in the Kara Sea, and the "Scheer" returned to Narvik. The operation turned out to be a failure, the Germans refused to repeat it.
      The only mistake of the headquarters of the Northern Fleet and the BelVMB was that they did not attach importance to the report of the polar explorers who discovered the Arado on its last flight day.
      1. Kenneth
        Kenneth 19 June 2016 23: 12
        0
        Let's not forget that in the north the Anglo-American fleet was many times superior to both ours and German. Our fleet was on the sidelines and accordingly suffered less losses.
        1. Veteran
          Veteran 19 June 2016 23: 25
          +4
          I pointed out the overall smaller losses in the naval composition of the Northern Fleet in comparison with other USSR fleets - the Baltic Fleet and the Black Sea Fleet. As for losses in warships during the defense of the Allied convoys, 2 Soviet destroyers, 2 British cruisers and 11 small escort ships (sloops, frigates, corvettes, etc.) were lost.
          1. Kenneth
            Kenneth 19 June 2016 23: 31
            0
            And German aviation in the north was not engaged in Soviet ships but convoy ships, which is perhaps the most important thing.
            1. Veteran
              Veteran 20 June 2016 00: 10
              +4
              Wow, what a discovery! And aviation, and submarines, and shock NK during the attack of convoys always had and have transports as their priority objectives. But in the absence of transports, warships become the first target of attack.
              1. Kenneth
                Kenneth 20 June 2016 00: 49
                0
                You understand what it is about. In the north and close there was no such bacchanalia that the Germans did on the Black Sea Fleet and the Baltic Fleet. In the north, aviation operations are generally extremely difficult. Well, convoys and allies. It’s me that the losses are low not because of some talents of the commander, but because of completely different reasons.
                1. Veteran
                  Veteran 20 June 2016 19: 04
                  +4
                  Lafa, you say, was in the North? But the first twice Hero in the USSR Armed Forces during the Second World War was the North Sea pilot Boris Safonov, who shot down 25 German planes and died while protecting the convoy. On 18.06.42, 12 thousand bombs were dropped on Murmansk in just one day, and in just 3 years the DB carried out 792 air raids, the planes of which dropped on the city approx. 7 thousand high-explosive bombs (250-1000 kg) and approx. 200 thousand incendiary. In terms of the total number of bombs dropped on the city, Murmansk is second only to Stalingrad. It was on the northern communications that the small "Varyags" - TFR "Tuman", "Passat", the steamer "Dezhnev" heroically perished. Having failed in the raiding of large NKs, the Germans in the North sharply intensified their underwater component, their boats not only hunted for transports, but also carried out mine laying concentrated in important passages. Only 12.08.44 U-365 sank almost the entire BD-5 convoy in the Kara Sea - a transport (14,5 thousand tons) and two minesweepers. Unlike other types of forces, the German submarines operated at sea until mid-1945.At the end of April 1945, the U-307 submarine was sunk at the entrance of the Kola Bay, and the meteorological station on Svalbard surrendered only on 4.09.45.
  7. Veteran
    Veteran 19 June 2016 20: 38
    +5
    It should not be forgotten that the Northern Territory was still facing the most difficult task of ensuring internal maritime communications over a large stretch of the Northern Sea Route. The fleet conducted an 1471 convoy consisting of 2568 vessels through these communications. At the same time, losses amounted to only 11 transports (7 from submarines, 2 from aircraft, 2 from mines). Even more than 600 flights were made by unguarded vessels (5 vessels died during this).
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 19 June 2016 23: 34
      0
      The Germans meant our Northern Sea Route. Firstly, secondly, it is extremely difficult in the third; there are convoys.
      1. Veteran
        Veteran 20 June 2016 00: 01
        +4
        Operation "Wunderland", participants - heavy cruiser "Admiral Scheer" and five submarines, target - strike at Arctic communications (defeat of convoys) and ports of the Northern Sea Route. If successful, the next operation, codenamed "Double Strike". Since the first failed, the second did not take place.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 20 June 2016 00: 52
          0
          I say that what for he was needed. Once it didn’t work out and everyone scored. Were more interesting and tastier topics. And to catch trawlers on smp is more expensive; fuel will be more expensive.
          1. Veteran
            Veteran 20 June 2016 19: 07
            +4
            See answer on 19.04
  8. magician
    magician 19 June 2016 20: 54
    +1
    The sailors are the elite of the armed forces, the largest number of technical specialists. Somehow it happened that in Russia the most high-profile victories in the navy and at the same time the defeats are the most high-profile ones.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 19 June 2016 23: 36
      -2
      With epic victories not very, oh since the time of sailing ships almost nothing. We are a purely continental power. Sea dominance is not vital for us.
      1. Loyotta
        Loyotta 20 June 2016 00: 44
        0
        The time has come and the ships go out on the water almost every week, whether someone likes it or not. Bewilderment and confusion will settle in the eyes of the opponents of the "no-cap" vests, since Russia needs them again, and the advantage of the "probable" ones will be greatly corrected in the coming years.
        1. Kenneth
          Kenneth 20 June 2016 00: 56
          -1
          Will not be. What comes down is the coastal small fry. Catch up with the adversary will not work. Yes and no need. We have four poorly connected fleets that cannot be made equally strong. Submarines with shock weapons are our guarantee. And small fry to cover our waters. Enough. The rest is expensive and pointless.
          1. Loyotta
            Loyotta 20 June 2016 01: 19
            0
            I'm afraid even many of those present here will get their eyes on the forehead. "Arctic" and "Ilya Muromets" are not small things, but only 2 years have passed since the "change of course". What happens in the minds of those "capable of making decisions" constitutes a personal space, I would recommend only to carefully monitor what exactly and when will be done. It seems that all this will be.
  9. Loyotta
    Loyotta 20 June 2016 00: 29
    0
    The answer is in the book of Commander-in-Chief N.G. Kuznetsov's "Course towards victory", where he writes about an unusual quality for a fleet commander - the ability to express frustration to tears when criticized, the mention of the appearance of "Spanish hidalgo" looks derisive here. In this situation, even a slight ridicule for I.V. Stalin was enough to deprive an obviously deserved man of a high honor.