During the years of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet special services intercepted many important documents of the enemy, showing the intentions of the carriers of the "new order" invading our territory from various sides. The documentation of the German occupation authorities, including the recently declassified documents of the Archives of the President of the Russian Federation, is the answer to those whom the Nazis see as almost "civilizers" and "saviors from the Bolshevik plague."
From the bins Merkulov
11 March 1944, at a time when Kiev was already liberated by the Red Army, and the liberation of other regions of the Ukrainian SSR was actively preparing and was a matter of the immediate future, Vsevolod Nikolaevich Merkulov, people's commissar of the USSR State Security, sent an important document with such accompanying note to Stalin : The NKGB of the USSR presents a photocopy and a translation of the Directive for Employee Orientation, issued by the imperial commissar of Ukraine. This directive was sent to 22 on June 1942, by the head of the SS and the head of the police poplars leaders of the SS and police leaders of a number of Ukrainian regions. The document found NKGB authorities in Kiev "1.
The directive came from the supreme leader of the SS and the police at the Reich Commissar of Ukraine, Hans Adolf Pryutsman2. For him, the document was signed by the chief of staff, colonel of the security police Muller-Brunkhorst. The paper was sent to "leaders of the SS and the police in Brest - Zhytomyr - Kiev - Nikolaev - Dnepropetrovsk - Chernigov - Kharkov" 3.
The reason for writing the paper was one sad fact for the Germans: it turns out that "the employees of the imperial commissar and subordinate authorities often find themselves in a difficult situation when Ukrainians ask them specific and, in most cases, specific questions. As is evident from experience, these questions always concern the same areas and below they are answered in a certain order "4.
Campaign flyer 1942 of the year.
"Workers go to Germany fun and with songs ..."
The general directive begins, the main motive of which comes down to the fact that Ukrainians with their culture should be dismissed with all German bureaucratic training and talk beautifully about life and work in Germany. Propaganda slogans are combined in this installation with an accentuated disregard for the occupied population: “It’s in the interests of every Ukrainian to help this war triumphantly for the liberator of Ukraine from the Bolshevik yoke. When we make this or that decision, we have in the foreground the question always arises whether the case is decisive or important militarily, we can only take care of things that are not decisive or important for the war, and now, as a rule, we can take care of them oats do not think. With this we answer in advance many questions of Ukrainians, why we don’t organize or do this or that. For example, at the moment we have other concerns than to think about the development of Ukrainian literature; we can only have it in mind "5.
The following are answers to the most sensitive issues for occupation officials. There were exactly six of these problems, four of which are particularly noteworthy:
"a) What geographical and state shape will Ukraine take in the future?
Answer: The final answer to these questions will be given only by the Führer. There is no doubt that the Führer will not make a decision until the end of the Eastern campaign; it is very likely that he will make a decision only at the end of the war.
b) What are the German authorities doing for the development of Ukrainian culture?
Answer: In general terms, the answer to this question has already been given in the introduction. However, the creation of prerequisites for the restoration of Ukrainian culture was not the immediate goal of the struggle of our soldiers. Now it is important with joint efforts to create prerequisites for victory in the field of food and farming. This should not mean that we are striving to bring Ukraine into a state of lack of culture or want to oppress the cultural institutions of Ukrainians. We do not prevent Ukrainians from putting Ukrainian plays in the Ukrainian theaters that are still available with forces that are still at their disposal. We give them the opportunity to watch movies in their cinemas again. We treat favorably the Ukrainian national attires and Ukrainian folk songs. As soon as the war ends and there will be enough paper again, the possibility of reprinting the old or creating a new Ukrainian literature will appear. The fact that we confiscated the radios and have not yet returned them is explained by the following: the war is fought not only by fire but also by spiritual weapons. As the rear areas must be protected from enemy fire, so must the population in the rear be protected from the effects of enemy propaganda. It is perfectly established that a significant percentage of Ukrainians, Russians and Poles spreads enemy propaganda and thus causes unrest and unrest. [...]
e) How will the food situation develop?
Answer: The rural population of Ukraine is sufficiently supplied with food. In addition, to a greater or lesser proximity to cities, it has reached unprecedented wealth so far. That the urban population cannot be sufficiently supplied with food is not our fault. We, of course, do everything we can to eliminate this evil, especially with regard to those who work. Since the Bolsheviks destroyed the means of transport and, in addition, many agricultural means of production, in the near future we cannot count on a radical change in this situation. However, these complaints are often exaggerated. Not a single Ukrainian has died of hunger.
f) How are Ukrainians recruited for Germany used?
Answer: It is rumored that Ukrainians recruited for Germany are allegedly being used at the front for earthworks and similar purposes. The spread of these rumors has already kept many volunteers. Not a single Ukrainian who registered for work in the Empire has been used so far otherwise than for work in the Empire. Workers go to Germany fun and with songs and eager to get acquainted with the German conditions of life "6.
Women are sent to forced labor in Germany. Kiev. Train Station.
"Germans should not accept invitations from Ukrainians"
Having answered the burning questions, the directive further suggests to German officials how to treat the peoples living in Ukraine. The first on the list are the local Germans, they are not specifically insulted: "... it should be borne in mind that the local German is, above all, German. There were alleged cases when supervisory authorities beat non-imperial Germans. It goes without saying the attitude towards the local Germans will be punished in the strictest terms. The local Germans need only education and direction "7.
But to the Ukrainians, even to the fact that, according to the directive, the fed and merry go and drive, the attitude is completely different and very frank:
"Ukrainians need guidance.
During the stories they proved incapable of independence. But if they are well managed and directed by them, then they are an obedient workforce. Under good supervision, they are even punctual and diligent. If the Ukrainians do not work well, then, given the above circumstances, this is our fault. Ukrainians also can not be beat. But they must be led firmly. Against lazy and recalcitrant elements there is a means of admonition. Their objection that they cannot buy what they would like for our salary should be refuted by pointing out that it was not we, but the Bolsheviks who were engaged in systematic destruction and removal of all values.
Germans should not accept invitations from Ukrainians. Not only in conversation, but also in behavior, extreme restraint is necessary. Intimate relations with Ukrainians, as is known, are not resolved "8.
This is the whole "new order" in the utmost nude, just such is the "civilizing mission" of the Nazis occupying Ukraine.
"The Germans make up the leadership in this country"
More strictly prescribes the directive to treat the Poles living in Ukraine, Jews and Russians. Poles should be pushed in every possible way compared to Ukrainians: “300 000 Poles live in Volyn, strongly emphasizing their national identity. They refuse to speak differently than in Polish, and are the same Poles as murderers from Bydgoszcz. They were attached to the Soviet Union only over the past two years. Before the war against Poland, they were part of the whole people of congress Poland, a people whose nature we met again in this war. They deserve exactly the same treatment as Poles in Germany, or as Poles in the Governor-Generalship, who we described as invitations from them and visiting them are not worthy of the Germans. We should limit ourselves to official relationships with them. Their national pride will be broken. In Volyn, as in Ukraine as a whole, there will be no more Polish schools, Polish culture will not be allowed, only Roman Catholic worship in Polish will be allowed only to special order. By the way, the Poles still continue to wage a national struggle against the Ukrainians. Where we assign a Pole to any post, we insult the Ukrainians, who in most cases do not understand our behavior in this matter. Therefore, it is necessary to gradually remove the Poles from the leading and privileged posts and replace them with Ukrainians or Russians. When choosing, preference should be given to Ukrainians "9.
In the next year, 1943, the Polish-Ukrainian contradictions resulted, as is known, into a bloody "Volyn massacre"; and it is precisely this German policy of suppressing two nations that played a significant role in the causes of this tragedy, and not the mythical "NKVD machinations", as the modern Polish version of 10 says.
For any communication with the Jews, the directive threatens severe punishments: "Anyone who conducts other conversations with Jews, except for purely official, is an unworthy person and deprived of instinct, and he should be called to order by all means. They do not greet the Jews. Any personal communication with them entails punishment. "11.
In Russian, the directive on behalf of Prutsman sees first of all the staunch bearers of the VKP (b) ideology: "They were Bolsheviks for 25 years, and most of them are still now. Some of them pretend to be loyal to us. Bolsheviks fanatics sometimes they accuse the Bolshevik agitation of those Russians about whom the present Bolsheviks know that they sympathize with us. Thus they try to use our ignorance of the actual state of things and make us accomplices of Bolshevik agitation. Inventions from the Russians should be carefully checked. In some cases, the Bolsheviks have already succeeded with our help to neutralize the Russians friendly to us according to the “Hold the Thief.” Thus, those Russians who were Bolsheviks for 25 years require special vigilance on our part. Bad communication with them is dangerous. ”12.
Hitler's invaders are the only higher caste in Ukraine in the summer of 1942,
"The Germans are in this country leading layer. People belonging to the leading layer cannot perform rough work in front of the leaders. It is unwise to have German officials themselves wear their boots across the street to a shoemaker, walk with buckets and other utensils along common public roads No matter how sad it is in another respect, it is impossible for the Germans here to cultivate and dig up the kindergarten themselves. For this, there are Jews and Poles, as well as Ukrainians and Russians. Also, we, Germans, should not come to the cities, squatting in straw on the body It is necessary that a German belonging to a leading stratum can be recognized only by his behavior in society, and not only in form. A German who appeared drunk before Ukrainians, that is, to the public, should be punished. ”13 .
Thus, exactly one year after the start of the war with the USSR, 22 June 1942, the Nazi authorities extremely frankly and cynically explained to their subordinates the mechanisms of their misanthropic policy towards Ukraine and its population. Under the guise of “liberation from the Bolsheviks”, there was a humiliating enslavement that was interrupted in addition to the wishes of the invaders by the Red Army, which liberated Ukraine from the “leading layer”.
1. AP RF. F. 3. Op. 58. D. 457. L. 125.
2. Prutsman Hans Adolf (1901-1945), a native of East Prussia, one of the leaders of the occupation regime in the USSR, Obergruppenführer SS (1941), Police General (1941), SS General of the SS (1944). From December 1941 - the highest head of the SS and the police in southern Russia. In May, 1945 was arrested by Anglo-American troops, committed suicide in prison.
3. AP RF. F. 3. Op. 58. D. 457. L. 126.
5. Ibid. L. 127.
6. Ibid. L. 127-129.
7. Ibid. L. 130.
9. Ibid. L. 131-132.
10. For more details, see: Borisyonok Yu. Bubbles make noise over the bones ... Volyn Massacre and "Newspaper Vyborcha": two steps back, one step forward // Homeland. 2013. N 5. C. 26-31.
11. AP RF. F. 3. Op. 58. D. 457. L. 132.
12. Ibid. L. 132-133.
13. Ibid. L. 133.