History The exchange of news begins in ancient times, when information was transmitted by the smoke of bonfires, blows to the signal drum, and the sounds of pipes. Then they began to send messengers with oral, and later, written messages. The first post intercourse in ancient Russia in the XI-XIII centuries. existed only between the specific princes, who with the help of special messengers corresponded with each other and sent orders to their subordinate boyars. At the time of the Mongol-Tatar yoke, the Tatars established stations along the paths of their conquests - “pits” with messengers, which meant only “a place to stop”. They could make the necessary exchange of horses, find accommodation, a table, the necessary continuation of the path of people. This word was then strengthened in Russian, and served as the root for the following word formations: “driver — postal courier”, “Yamskaya chase”, i.e. mail, “Yamskaya road” - postal path.
In 60 – 90 XV century. a national pits system was created. Already in 1490, the Yamskoy clerk Timofey Maklakov was mentioned, who was in charge of the driver and the Yamsk service. Initially, there was no special institution under Yam clerks, and they supervised the service using the clerical staff of the Treasury order. In 1550, the Yamskaya izba was first mentioned, and from 1574, the Yamskoy order, as the central management bodies of this service, is mentioned. During the period of existence of the discharge control system of the Russian state, the central state institution in charge of the military personnel was the Discharge Order, which was preserved from 1531. It was the military couriers of the Discharge Order that used the Yamsky Order service to transport the most important state correspondence (tsarist letters and etc.).
6 (16) July 1659, by decree of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, established the first route directly military courier communication from Moscow to Kaluga and further to Sevsk, and from 19 (29) September 1659, it was extended to Putivl. This route played a certain role in the timely delivery of military orders to the troops operating in Ukraine during the Russian-Polish war of 1654 – 1667.
In the pre-Petrine era, emergency correspondence to the army did not have any particular name. At the end of the XVII - the beginning of the XVIII century. began to talk about "mail to the shelves." In 1710's during the Northern War, temporary military-field lines of “urgent communication”, called “post to shelf”, were laid from the capitals to the front and the sites of the Russian troops. In particular, the print of the postal stamp with the text “From Moscow to the Shelves” is known, which was put on the accompanying documents of the post and on the postal bag.
This name existed for several years, after which it irrevocably disappeared, giving way to a new one. For the first time, the phrase “field mail” appears in the documents of May 1712. It, as a special service providing postal communications in the army, was first established in 1695 by the Russian emperor Peter I during the first Azov campaign in 30, where "the kindest people" performed the duties of government couriers. The creation of the regular army of Russia in the early XVIII century. demanded the centralization and streamlining of the delivery system of the relevant documents both to the troops stationed in the theater of operations and to the military control bodies of the troops. To this end, in the Military Charter approved by the Decree of Emperor Peter I 10 of March (1716 April) XNUMX, it was stated “that the field post was established during the army”, because “during correspondence many of the correspondence ... were sent to be sent”. Two chapters of the statute: XXXV - “On the rank of the field post office” and XXXVI - “On the field postmaster” defined the purpose and tasks of the military field post and the duties of the postmaster.
The charter officially fixed the concept of "field mail". It was established at the time of hostilities for intercourse of the army with the already existing stationary postal lines. Military correspondence was delivered to stationary post offices by special military couriers. With the introduction of the charter in the Russian language, the word postman first appeared. ” Couriers carried letters behind the obsculate uniform, they were not supposed to carry a bag. The main difference of the field post was that it cost the army horses and feed. In most cases, the same courier carried mail from the regiment to the nearest post office and at the intermediate stations only changed horses, since the length of the lines was relatively small (usually not more than 100 versts). In accordance with the charter, field post offices for the first time are created in large military formations and shelves as part of the postmaster, two clerks, several postmen and a clerk-registrar. The postmen, who were standing at the temporary camps, delivered it. Military postmen along with the rest of the soldiers took direct part in the battles. Field post offices existed until 1732, then the correspondence delivery service was kept only at army headquarters.
Form of ranks of the Courier Corps
in the reign of Emperor Paul I.
in the reign of Emperor Paul I.
17 (28) December 1796 was established by decree of Emperor Paul I - the Feldgeuer Corps was established - a special-purpose military unit to carry out the communication service and fulfill the emperor's orders, and also one corps staff and 13 feldgeregey. The captain Shelganin, who led the corps from 1796 to 1799, was appointed chief of the feldjegeri group. In the period from 1796 to 1808. The corps of corps was under the jurisdiction of the Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty and submitted to Count A.Kh. Livenu.
26 January (7 February) 1808, by decree of Emperor Alexander I, the Courier Corps was placed under the control of the Minister of War.
Courier N.I. Mathison passes the package to Prince PI Bagration during the battle of Borodino 1812. Artist A.S. Chagadaev.
During the years of World War 1812, the personnel of the corps, led by Lieutenant Colonel N.Ye. Kastorsky ensured the maintenance of constant and uninterrupted communication of Field Marshal M.I., Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army. Kutuzov with the Emperor (Moscow-Petersburg; Tarutino-Petersburg). Under the command of 1 Army General M.V. Barclay de Tolly was a SI courier. Perfilyev, under the commander of the 2-th army, General P.I. Bagration - N.I. Mathison
The number and staffing structure of the corps underwent a change depending on the volume of the tasks solved at different times. So, in June 1816, by the decree of the emperor Alexander I, the new staff of the Courier Corps was approved. The corps was divided into 3 companies, each of which was determined by the captain, 6 junior officers, and 80 couriers.
Subsequently, officers and feldzhegers were used not only for delivering particularly important dispatches, but also for the coronation of Russian emperors, their escorts and members of the imperial house during voyages across the country and abroad, maintaining regular communication with the imperial palaces located in the suburbs of the capital and in the Crimea . They also accompanied state and military leaders suspected of political unreliability, as well as heads of state, foreign guests and other government officials.
The corps personnel and in peacetime periodically served by courier communications of the commanders-in-chiefs of armies and commanders of large formations, and during the period of military maneuvers small independent courier teams (departments) were created for their service and special routes were established that were connected with the capital.
During wars, officers and corps feldjegers were used in combat conditions by army commanders and for the transfer of orders and orders. Thus, more than half of the corps officers and feldögeres visited the Crimean War 1853-1856. in Sevastopol with government correspondence, often delivering it in a difficult combat situation. With the beginning of the war with Japan, 15 officers and 13 feldzhegery on the orders of Emperor Nicholas II were seconded to the army at the disposal of the military command.
By the beginning of the First World War there was a well-coordinated institute of military field mail, which was supposed to provide mutual postal communication between the front and the rear of the country. The main functions of this post were: forwarding mail of army personnel from the front to the rear and from the rear to the recipients at the front; forwarding unclassified official correspondence of military units and institutions; forwarding and delivery of newspapers and other periodicals to the recipients at the front. During the war itself, the delivery of orders, reports, securities, parcels, as well as escort of high-ranking officials provided the personnel of the Courier Corps.
18 July 1914 by order of the Chief of General Staff a group of officers in the number of 20 people departed at the disposal of the Supreme Commander and the headquarters of the frontline military districts to use them as couriers in the Army, and after 2 of the day 4 - at the disposal of the Military March office of his imperial majesty.
Thus, during the long period of existence of the Russian army, the Courier Corps operating in its structure was a special military unit that ensured the delivery of the most important correspondence, both in the interests of the government and the military.
Along with the Feldjeger Corps, the field post continued to operate in the Russian army, which was led by a duty general in the Army in the field. Depending on the needs of the field mail has changed. So, in the Russian-Japanese war 1904-1905. it consisted of two main field post offices and a corresponding number of post offices at army headquarters and corps. World War I 1914 - 1918 10 was already organized by the main post offices, as well as 16 - at the army headquarters, 75 - at the corps headquarters.
After the October Revolution, 1917 with the formation of the Red Army and until 1922, the system operating in the Russian army was the basis for the organization of the field mail service of the Red Army. 2 May 1918 was created on the basis of the abolished imperial courier corps was created by the External Communication Service under the Office of the commanding staff of the All-Russian General Staff. She provided delivery of government and military correspondence throughout the country, to the headquarters of the fronts and military districts. Its staff consisted of 30, and since May 1919 was made from 45 people, and after a few months it was increased by another 41 person, and the Council of the All-Russian General Staff was given the right to decide on their own questions about the staff of the Service. Simultaneously, in the period from November 1917 to December 1920, first in Petrograd and then in Moscow, a military team of breeders operated at the Council of Affairs of the Council of People's Commissars of the Republic, delivering correspondence to state, Soviet, party, trade union bodies located in the capital.
From October 1919, the leadership of all military and field mail service was under the jurisdiction of the Communications Directorate of the Red Army. 23 November 1920. By order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic No. 2538, the creation of the Courier Corps under the Red Army Communications Directorate was announced, which ensured the delivery of not only military, but also government correspondence. Since January 1, 1921 has included: External communication service of the Vseoglavshtab; courier unit at the headquarters of the commander of the naval forces; the communications department of couriers of the Field Staff of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic; a number of other small units of courier communications that existed under certain departments of the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs. Order No. 2538 approved the state of the Courier Corps in the number of 255 people, including the courier's 154.
6 August 1921 was in parallel formed by the courier section at the Cheka Administration, in 1922, transformed into the Courier building. The delivery of non-resident correspondence of the SNK, the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, people's commissariats of internal affairs, communications, foreign affairs, defense, and the State Bank was entrusted to him.
Financial difficulties have forced not only to significantly reduce the functions of the army courier communications, but also to reduce the number of personnel. So, on 1 in August, 1923 in the Courier Corps by state was supposed to have only 65 people, of whom 55 were feldgegerey. The courier squads at the military districts headquarters were also disbanded.
On the basis of a joint order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and the OGPU for the number 1222 / 92 and 358 / 117 from 30 September 1924, the Red Army Corps of the Red Army was disbanded, and non-resident delivery of secret, top secret and important correspondence of units, departments, institutions and military departments This order was entrusted to the OGPU feldjegersky building. Thus, this corps has become a nation-wide courier connection with a circuit of courier routes covering 406 cities and other settlements of the country.
In the prewar years, when the army was not large, postal exchange was carried out through stationary civilian post offices.
In this form, courier service worked until 17 in June of 1939, when it was divided by a decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR. Under the jurisdiction of the courier communications department of the NKVD, service was maintained for the most important state and party organs with the delivery of correspondence to the largest republican, regional and district centers; delivery of correspondence to other settlements was transferred to the Main Center for Special Communications of the People's Commissariat of Communications; transportation of valuables and money was entrusted to the collection service of the State Bank.
The courier communications of the NKVD carried out special missions under the auspices of the military department, especially during the holding of large military maneuvers of the Red Army. In such cases, special courier field offices were created, which helped to manage the troops, ensuring the timely and reliable delivery of secret documents.
A huge army of military communications sign-mailers marched with the troops along the roads of the Great Patriotic War. Already on its second day, the People's Commissariat of Communications (NCC) deployed the Main Military Post Sorting Facility (GVPSP) in the buildings of two schools vacated as a result of the evacuation of children from Moscow. On all fronts and in large administrative centers military postal sorting points (PPSPs) were created, with each army - military postal bases (PSCs), and at the headquarters of formations, armies and fronts - field postal stations (PPS). ), through which was the processing of postal correspondence, newspapers and magazines, leaflets and propaganda literature and its delivery to recipients. The management of the entire network of field postal institutions of the fronts and armies was carried out respectively by the Front Communications and the inspectorates of communications of the armies. General management was entrusted to the Central Field Communication Office of the NCC.
Issuance of correspondence at the field post station during the Great Patriotic War.
The main content of the work of the military field mail was the processing, transportation and delivery of written correspondence, parcels, newspapers and magazines to personnel from higher headquarters to the smallest units that were at the front, as well as transportation and sending letters and money transfers from the front to the rear of the country .
Feldsvyaz was used at all levels of command - from the front headquarters to the regiment, inclusive. It was carried out by mobile communications units (mobile communications) that were part of the communications troops. The main ways of its organization were: along the axis, directions and circular routes. At great distances, directions were created with combined use aviation, land and water vehicles. Near the command posts and along the communications axis, dispatch points were deployed, which included expeditions for registering correspondence, vehicles, couriers, and accompanying guards. At the command posts of the associations, runways were equipped to receive communications aircraft.
Secret correspondence from the central directorates of the People's Commissariat of Defense (NPO) to the front was processed by the 1st expedition of the NPO, which handed it over to the NKVD and special communications division of the NKVD. This correspondence was delivered to the fronts by the employees of these bodies by rail and by airplanes allocated for this purpose by NPOs.
From 1 in March 1942, distinctive address labels “Voinsky” were attached to all the bags with military mail, and they were sent first.
By order of the People's Commissar of Defense No. 0949 of 6 December 1942, “On the reorganization of the dislocation and postal service of the Red Army and military field mail,” the bodies of military field mail were removed from the AUC system and transferred to the head of the Chief Communications Administration of the Red Army (GUSKA) . 18 December 1942, by the order of People's Commissar of Defense No. 0964 “On the establishment of the Military Post Office and the military field post offices and communications warehouses as part of the General Communications Directorate”, creates the Directorate of the military field mail GUSKA on the basis of the dispatch postal department GUSKA and NCC field mail, and departments and offices of field communications of NCC fronts and armies are reorganized into departments and offices of military field mail of communications departments of fronts and army communications departments.
For the NCC, there remained only the allocation of specialists for field mail formations, as well as their supply with special postal equipment and operational materials in a centralized manner.
The order of addressing correspondence in the Red Army and the rules of communication between military units and formations with civil organizations and individuals during the war years changed twice: September 5, 1942, and February 6, 1943. The latter was introduced by order of the Deputy Commissar of Defense No. 0105. He introduced a new system of code names for directorates, unions, formations, units and institutions of the Army in Action, as well as combat units of military districts. Instead of three-digit, five-digit conventional numbers of parts, called the phrase “Military unit - field mail”, became five-digit. This system has fully justified itself, it has been preserved until the end of the war, and it is still used today.
Postal correspondence and periodicals coming from the rear of the country were processed and sorted on the EPSP and the GPB, after which the PPP of the compounds were sent, where they were received by postmen of the units and handed over to the soldier. From the front to the rear, mail correspondence followed in the opposite direction. At the same time, the postman's path from the PPS to dugouts and trenches was often tens of kilometers and passed under the bullets of the enemy. Despite all the difficulties, thanks to the dedicated work of the post enterprises of the NCC and units and subunits of the military field mail of NPOs, postal communication within the country, the rear with the front, the front with the rear, was maintained regularly, and the letter to the front was delivered on the fourth day. Letters and newspapers received at the front, according to the figurative expression of employees of military field mail, were not inferior in their significance to a military projectile. 18 August Pravda 1941 wrote: “It is important that the fighter’s letter to the family, letters and parcels to the fighters who come from all over the country should not be delayed by the fault of the signalers. Each such letter, each such sending in the name of fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters, relatives and friends, in the name of the entire Soviet people, is pouring new forces into the fighter, inspiring him to new feats. ” And they did not linger, because the slightest delay in military correspondence, filing, processing defects were regarded as an official crime, with all the ensuing consequences. For military mail, by consequences it was like an order “Not one step back!” On the front line.
Newspapers were transported from the center by the GlavPUR aviation regiment and Civil Airplanes fleet, as well as, in the order of loading, the aircraft of the air division GUSKA, which provides communication between Moscow and the front-line reporting points.
Formation of postal cargo during the Great Patriotic War.
Military field mail workers under the leadership of the People's Commissar of Communications, the Deputy People's Commissar of Defense, the Chief of GUSKA Marshal of the Communications Forces I.T. Peresypkin and the Chief of the Department of military field mail GUSKA, Major-General GI. During the war years, Gnedin carried out an enormous amount of work on the shipment and delivery of military mail. Monthly it was delivered to the Army to 70 million letters and more than 30 million newspapers, while the Main Intelligence Directorate received, processed and sent more than 100 thousand tons of mail, 843 million letters, 2,7 billion sheets, posters, brochures and books, 753 million copies of newspapers and magazines.
Also 3 million parcels were received and sent. From 1 in January 1945 in the UPU was opened to receive personal parcels from Red Army soldiers, sergeants, officers of units, formations and institutions, as well as from generals of active fronts of the Red Army to be sent to the rear of the country. They were shipped no more than once a month in size: for privates and sergeants - 5 kg, for officers - 10 kg and for generals - 16 kg.
Military parcels from the Red Army and non-commissioned officers were accepted free of charge, from officers and generals for a payment of 2 rubles per kilogram. In this case, the parcels were accepted with the declared value: from private and non-commissioned officers - up to 1000 rubles, from officers to 2000 rubles and from generals - to 3000 rubles with the collection of the insurance fee at the current rate.
To receive postal parcels by the GUSKA chief, Marshal of the Communications Forces I.T. Peresypkin created: as part of the UPU connections, a three-person postal parcel department; as part of the army UPU 1-th and 2-th echelons - separation of parcels of two people in each; in the army, a parcel department of 15 people; in the front of the UPU 1-th and 2-th echelons - separation of parcels of two people in each; in the composition of the front VPSP - the department of parcels from 20 people.
Receiving packages on the fronts and sending them to the addressees caused a lot of difficulties. In Europe, there was no regular post-passenger railway traffic, there were no post transport institutions that performed this work on the territory of the USSR. The military field post abroad did not have the opportunity to carry out a detailed sorting of parcels and send them to the stationary enterprises of the NCC for delivery to the addressees. This led to their accumulation of fronts on the EPSP, delayed departure and even capture by the enemy. For example, in 1945, during the German counterstrike at Lake Balaton, one of the Fronts of the 3 of the Ukrainian Front did not have time to remove the 1,5 thousand packages that had accumulated there, and they fell into the hands of the Germans.
Marshal Peresypkin made a decision to concentrate all parcels arriving at the PPS to concentrate on the FSSP fronts, then send them by special railway transports to Riga, Leningrad, Murmansk, Minsk, Kiev and Moscow. There they were sorted and sent in their usual ways to local communications enterprises NCC.
But no one imagined that there would be such a huge amount of load on the mail. In the first days, after permission to send parcels from the front, tens of thousands of them began to arrive at field post offices, then in a few weeks - millions. So, if in January 1945 the 3 27 parcels were sent from the 149 of the Belarusian front, in February the 197 206 was sent, and in March the 339 965 was sent. Moscow, albeit with great pressure, coped with a sharply increased amount of work. However, in other cities there are difficulties. A particularly acute situation was created at the Kiev railway junction, where more than 500 cars with parcels accumulated, filling all the roads and disrupting the normal operation of this junction. To eliminate this congestion and normalize the operation of the node, Marshal I.T. Peresypkin. He drew for unloading cars, sorting parcels of all employees of city communications enterprises, cadets of the Kiev Military School of Communications, to send parcels to the specified addresses
Working with packages is only one example of the activity of military field mail, which characterizes both the nature and the volume of its work during the war years. Its personnel selflessly carried out their modest service in the headquarters and in the combat formations of the troops, often under artillery fire and during enemy bombardments, fulfilling their duty to the Motherland. Maria Pavlovna Perkanyuk, Deputy Chief of the UPU No. 57280, recalled: “I didn’t kill a single German, but in my heart there was so much hatred for the enemy and pain for the Motherland that every strike was a postmark, it struck me against the fascists.”
Monument to the military postman. Sculptor A.I. Ignatov. Opened in Voronezh 7 May 2015
7 in May 2015, the first in Russia monument to military postman by sculptor A. Ignatov Studio of Military Artists named after MB was opened at the Voronezh Main Post Office building. Grekov, in which the postman of the Voronezh Front was captured by the corporal Ivan Leontyev.
In the post-war period, as the number of armed forces of the USSR was reduced and the units were disbanded, the number of military-postal institutions decreased. In March, the 1946 of the Office of Military Field Mail was renamed to the Department of Military Field Mail of the Office of the Chief of the Communications Forces of the Ground Forces of the USSR Armed Forces, from April 1948 to the Department of Military Field Mail of the Office of the Chief of the Communication Forces of the Soviet Army, from October 1958 g - to the Military Mail Service of the Office of the Communications Troops of the USSR Ministry of Defense.
16 January 1965, in accordance with the decision of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR, organizational consolidation of units, bodies and institutions of military mail into unified bodies and institutions of courier mail service was formed and the Military Mail Service of the USSR Ministry of Defense was formed.
In July, 1966, the Military Mail Service of the USSR Ministry of Defense, was renamed the courier service of the USSR Ministry of Defense.
1 July 1971 was deployed in the USSR Armed Forces 39 nodes and 199 stations of courier mail service. In the 1990-ies, the AF FPS system consisted of 44 node and 217 FPS stations. More than 10 million secret shipments per year were processed. The staff number of nodes and stations of the FPS was 3.954 thousand people.
In February, 1991, the courier mail service (USSR Ministry of Defense) was reorganized into the courier mail service department of the USSR Ministry of Defense, and in June, 1992 - into the RF courier mail service office.
Since April, 2012, the Office of courier mail service of the RF Armed Forces is part of the General Directorate of Communications of the RF Armed Forces.
In the post-war period, courier-postal specialists were provided daily by postal service by Soviet soldiers serving in the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mongolia, Vietnam, Angola, and Cuba. A special page in the history of courier-postal communication is her work in the Limited contingent of Soviet troops in the Republic of Afghanistan and the grouping of troops in the Chechen Republic.
Station courier in Afghanistan, Kabul Airport, 1987
The network of courier-postal communications of the RF Armed Forces currently has more than 150 FPS units (headquarters of military districts, fleets, associations) and stations of courier-postal communications (connections and garrisons). In addition, military correspondence is delivered to Russian troops stationed in Armenia, Belarus, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Abkhazia. In total, the network includes about 2000 military personnel, contractors and civilian personnel, about 300 units of courier-mail communications. In total, more than 1000 routes (air, rail, road and foot) with a total length of more than 150 thousand km are organized in the Armed Forces. FPS is assigned to the sites and stations for servicing about 10 of thousands of military units and organizations of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. Every year, nodes and stations of the Federal Border Guard Service of the Russian Armed Forces process and deliver more than 3 million (about 5 ths. Tons) of only simple official mail.
An invaluable contribution to the formation and development of the Service was made by its chiefs, Major General GI. Gnedin (1941 – 1945), Colonels F.F. Stepanov (1958 – 1961) and B.P. Melkov (1961 – 1972), Major General V.V. Timofeev (1972 – 1988), Lieutenant General E.G. Ostrovsky (1989 – 1990), Major-General V.D. Durnev (1990 – 2006), Col. LA Semenchenko (2006 - n / a); officers - colonels ga Juror, PM Titchenko, N.M. Kozhevnikov, A.I. Chernikov, V.V. Vasilenko, B.F. Fitzurin, Major General of Internal Service A.N. Salnikov, as well as officers who are now serving - Captain I rank FZ Minnikhanov, colonels - A.A. Zhelyabin, A.B. Suzy, I.A. Shahs and many others. They and their subordinates have a great merit in securing, by mail, communication to millions of people in our country with their families and friends.
Historically, courier mail service is historically the successor of the field mail, first created by 30 in March (10 in April) 1716 was the great Russian reformer, Emperor Peter I. This powerful, reliably managed, mobile structure is able to successfully solve everything the tasks assigned to it are still the most reliable, reliable, effective and, most importantly, the type of communications necessary for command and control of troops.