Military Review

When the continents were big. Bandeirante

21
When the continents were big. Bandeirante



How are boundaries between states established? Weird question! We are used to looking at the political map of the world and seeing a jumble of colored patches. So it happened, yes, there were wars, invasions, the collapse of empires and the liberation of the colonies. We can easily understand the boundaries of today's Britain or Spain.

With the New World, everything is a bit more interesting. As we all know, there was a period when it was all colonies. English, Spanish, French, Dutch. We know best история United States of America. She can even be said to have “forced on her teeth.” To the south of Rio Grande - there were mainly located the Spanish colonies, the fate of which is also quite well known.

The French began brightly, but were later ousted, and only a memory of them remained in the form of French-speaking Quebec in Canada. Other European nations left behind even less.

Brazil. Brazil is not a Spanish-speaking country. This country was founded by the Portuguese. Yes, that's right - the largest country in Latin America was founded by immigrants from small Portugal. Today, by the population of 200 million and by the territory of 8,5 million square kilometers, it ranks fifth in the world. And they all speak Portuguese. For comparison, the US has about 325 million population and 9,5 million square kilometers.


This is not Christopher Columbus

So, the country is big, one can say, leaving Russia aside, gigantic. Let's look at the map of South America: the descendants of Magellan grabbed a lot of themselves. Lots of. The next natural question is that we are all a bit Ukrainians: “How did they manage to do this?” The land is the product that “is no longer produced”. If someone decides to found a new power today, he will be completely disappointed: this is simply nowhere to do. Alas, the Germans encountered this at the end of the 19 century: the entire power of the Second Reich was absolutely not enough for full-scale imperial construction.

We know what happened next: two world wars and modern Germany, which is comparable in size to my native Sverdlovsk region (a bit more). I would like to ask this very question: who contributed to the creation of such a large state?

Bandeyranchis. In Portuguese, the original is bandeirantes (standard-bearers). It is said this way, in the Russian version I met the “banderants”. We will not reinvent the wheel and breed terms - so are bandeirants. Accordingly, their expeditions were called “bandeirs” (banners). I agree, in the light of recent political events sounds quite funny.

So who were these, these same bandeerants? The simplest and most understandable analogy, but, of course, only an analogy, for the Russian people - this is the expedition of Ermak and others like him. First of all, it should be noted - they were not financed by the state. The state was not interested, or something like that. Ahead lay a huge, virginal continent full of treasures and mysteries, but the planters from the coast were not very interested. Namely, they controlled political processes.

In the Spanish colonies, the sentiments were about the same - to seize and export to Europe what is badly lying near the coast. That, in principle, from an economic point of view is quite logical and justified. Transportation by land before the advent of railways is expensive, it is very, very expensive. It is not surprising that the vast continent of South America was developing very slowly. Yes, of course, there were expeditions in search of El Dorado. This is a separate big interesting topic.

But in general, the dense tropical forests and plateaus in the center of the continent did not attract the masses of people willing to settle there. It is impossible to compare with North America - there the climate is different, more suitable for the white man. About Brazil, the Brazilians have the following expression: “A person is happy in a selva for two days - the first when he enters and is fascinated by her beauty, and the last - when he breaks out of this green hell”.

In general, the task facing the Portuguese “explorers” was not simpler, but perhaps even more difficult than before explorers from Moscow Russia (a white man does not live in such a climate for a long time, a sea of ​​diseases or may just start to rot alive from a small injury). But what attracted them to this murderous green hell? Yasak local people they were not going to obkladyvat. Brazilian furs are so-so.

The following is a map of the expedition. The blue arrows mean expeditions in order to capture the Indians in captivity. Yes, the Brazilians imported the ancestors of the slave Izaura from Africa, but they did not disdain the local labor force either. Although it seems to be one Negro was worth as ten Indians.

Dark Brown are expeditions in search of mineral resources. Brazil is very rich in these very resources. In this case, looking for gold and silver. And they found that characteristic.

Light brown - well, this is for the sake of searching for new souls that can be turned into Catholicism (the same Indians, paradoxical as it may be!)



The picture, I hope, is clear. These very Banderantes were certainly not holy, by no means. I must say, the Spanish colonists frankly hated them and considered bandits, in many ways, by the way, fair. There were constant and numerous collisions. By the way, more than half of the territory of modern Brazil (the light yellow part) is behind the Tordesillas meridian ... The descendants of Pizarro and Cortes silently wipe away the tears.



This statue is designed to depict one of the most famous bandeirant, namely António Raposa Tavares or Tavaris (Brazilian pronunciation). See the long, long blue arrow along Madeira and the Amazon? This is it, Tovaris or Tavares (Portuguese version).

But be that as it may, this is the very Bandeira that made Brazil Brazil. As a result of this (the longest) expedition, Portugal laid claim to a gigantic territory in the Amazon basin.

Such here they are, the Portuguese, then Vasco da Gama, then Magellan, then Tovarish. Further, a monument to Bandeirant in the capital of Brazil - Brasilia.



And so, of course, the issue of “new lands” is very interesting: the great France at various times actively mastered the New World, now the north-west of Africa ... But in fact there is little left of this empire: the vast territories on the African continent speak the language Maupassant, however, to the culture and history of France have the most remote relation. But the starting positions of France were simply magnificent: the first in Europe is a truly absolutist, centralized state. Louis XIV, Colbert, powerful fleet, powerful state. And what are the results? And they are not on the map. Virtually nothing was left of the Dutch empire, but at the time of its heyday, in the 17 century, it was the greatest maritime power.

Australia, Canada, USA and New Zealand - everyone knows that. The Spaniards (the superpower of the late Middle Ages) successfully mastered almost the whole of Latin America (before the US-Mexico war, their achievements were even clearer). So, historically, the Spaniards did take revenge on their French enemies: from Rio Grande in the north to Tierra del Fuego in the south, all Latin America speaks mostly Spanish (understandably, with the exception of Brazil).

For reference, the Spanish and Portuguese languages ​​are quite close, the vocabulary is very similar, but it is rather difficult for them to understand each other without an interpreter. Spanish (Castilian) from Spain serves as the standard for the majority of the Spanish-speaking public (South American countries have an accent, but the language is generally the same). We have about the same with the English USA / Britain and even with the French in Quebec. In Brazil, the pronunciation differs from the original Portuguese very, very significantly. And foreigners are taught either one or the other: understanding one does not guarantee understanding of the other. Such is the fun feature. By the way, due to common linguistic roots, a person who speaks Spanish can, in principle, read the text in Portuguese and vice versa and understand seventy percent. But Brazilians and Argentines on the street do not understand each other at all.

It can also be noted that Brazil is the absolute economic leader in Latin America. Hispanic countries lag far behind. And the ratio of the standard of living in the former colonies and the metropolis of Spain is currently forming in favor of the latter, the standard of living in Brazil is much higher than in the “mother” Portugal. Such is the hitch. In my opinion, one of the reasons: Brazil is a large country, with rich natural resources and a significant domestic market. Hispanic countries are highly fragmented and cannot boast of such proportions. Yes, there is Mexico, but this is more of a “backyard” of the United States. Which competitors are not needed.

So the activity of the bandendants had very serious geopolitical consequences. The foundations were laid for a potentially powerful power in Latin America. By the way, we do not write much about it, but the constant “unrest” that has been rolling around Brazil in recent years is explained by just this. While Brazil was a typical Latin American colony of international monopolies (to Lula for sure), nothing of the kind on such a scale was going on there, although the people lived an order of magnitude worse (a colonial tax!). The country began to grow rich, and then endless mass unrest suddenly began, why would it?

Well, it’s also impossible not to mention the racial composition of Brazil, it’s generally interesting to see, for example, football teams from Latin America: if Mexico or Peru is a mixture of Europeans and Indians (in some proportion), and Argentines are practically Europeans, then Brazilians - This is a very wild "mix", the main components of which are: Europeans and Blacks. Just look on the Internet for pictures / videos from there. Brazilians, they seem to have little resemblance and are quite unique. Peculiar such type.

And this large, interesting and unique country has arisen largely due to the fact that those same Banderans hurried themselves in time. The right people in the right place at the right time.

Author:
Photos used:
www.visiteminas.com
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  1. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 18 June 2016 07: 00
    +9
    And in Brazil there was an Empire. The only one in South America. True, there was still an island empire in Haiti, but it should not be taken seriously at all, the right word is more like a farce. And the First and Second Empires in Mexico are already North America.
    The Brazilian Empire is a state that was located on the territory of modern Brazil and Uruguay under the rule of Emperor Pedro I and his son Pedro II.
    After declaring independence from Portugal on September 7, 1822, Brazil became a monarchy, the Brazilian empire, which existed before the Republican government was approved on November 15, 1889. Two emperors sat on the throne during this period: Pedro I, from 1822 to 1831, and Pedro II, from 1840 to 1889. Also, the King of Portugal, Juan VI, held the title of Emperor of Brazil, according to the agreement on the recognition of Brazil's independence.

    State flag of the Brazilian Empire:
    1. Beefeater
      Beefeater 18 June 2016 22: 13
      0
      Well, don Pedro, where there are many wild monkeys. I will add that it was a great rubber power.
  2. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 18 June 2016 07: 35
    +4
    It was interesting to read.
  3. zoknyay82
    zoknyay82 18 June 2016 07: 46
    +7
    ... "The country began to grow richer, and then endless mass unrest suddenly began, why would it be?" ...
    Kuduzh without bosom partners (in the sense of playing for Adam's apple) partners, with multi-colored rebellions, got a little out of the general line and grunted! :-)
    1. visitork67
      visitork67 18 June 2016 08: 07
      +5
      Englishwoman crap. They gave money in debt, set against Paraguay (1866-1870). Four years of war and not for a richer country are high. A piece of the prize land, the economy and the population in the red, and the debt with interest must be returned. Strongly not get hold of.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 18 June 2016 08: 05
    +6
    ... from Liverpool Harbor always on Thursdays,
    Vessels go sailing to distant shores.
    They sail to Brazil, Brazil, Brazil,
    And I want to Brazil, to the distant shores ....
  5. Cherkashin Ivan
    Cherkashin Ivan 18 June 2016 08: 17
    +4
    Thank you, the article is interesting, I did not know anything about these gentlemen. Only one small question arises. Of the three described reasons for the expeditions, two promised profit, but who had to finance the mission expeditions, who?
    Regarding the well-known US history. Yes, we know her, but in the version that the United States broadcasts. It was a discovery not so long ago for me that taxes in the colonies were much less than in England (namely they are sometimes called as one of the main reasons for the uprising) and the support for the revolution was not as universal as they say again. The society was divided and a significant part of it (royalists) immigrated to Canada.
    About the successes of the Portuguese in colonization. I confess that this result was largely due to the great tolerance of the Portuguese towards the indigenous population. I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the quote, but it characterizes well the Portuguese in the colonies: "God created people, and the Portuguese are mulattoes."
    1. Olezhek
      18 June 2016 08: 23
      +2
      Only one small question arises. Of the three described reasons for the expeditions, two promised profit, but who had to finance the mission expeditions, who?


      Probably the holy Catholic church ...

      About the successes of the Portuguese in colonization. I confess that this result was largely due to the great tolerance of the Portuguese towards the indigenous population. I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the quote, but it characterizes well the Portuguese in the colonies: "God created people, and the Portuguese are mulattoes."


      I read that the Portuguese initially lacked racism ...
      So whether I can not vouch for it.
  6. RUSS
    RUSS 18 June 2016 09: 10
    +2
    Correct the author, the Brazilian population is correctly pronounced not by Brazilians, but by Brazilians.
  7. Berserk
    Berserk 18 June 2016 09: 54
    +5
    the article is generally interesting. What struck the eye was the statement that the standard of living in Brazil is higher than in Portugal. This, to put it mildly, is very far from the truth. Not only is the GDP per capita in Portugal almost twice as high, but also in Brazil it has a strong local social stratification.
    1. Olezhek
      18 June 2016 10: 14
      +2
      You may be surprised, but Brazil has a very powerful industry: they do everything from cars to airplanes
      The bundle is like a favela like a gangster
      But in Portugal, the economy is very bad and hopeless ...
  8. Berserk
    Berserk 18 June 2016 10: 35
    +4
    Quote: Olezhek
    You may be surprised, but Brazil has a very powerful industry: they do everything from cars to airplanes
    The bundle is like a favela like a gangster
    But in Portugal, the economy is very bad and hopeless ...


    Nobody argues that over the past 15 years, Brazil has developed very dynamically. Well, China is even more dynamic, and is an industrial superpower. But this in no way means that at the moment in these countries the standard of living is higher than even in lagging European ones. But as for the prospects, I would rather agree.
    1. Beefeater
      Beefeater 18 June 2016 22: 16
      0
      In China, now a pretty decent level.
      Well, Brazil is Volkswagen and cars for alcohol, coffee, rubber, sugar ...
  9. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 18 June 2016 10: 47
    +2
    Thank you for the excellent article! I always loved and love Latin America! An interesting story, the fate of the countries.
    I remember about football, coffee, diamonds, rainforest ...
    I read books by Jorge Amadou as a child, incl. a trilogy about the oppression of workers, in my opinion "The Land of Golden Fruits." I was shocked. A very heavy book.
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 18 June 2016 11: 13
      +3
      Quote: Reptiloid
      I read books by Georges Amadou as a child,

      Read the book "Papillon" (Moth) by Ari Charrière, I recommend you will not regret it!
  10. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 18 June 2016 11: 46
    +5
    at the expense of the high standard of living "in the land of wild monkeys" I strongly doubt .. in large cities there are entire quarters of slums, street crime is off scale there .. the police have the right to use fire weapons without warning .. in a prosperous country this is hardly possible
    1. Olezhek
      18 June 2016 19: 06
      +3
      I did not say that Brazil is the second Switzerland.
      Brazil is one of the highest crime rates in the world.
      In the favela, the Brazilian police do not fuss without light armored vehicles ...
      But - Brazil is a very dynamic growing economy.
      They go to Brazil to work from abroad.
      The Portuguese are massively moving to work in France and beyond ...

      Russia is a very specific country, but Brazil is no less specific.
      Stamps do not help here - it is necessary to study in more detail.
    2. Beefeater
      Beefeater 18 June 2016 22: 18
      0
      In Russia, the Russian Guard has the right to use firearms against the population in case of unrest.
      It is possible. And how.
  11. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 18 June 2016 17: 10
    +3
    Here is a poem turned out.

    MY BRAZIL.

    I love you, beautiful Brazil!
    I love animal abundance:
    Beasts, birds, anacondas, crocodiles,
    And your tropical forest, beautiful, dear!

    I love you, great Brazil
    And your tribes of Native American abundance!
    Black Africa's great heritage
    Capoeira and Macumba multicolor!

    You know me from stylish carnivals
    In football, and, of course, series,
    Based on the novels of Georges Amadou,
    And according to the statue of Christ on the shore!

    If I am destined after leaving
    Surviving another birth
    I would like to be born in Brazil
    The family has a fishing, and with an Indian surname!

    I'm flying to you in my dreams, my Brazil!
    And I believe: there is your Lost World!
    And the heir to Percy Fossett in Russia
    Will reveal your secrets like a fakir!
  12. Seryj2
    Seryj2 18 June 2016 19: 09
    +4
    Once, in the year 87-88m, I bought a book on the history of America. A beautiful illustrated edition lay on the shelf of the Kiev Academic Book and beckoned with the pyramids of the Indians and gold masks on the cover. I bought for almost the entire scholarship and disappeared for the world for a week. I read voraciously. It turned out that I, then a student at the history faculty of the Kiev Pedagogical Institute, did not know at all the history of a huge part of the world. Well, except for the Mayan Aztecs, the War of Independence and the conquistadors. And there are so many discoveries, so many new things, so many mysteries! Since then, the American continent south of the American-Mexican border has remained for me an exciting, mysterious, dangerous and surprisingly beautiful place, where I really want to go.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 18 June 2016 21: 30
      +1
      I had about the same shock from another book. I read various books by Jorge Amado, I read about the conquistadors, there was a shortage on this topic. And in 2005 in a second-hand bookseller for 20 rubles a saleswoman persuaded to buy "The Art of Latin America" ​​1967. Read and was in shock. I just could not come to myself.
      And then the good books about Latin America went and went .... And at human prices.
  13. Beefeater
    Beefeater 18 June 2016 22: 08
    0
    Brilliant article.
    I will add from myself that the World was divided by the middle line between Spain and Portugal even before Columbus.
    East - Portugal, West - Spain.
    But the Portuguese drew a line so that they hooked a piece of Brazil. Obviously not easy.
    They knew to see.
    The second - the Portuguese did not exterminate or enslave the local population. It was not enough of them. Creoles enjoyed equal rights with whites
  14. Beefeater
    Beefeater 18 June 2016 22: 37
    -1
    Quote: Beefeater
    In China, now a pretty decent level.
    Well, Brazil is Volkswagen and cars for alcohol, coffee, rubber, sugar ...
  15. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 26 June 2016 12: 03
    0
    Well, everyone loves Brazil, but where is the history of the creation of this state?
    1. Olezhek
      28 June 2016 14: 51
      0
      The purpose of the article is to interest the reader in the topic of Portuguese-speaking America.
      You are already interested! yes
  16. mvbmvbmvb
    mvbmvbmvb 20 March 2018 13: 25
    0
    As N.V. wrote Gogol (I quote from memory) "... and as mercenary scribblers do not embellish the nickname, if you pronounce it out loud, it’s the essence of it ..."