Defeat of the Schaeffer Colony
The calculations of Dr. Schaeffer for the approval of his actions in the Hawaiian Islands and for the real help of Baranov and St. Petersburg were not justified. Baranov said that he could not approve the agreements concluded by him without the permission of the main board, and prohibited further work in this direction.
It soon became clear that Petersburg did not approve of Schaeffer's actions. At the beginning of December, 1816, off the shores of Hawaii, appeared around the world tour of the brig "Rurik" under the command of O. E. Kotzebue. Since Scheffer has long dismissed rumors about the imminent arrival of the Russian warship to his aid, King Kamehamea set out a whole detachment. However, Kotzebue convinced the Hawaiian king of the friendly intentions of the Russians, and Kamehamea began complaining about Dr. Schaeffer’s actions, and Kotzebue hastened to reassure the king that Emperor Alexander I "doesn’t have any desire to seize the islands."
The naturalist A. Chamisso, who was on the Hawaiian Islands together with Kotzebue, assessing the international and internal situation of the islands, came to the conclusion that “the Sandwich Islands will remain the fact that until now they were: a free port and a trading place for all navigators on these seas. If any foreign power thought to seize these islands, then to make such an enterprise insignificant would not need the envious vigilance of the Americans, who appropriated almost exclusively trade on these seas, nor the reliable patronage of England ... This people does not submit to foreigners, it too strong, too numerous and too fond of war, so that it is possible to destroy it ... " However, he was clearly mistaken. Hawaiians repeated the fate of many great Indian tribes - most of the population died from infections brought from outside. And the Americans quite easily made their islands.
As a result, the position of Schaeffer, despite good relations with the king of Qaumualia, became precarious. In fact, it turned out that he began a large-scale event at his own peril and risk. There was no corresponding force behind him. Already in September, 1816, under the threat of the use of force, was left the trading post on Oahu, and then the American captains attempted to lower the Russian flag in the village of Vaimea (Kauai Island). True, the Americans did not succeed. Their attack was repelled with the help of the locals.
Then the Americans organized the blockade. They built their factory in the lands of Qaumualia to interfere with the Russians. In an effort to oust the Russians, the Americans bought all the goods promised by the Hawaiian king to the Russians. Schaeffer still hoped to keep his position on the territory of Kaumualia appealed to the employees of the Russian-American company to take up weapon and "to show that the Russian honor is not so cheap for sale." He told Baranov that "all the people" agreed with him to stay on Kauai, "as long as help comes from you," and that he occupies "the island here now in the name of our great sovereign." Thus, if Schaeffer received assistance, he could well keep part of Hawaii behind Russia and even continue to expand his sphere of influence.
However, he received no help. Therefore, the Americans eventually ousted the Russians from Hawaii. In June, 1817, the Americans decided on direct pressure. They falsely declared that “Americans with Russians have a war, threatening that if King Tomari does not quickly drive Russians away from Atuvaya and remove the Russian flag, they will come to 5 of American ships and kill both him and the Indians.” As a result, the Americans and the British, who were in the service of the Russians, rebelled and left them. So, the American William Vozvit, the former captain on our brig Ilmen, ran off to the Hawaiians on the beach. The Americans and the Hawaiians united and drove the Russians and Aleuts into the ships. Several people died. Immediately, the Russians could not resist the Americans and local residents, there was little strength. Schaeffer and his men were forced to leave the island on the Ilmen and Mirth-Kodiak ships.
The Ilmen was sent for help to Novo-Arkhangelsk, and on a battered Mirth Kodiak, which could not make a long journey, Scheffer sailed to Honolulu. The American captains believed that it was good if the Russian ship would die, and people would sink. It is difficult to say how the further fate of Schaeffer and his companions would have been if the American Panther ship commanded by Captain Lewis had not gone to Honolulu, who, out of a sense of gratitude to Schaeffer for providing medical assistance a year ago, agreed to take him to China. From there, the doctor went to St. Petersburg to seek support from the government.
Fort Elizabeth Project
The first news of the amazing events on the distant islands of the Pacific Ocean in St. Petersburg began to arrive in August 1817 g. At first, the European press was alarmed. For example, the British Morning Chronicle, in its 30 July issue, 1817, referring to a German newspaper, reported on Russia's negotiations over the assignment of California with the goal of acquiring a monopoly in Pacific trade. The report of the American newspaper National Lawyer about the annexation of one of the islands near the Sandwich Islands and the construction of fortifications on it was also quoted here. 22 September (4 October) 1817 A brief report on the accession of one of the islands in the Pacific Ocean with a link to American newspapers was posted in the Northern Post.
14 (26) in August 1817. The main board of the Cancer Association received the triumphant report of Schaeffer from the island of Kauai. The leadership of the RAK, which was better than the government aware of the problems of the Far East, received a request from King Kaumualiya for accepting Russian citizenship with approval. Hawaii allowed to expand the Russian sphere of influence in the Pacific region and promised promising prospects. The leadership of the Russian-American company was not averse to using unexpected luck to spread its influence over the Hawaiian Islands. However, the RAC board could not act independently in such a matter; government approval was necessary.
15 (27) of August 1817, company director V.V. Kramer and A.I. Severin sent to Alexander I the most generous report in which they reported that “King Tomari transmitted in a written act himself and all the islands and inhabitants he managed to citizenship. and. in-woo. Kramer and Severin sent a similar report two days later to Foreign Minister Nesselrode. But if the leadership of the RAK was convinced of the expediency of joining the Pacific pearl to the Russian Empire, the tsarist government, and first of all K.V. Nesselrode, as well as the Russian ambassador in London, H. A. Liven, had a different opinion.
As you know, Foreign Minister Carl Nesselrode was an outspoken Westernizer who, until the end of his life, had not learned to speak Russian correctly. And this man led Russian foreign policy from 1816 of the year to 1856 of the year. Prior to this, Nesselrode held an important place in the circle of Alexander. In particular, he insisted, contrary to Kutuzov’s opinion, for continuing the war with the French in Germany and for the final overthrow of Napoleon’s power, which was in the interests of Austria and England. Already as head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he supported a strategic alliance with Austria, which ended in a disaster of the Crimean War, and before that Vienna had successfully blocked the expansion of Russia's influence in the Balkans, since Nesselrode considered himself a student of the “great” Metternich; his policies led to the Eastern (Crimean) War, which ended with the defeat of Russia; Nesselrode in every way impeded the actions of the Russians in the Far East, fearing "the possibility of a rupture with China, the displeasure of Europe, especially the British" and only thanks to the asceticism of Nevelsky and Muravyev, did the Amur region cede to Russia; Nesselrode rejected in 1825 the plan to buy a Russian-American company of serfs for the relocation to America with the provision of freedom at the place of relocation. That is, the minister did not allow the expansion of Russian settlements in America, which led to the consolidation of Alaska and other territories for Russia.
Nesselrode and hacked the project development of Hawaii. Reporting in February 1818 on the final decision of Emperor Alexander I on the issue of the Sandwich Islands, Nesselrode wrote: “The emperor employs the pleasure of believing that the acquisition of these islands and their voluntary admission to his patronage not only cannot bring Russia any substantial benefit, but on the contrary, in many respects it is associated with very important inconveniences. And therefore, in order to the King Tomari, expressing all possible friendliness and desire to keep affectionate relations with him, not accept the commemorated act from him, but only limit himself to decree of the above-mentioned benevolent intercourse and act towards distribution of merchandise turnovers with the Sandwich Islands The American company, the developers of these will be consistent with this order of affairs. " In conclusion, Nesselrode noted that “the subsequent reports received in c. Proved by Dr. Schaeffer, they prove to us that his thoughtless actions have already given reason for some unfavorable conclusions, and reported that the emperor “deigned to recognize it necessary to wait in advance for further news on this subject.”
It should be noted that the decision was in line with the policies of Alexander and Nesselrode. Emperor Alexander Pavlovich ruined tens of thousands of Russian soldiers in European wars (the war with Napoleonic France could have been avoided by creating an anti-British alliance with Paris, simultaneously blocking the project of the global British Empire), almost all the resources of the Russian Empire were spent on European affairs that were far from national interests . It was necessary to develop the country, huge practically empty territories in Siberia, in the Far East, in Russian America, to occupy outposts in the Pacific Ocean, until they were occupied by the Americans or the British. However, Alexander Pavlovich was completely fascinated by European politics and his project of the Holy Alliance, which was initially unviable.
Also, Alexander and Nesselrode followed the principle of "legitimism", "international law" - Western chimeras, invented to divert attention from true politics. The West then tore the planet into pieces, creating huge colonial empires (Spanish, Portuguese, French, British, etc.) and plundering other civilizations, cultures and nationalities, sucking their resources. And to distract attention, there existed the doctrines of "legitimism", "international law", etc. As in modern times, there is a beautiful sign for the average person - pacifism, liberalism, political correctness, tolerance, etc. And in the real Big Game - Western TNCs and TNB still robbing the entire planet like vampires, sucking all the juice out of it. The West represented by state institutions, TNK, TNB, non-governmental organizations and PMCs erases whole states from the face of the Earth, destroying hundreds of thousands and millions of people. Just look at the ruins of Libya, Iraq and Syria, previously fairly stable and prosperous states. And Western politicians and all sorts of figures still lie about “partnership,” “peace,” and “cultural cooperation.”
Alexander and Nesselrode in this situation were not as Russian patriots, but as Westerners. Their unwillingness to break away from the "enlightened West" and look at the East, Alexander and Nesselrode justified the possible "discontent of Europe." Petersburg did not want to spoil relations with English and the USA. Emperor Alexander was worn with the idea of the Holy Alliance and did not want a scandal that would be inevitable in the case of new expansions of Russia in the Far East. He hoped to attract the United States to the Holy Alliance.
Meanwhile, Dr. Schaeffer reached Europe in July 1818 and learned from the Russian envoy in Denmark that Alexander I had gone to the congress in Aachen. An enterprising doctor immediately left for Berlin, and to St. Petersburg sent F. Osipov, an employee of the company who accompanied him, who provided a detailed report to the directors of the Russian-American Company. Sheffer was unable to meet with Alexander I and personally hand him the “Memoir about the Sandwich Islands”. But the persistent doctor managed in September 1818 to transmit this report to both leaders of the Russian foreign affairs agency, I. A. Kapodistrias and K. V. Nesselrode.
Schaeffer recommended the royal government to seize not only the island of Kauai, but the whole archipelago. According to Schaeffer, “in order to put this into action, only two frigates and several transport ships are needed. The costs for this will be one year rewarded from the works, especially with sandalwood growing on Atuvaia, Vahe and Ovayga, which is soon and truly sold in Canton. ” Interestingly, the brave doctor offered his candidacy as the head of a military expedition. “I have the duty of the post office to put this enterprise into action and subdue c. and. in all these Sandwich Islands, I’m willing to believe me, and, although I’m not of military rank, I’m pretty well aware of the weapon and have so much experience and courage to dare my life for the good of humanity and the good of Russia ... ". However, neither the king nor his ministers wanted to engage in Pacific affairs.
The Hawaiian issue was considered by several other departments and organizations - the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Department of Manufactures and Domestic Trade, the Russian-American Company. Upward opinion Nesselrode. Even "under the most favorable circumstances," Nesselrode pointed out, the emperor refused to accept Kaumualia "with the islands subject to him as an allegiance to the Russian empire," and "now it is. in the less it recognizes the need to change the aforementioned rule, that the very consequences have proved to what extent it is thorough, and experience confirms how little one should hope for the strength of such placement. ” Thus, Schaeffer's Hawaiian project was closed.
After that, Schaeffer left for Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro, he obtained an audience with Princess Leopoldina, the wife of the future Emperor of Brazil Pedro I, and presented her with a rich botanical collection he had collected, which later became part of the exposition of the royal museum. Then he returned briefly and, returning to Brazil in 1821, founded the first German colony of Frankenthal in Brazil. He marked the beginning of the mass German immigration to Brazil, which had recently proclaimed its independence from Portugal.
New Project Approved in Hawaii
The last attempt to convince the tsarist government to join Hawaii was made by the Russian consul in Manila P. Dobell. Having traveled to the destination from the port of Petropavlovsk in October 1819, Dobell was forced to go to Hawaii for two months to repair his ship. During their stay on the islands in the winter of 1819-1820. The consul discovered that the new king Kamehamea II (Kamehamea died in May 1819) “had great disagreement with the recalcitrant vassals.” The intervention of the Russian envoy contributed to the failure of the conspiracy of recalcitrant princes, after which Kamehamea II ordered his secretary to write a letter to Alexander I and send special gifts with Dobelle. Kamehamea II asked Alexander I to give him "help and protection ... to maintain power and the throne."
The Consul further reported that the locals initially greeted the Russians very kindly, but "the captains of foreign ships and the British who settled on the islands, envying this preference, began to intrigue with the governor and the leaders of the Indians in order to expel them." Having studied Hawaii, Dobell confirmed the conclusions of the former Russian envoys who had studied the islands, in particular Schaeffer. “The climate of the Sandwich Islands,” Dobelle noted, “is perhaps the most temperate and healthy of all the places in the Southern Ocean; the soil is so fertile that three harvests of maize or corn are in the same year. ” The attentive consul also appreciated the exceptional benefits of the strategic position of the islands, emphasizing that they "should become the central warehouse for European, Indian and Chinese trade with the northwestern shores of America, California and part of South America, as well as the Aleutian Islands and Kamchatka."
In Manila, Dobell spent about three months. The calculations of the consul for the extraordinary profitability of trade with the Philippines did not materialize. He traveled to Macau, where he renewed his acquaintance with the agent of the Swedish East India Company, A. Lungstedt. That one time he lived in Russia and repeatedly assisted the trade interests of the RAC in Canton. It was Lungstedt in the fall of 1817 that sheltered Dr. Schaeffer, who had fled from the Hawaiian Islands. He familiarized Dobella with a document on the Hawaiian Islands, which was left on Schaeffer's database. Fully sharing Lungstedt’s opinion about the benefits of Hawaii’s accession to Russia, Dobell sent the “memoir” Petersburg to 1820 in November, accompanying him with his own comments.
Dobelle proposed a plan of operation to capture Hawaii. According to him, you must immediately take the four main islands of the archipelago. For this, in his opinion, 5 was required for thousands of soldiers and sailors, as well as 300 Cossacks. The expedition should secretly go to Hawaii from Kamchatka on 2 battleships, 4 frigates and 2 brigantines "under the pretext of delivering colonists and supplies." Considering the forces and means the tsarist government spent ineptly in the wars with Napoleon, it was not too much to establish control over the northern part of the Pacific Ocean, taking the main strategic position in the center of the ocean. By the way, Dobell noted the strategic importance of the islands. He understood that Russia did not really need to expand its already huge possessions, but defended the “absolute necessity” of the new acquisition for the existence of the old Russian possessions. That is, Hawaii was necessary to consolidate the Russian possessions in America, and strengthen its position in Kamchatka and the Far East. The consul noted that under the rule of Russia, the islands would be the focus of all Pacific trade.
However, there was no response in the royal government of Dobelle. The king and Nesselrode, apparently, was not at all up to projects related to the Pacific. For some time, Dobell continued to send letters to Nesselrode, in which he urged the tsarist government to approve the project proposed in a report from 1 (13) in November 1820, and seize Hawaii. “We invariably hope that e. And. in-in he deigns to approve Mr. Lungstedt’s proposals on the seizure of these islands by Russian troops, which I had the honor to send to. pr-wu, ”wrote Dobell Nesselrode on 28 in December of 1820 (January 9 in 1821) from Macau. And this time there was no answer. The tsarist government did not even want to discuss the Hawaiian project.
The main department of cancer, where Russian interests in the Pacific better understood, still hoped for some time to gain a foothold in Hawaii, at least on one of the islands. In the instructions signed by Buldakov, Kramer and Severin in August 1819, the ruler of the Russian colonies in America was ordered to send without delay to the island of Kauai a “deliberate expedition” in order to entice Qaulalia to establish friendly ties with “tender” bypass and rich gifts. It was planned to create a trading post on the island of Niihau, as well as to persuade the Hawaiian king to sell it to the Russians. However, soon the Petersburg management of the company, in fact, recognized the Hawaiian Islands as the sphere of prevailing influence of American interests. Since the Americans "have had great success in their intrigues to their common advantage, it seems that we have no hope of benefiting from these islands, all the more so that the sovereign's will is for us to use them just like other foreigners." Thus, there was no “will of the sovereign” for Hawaii to become Russian, otherwise the situation could be quite different.
In 1820, an American consular agent and the first batch of missionaries appeared in Hawaii. Sandalwood dealers, and then American whalers, were increasingly active. The Hawaiian kingdom quickly degraded. “The political relations of the people and the king,” MI reported. Ants to Petersburg at the beginning of 1822, remain the same: the king is shaking, the people are suffering, and the Americans are cashing in ... ”. The Hawaiian kingdom will relatively quickly cease to exist, and the archipelago will become the pivotal US strategic base in the Pacific.
Further cancer relations with the Hawaiian Islands were limited to acquiring food and salt there on a convenient occasion. From time to time tropical round-the-world expeditions visited the tropical “paradise”. Russian navigators invariably noted the benevolent attitude of the local population. Kotzebue, who again visited the islands in 1824-1825, indicated that the islanders accepted Russian navigators "preferably in front of all Europeans living here, everywhere and we were all caressed and we had no reason to be dissatisfied."
Thus, the tsarist government, apparently, at the suggestion of Westerner Nesselrode, missed the opportunity to receive a strategic outpost in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, which would ensure the safety of Russian America and its preservation as part of the Russian Empire. Mastering Hawaii would provide security, both military and food, for Alaska. Suffice it to recall that the problem of Alaska’s food supply was one of the most acute from the first moment of the existence of Russian America. Thus, the famous expedition Rezanov to California in 1806 was caused primarily by the acute shortage of grain in the colonies. The opinion of the famous cancer researcher, Lieutenant Commander P.K. Golovin, who visited America (the colonies) in 1860, is also very significant: “The Sandwich Islands provide all the convenience for keeping a permanent station there: from there the ways are open to America and Japan, and to China, and the commanders of our military courts will have the full opportunity to familiarize themselves with navigation in areas in which, in the event of war, all their activities will have to concentrate. ”
But the Russian Hawaii project was once again "hacked down" by the pro-Western circles of the Russian elite and the bureaucratic state apparatus. Sheffer, the German who defended the Russian national interests, was presented as an adventurer, an ambitious man who wanted to get the glory of Cortes and Pizarro. Although thanks to this “adventurer”, Russia received a colony, a food base and a possible military and strategic outpost of the empire in the Pacific Ocean practically without effort and serious investment. Obviously, with minimal effort, Russia would certainly have established itself in the Hawaiian archipelago. And without any "internecine war", since everything could be solved with the help of negotiations and the traditional "gifts" in such cases, buying part of the Hawaiian nobility, as the Americans did. It is also worth noting the sympathy of the Hawaiians for the Russians, which would facilitate the process of developing the islands. However, Petersburg, which almost always looked at the “enlightened West” to the detriment of national interests, actually simply gave way to Hawaii to the Americans. Unfortunately, this will not be the first loss, also Petersburg will calmly give up part of California, Alaska and the Aleuts.
History Russian America (1732-1867): In 3-x vols. Ed. ed. Acad. N. N. Bolkhovitinov. M., 1997 // http://militera.lib.ru/explo/ira/index.html.
Kremlin S. Russian America. Open and sell! M., 2005.
Plotnikov A. Yu. The Russian Far Eastern Border in the XVIII - First Half of the XX Centuries. M., 2007.
Shirokorad A. B. Lost lands of Russia. From Peter I to the Civil War. M., 2006.
How Westerner Nesselrode ruined the project "Russian Hawaii"
- Alexander Samsonov
- Articles from this series:
- Lost Russian lands
Lost Lands of Russia: Russians Hawaii
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