Military Review

How Westerner Nesselrode ruined the project "Russian Hawaii"

54
Defeat of the Schaeffer Colony


The calculations of Dr. Schaeffer for the approval of his actions in the Hawaiian Islands and for the real help of Baranov and St. Petersburg were not justified. Baranov said that he could not approve the agreements concluded by him without the permission of the main board, and prohibited further work in this direction.

It soon became clear that Petersburg did not approve of Schaeffer's actions. At the beginning of December, 1816, off the shores of Hawaii, appeared around the world tour of the brig "Rurik" under the command of O. E. Kotzebue. Since Scheffer has long dismissed rumors about the imminent arrival of the Russian warship to his aid, King Kamehamea set out a whole detachment. However, Kotzebue convinced the Hawaiian king of the friendly intentions of the Russians, and Kamehamea began complaining about Dr. Schaeffer’s actions, and Kotzebue hastened to reassure the king that Emperor Alexander I "doesn’t have any desire to seize the islands."

The naturalist A. Chamisso, who was on the Hawaiian Islands together with Kotzebue, assessing the international and internal situation of the islands, came to the conclusion that “the Sandwich Islands will remain the fact that until now they were: a free port and a trading place for all navigators on these seas. If any foreign power thought to seize these islands, then to make such an enterprise insignificant would not need the envious vigilance of the Americans, who appropriated almost exclusively trade on these seas, nor the reliable patronage of England ... This people does not submit to foreigners, it too strong, too numerous and too fond of war, so that it is possible to destroy it ... " However, he was clearly mistaken. Hawaiians repeated the fate of many great Indian tribes - most of the population died from infections brought from outside. And the Americans quite easily made their islands.

As a result, the position of Schaeffer, despite good relations with the king of Qaumualia, became precarious. In fact, it turned out that he began a large-scale event at his own peril and risk. There was no corresponding force behind him. Already in September, 1816, under the threat of the use of force, was left the trading post on Oahu, and then the American captains attempted to lower the Russian flag in the village of Vaimea (Kauai Island). True, the Americans did not succeed. Their attack was repelled with the help of the locals.

Then the Americans organized the blockade. They built their factory in the lands of Qaumualia to interfere with the Russians. In an effort to oust the Russians, the Americans bought all the goods promised by the Hawaiian king to the Russians. Schaeffer still hoped to keep his position on the territory of Kaumualia appealed to the employees of the Russian-American company to take up weapon and "to show that the Russian honor is not so cheap for sale." He told Baranov that "all the people" agreed with him to stay on Kauai, "as long as help comes from you," and that he occupies "the island here now in the name of our great sovereign." Thus, if Schaeffer received assistance, he could well keep part of Hawaii behind Russia and even continue to expand his sphere of influence.

However, he received no help. Therefore, the Americans eventually ousted the Russians from Hawaii. In June, 1817, the Americans decided on direct pressure. They falsely declared that “Americans with Russians have a war, threatening that if King Tomari does not quickly drive Russians away from Atuvaya and remove the Russian flag, they will come to 5 of American ships and kill both him and the Indians.” As a result, the Americans and the British, who were in the service of the Russians, rebelled and left them. So, the American William Vozvit, the former captain on our brig Ilmen, ran off to the Hawaiians on the beach. The Americans and the Hawaiians united and drove the Russians and Aleuts into the ships. Several people died. Immediately, the Russians could not resist the Americans and local residents, there was little strength. Schaeffer and his men were forced to leave the island on the Ilmen and Mirth-Kodiak ships.

The Ilmen was sent for help to Novo-Arkhangelsk, and on a battered Mirth Kodiak, which could not make a long journey, Scheffer sailed to Honolulu. The American captains believed that it was good if the Russian ship would die, and people would sink. It is difficult to say how the further fate of Schaeffer and his companions would have been if the American Panther ship commanded by Captain Lewis had not gone to Honolulu, who, out of a sense of gratitude to Schaeffer for providing medical assistance a year ago, agreed to take him to China. From there, the doctor went to St. Petersburg to seek support from the government.


Fort Elizabeth Project

Petersburg Decision

The first news of the amazing events on the distant islands of the Pacific Ocean in St. Petersburg began to arrive in August 1817 g. At first, the European press was alarmed. For example, the British Morning Chronicle, in its 30 July issue, 1817, referring to a German newspaper, reported on Russia's negotiations over the assignment of California with the goal of acquiring a monopoly in Pacific trade. The report of the American newspaper National Lawyer about the annexation of one of the islands near the Sandwich Islands and the construction of fortifications on it was also quoted here. 22 September (4 October) 1817 A brief report on the accession of one of the islands in the Pacific Ocean with a link to American newspapers was posted in the Northern Post.

14 (26) in August 1817. The main board of the Cancer Association received the triumphant report of Schaeffer from the island of Kauai. The leadership of the RAK, which was better than the government aware of the problems of the Far East, received a request from King Kaumualiya for accepting Russian citizenship with approval. Hawaii allowed to expand the Russian sphere of influence in the Pacific region and promised promising prospects. The leadership of the Russian-American company was not averse to using unexpected luck to spread its influence over the Hawaiian Islands. However, the RAC board could not act independently in such a matter; government approval was necessary.

15 (27) of August 1817, company director V.V. Kramer and A.I. Severin sent to Alexander I the most generous report in which they reported that “King Tomari transmitted in a written act himself and all the islands and inhabitants he managed to citizenship. and. in-woo. Kramer and Severin sent a similar report two days later to Foreign Minister Nesselrode. But if the leadership of the RAK was convinced of the expediency of joining the Pacific pearl to the Russian Empire, the tsarist government, and first of all K.V. Nesselrode, as well as the Russian ambassador in London, H. A. Liven, had a different opinion.

As you know, Foreign Minister Carl Nesselrode was an outspoken Westernizer who, until the end of his life, had not learned to speak Russian correctly. And this man led Russian foreign policy from 1816 of the year to 1856 of the year. Prior to this, Nesselrode held an important place in the circle of Alexander. In particular, he insisted, contrary to Kutuzov’s opinion, for continuing the war with the French in Germany and for the final overthrow of Napoleon’s power, which was in the interests of Austria and England. Already as head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he supported a strategic alliance with Austria, which ended in a disaster of the Crimean War, and before that Vienna had successfully blocked the expansion of Russia's influence in the Balkans, since Nesselrode considered himself a student of the “great” Metternich; his policies led to the Eastern (Crimean) War, which ended with the defeat of Russia; Nesselrode in every way impeded the actions of the Russians in the Far East, fearing "the possibility of a rupture with China, the displeasure of Europe, especially the British" and only thanks to the asceticism of Nevelsky and Muravyev, did the Amur region cede to Russia; Nesselrode rejected in 1825 the plan to buy a Russian-American company of serfs for the relocation to America with the provision of freedom at the place of relocation. That is, the minister did not allow the expansion of Russian settlements in America, which led to the consolidation of Alaska and other territories for Russia.

Nesselrode and hacked the project development of Hawaii. Reporting in February 1818 on the final decision of Emperor Alexander I on the issue of the Sandwich Islands, Nesselrode wrote: “The emperor employs the pleasure of believing that the acquisition of these islands and their voluntary admission to his patronage not only cannot bring Russia any substantial benefit, but on the contrary, in many respects it is associated with very important inconveniences. And therefore, in order to the King Tomari, expressing all possible friendliness and desire to keep affectionate relations with him, not accept the commemorated act from him, but only limit himself to decree of the above-mentioned benevolent intercourse and act towards distribution of merchandise turnovers with the Sandwich Islands The American company, the developers of these will be consistent with this order of affairs. " In conclusion, Nesselrode noted that “the subsequent reports received in c. Proved by Dr. Schaeffer, they prove to us that his thoughtless actions have already given reason for some unfavorable conclusions, and reported that the emperor “deigned to recognize it necessary to wait in advance for further news on this subject.”

It should be noted that the decision was in line with the policies of Alexander and Nesselrode. Emperor Alexander Pavlovich ruined tens of thousands of Russian soldiers in European wars (the war with Napoleonic France could have been avoided by creating an anti-British alliance with Paris, simultaneously blocking the project of the global British Empire), almost all the resources of the Russian Empire were spent on European affairs that were far from national interests . It was necessary to develop the country, huge practically empty territories in Siberia, in the Far East, in Russian America, to occupy outposts in the Pacific Ocean, until they were occupied by the Americans or the British. However, Alexander Pavlovich was completely fascinated by European politics and his project of the Holy Alliance, which was initially unviable.

Also, Alexander and Nesselrode followed the principle of "legitimism", "international law" - Western chimeras, invented to divert attention from true politics. The West then tore the planet into pieces, creating huge colonial empires (Spanish, Portuguese, French, British, etc.) and plundering other civilizations, cultures and nationalities, sucking their resources. And to distract attention, there existed the doctrines of "legitimism", "international law", etc. As in modern times, there is a beautiful sign for the average person - pacifism, liberalism, political correctness, tolerance, etc. And in the real Big Game - Western TNCs and TNB still robbing the entire planet like vampires, sucking all the juice out of it. The West represented by state institutions, TNK, TNB, non-governmental organizations and PMCs erases whole states from the face of the Earth, destroying hundreds of thousands and millions of people. Just look at the ruins of Libya, Iraq and Syria, previously fairly stable and prosperous states. And Western politicians and all sorts of figures still lie about “partnership,” “peace,” and “cultural cooperation.”

Alexander and Nesselrode in this situation were not as Russian patriots, but as Westerners. Their unwillingness to break away from the "enlightened West" and look at the East, Alexander and Nesselrode justified the possible "discontent of Europe." Petersburg did not want to spoil relations with English and the USA. Emperor Alexander was worn with the idea of ​​the Holy Alliance and did not want a scandal that would be inevitable in the case of new expansions of Russia in the Far East. He hoped to attract the United States to the Holy Alliance.

Meanwhile, Dr. Schaeffer reached Europe in July 1818 and learned from the Russian envoy in Denmark that Alexander I had gone to the congress in Aachen. An enterprising doctor immediately left for Berlin, and to St. Petersburg sent F. Osipov, an employee of the company who accompanied him, who provided a detailed report to the directors of the Russian-American Company. Sheffer was unable to meet with Alexander I and personally hand him the “Memoir about the Sandwich Islands”. But the persistent doctor managed in September 1818 to transmit this report to both leaders of the Russian foreign affairs agency, I. A. Kapodistrias and K. V. Nesselrode.

Schaeffer recommended the royal government to seize not only the island of Kauai, but the whole archipelago. According to Schaeffer, “in order to put this into action, only two frigates and several transport ships are needed. The costs for this will be one year rewarded from the works, especially with sandalwood growing on Atuvaia, Vahe and Ovayga, which is soon and truly sold in Canton. ” Interestingly, the brave doctor offered his candidacy as the head of a military expedition. “I have the duty of the post office to put this enterprise into action and subdue c. and. in all these Sandwich Islands, I’m willing to believe me, and, although I’m not of military rank, I’m pretty well aware of the weapon and have so much experience and courage to dare my life for the good of humanity and the good of Russia ... ". However, neither the king nor his ministers wanted to engage in Pacific affairs.

The Hawaiian issue was considered by several other departments and organizations - the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Department of Manufactures and Domestic Trade, the Russian-American Company. Upward opinion Nesselrode. Even "under the most favorable circumstances," Nesselrode pointed out, the emperor refused to accept Kaumualia "with the islands subject to him as an allegiance to the Russian empire," and "now it is. in the less it recognizes the need to change the aforementioned rule, that the very consequences have proved to what extent it is thorough, and experience confirms how little one should hope for the strength of such placement. ” Thus, Schaeffer's Hawaiian project was closed.

After that, Schaeffer left for Brazil. In Rio de Janeiro, he obtained an audience with Princess Leopoldina, the wife of the future Emperor of Brazil Pedro I, and presented her with a rich botanical collection he had collected, which later became part of the exposition of the royal museum. Then he returned briefly and, returning to Brazil in 1821, founded the first German colony of Frankenthal in Brazil. He marked the beginning of the mass German immigration to Brazil, which had recently proclaimed its independence from Portugal.

New Project Approved in Hawaii

The last attempt to convince the tsarist government to join Hawaii was made by the Russian consul in Manila P. Dobell. Having traveled to the destination from the port of Petropavlovsk in October 1819, Dobell was forced to go to Hawaii for two months to repair his ship. During their stay on the islands in the winter of 1819-1820. The consul discovered that the new king Kamehamea II (Kamehamea died in May 1819) “had great disagreement with the recalcitrant vassals.” The intervention of the Russian envoy contributed to the failure of the conspiracy of recalcitrant princes, after which Kamehamea II ordered his secretary to write a letter to Alexander I and send special gifts with Dobelle. Kamehamea II asked Alexander I to give him "help and protection ... to maintain power and the throne."

The Consul further reported that the locals initially greeted the Russians very kindly, but "the captains of foreign ships and the British who settled on the islands, envying this preference, began to intrigue with the governor and the leaders of the Indians in order to expel them." Having studied Hawaii, Dobell confirmed the conclusions of the former Russian envoys who had studied the islands, in particular Schaeffer. “The climate of the Sandwich Islands,” Dobelle noted, “is perhaps the most temperate and healthy of all the places in the Southern Ocean; the soil is so fertile that three harvests of maize or corn are in the same year. ” The attentive consul also appreciated the exceptional benefits of the strategic position of the islands, emphasizing that they "should become the central warehouse for European, Indian and Chinese trade with the northwestern shores of America, California and part of South America, as well as the Aleutian Islands and Kamchatka."

In Manila, Dobell spent about three months. The calculations of the consul for the extraordinary profitability of trade with the Philippines did not materialize. He traveled to Macau, where he renewed his acquaintance with the agent of the Swedish East India Company, A. Lungstedt. That one time he lived in Russia and repeatedly assisted the trade interests of the RAC in Canton. It was Lungstedt in the fall of 1817 that sheltered Dr. Schaeffer, who had fled from the Hawaiian Islands. He familiarized Dobella with a document on the Hawaiian Islands, which was left on Schaeffer's database. Fully sharing Lungstedt’s opinion about the benefits of Hawaii’s accession to Russia, Dobell sent the “memoir” Petersburg to 1820 in November, accompanying him with his own comments.

Dobelle proposed a plan of operation to capture Hawaii. According to him, you must immediately take the four main islands of the archipelago. For this, in his opinion, 5 was required for thousands of soldiers and sailors, as well as 300 Cossacks. The expedition should secretly go to Hawaii from Kamchatka on 2 battleships, 4 frigates and 2 brigantines "under the pretext of delivering colonists and supplies." Considering the forces and means the tsarist government spent ineptly in the wars with Napoleon, it was not too much to establish control over the northern part of the Pacific Ocean, taking the main strategic position in the center of the ocean. By the way, Dobell noted the strategic importance of the islands. He understood that Russia did not really need to expand its already huge possessions, but defended the “absolute necessity” of the new acquisition for the existence of the old Russian possessions. That is, Hawaii was necessary to consolidate the Russian possessions in America, and strengthen its position in Kamchatka and the Far East. The consul noted that under the rule of Russia, the islands would be the focus of all Pacific trade.

However, there was no response in the royal government of Dobelle. The king and Nesselrode, apparently, was not at all up to projects related to the Pacific. For some time, Dobell continued to send letters to Nesselrode, in which he urged the tsarist government to approve the project proposed in a report from 1 (13) in November 1820, and seize Hawaii. “We invariably hope that e. And. in-in he deigns to approve Mr. Lungstedt’s proposals on the seizure of these islands by Russian troops, which I had the honor to send to. pr-wu, ”wrote Dobell Nesselrode on 28 in December of 1820 (January 9 in 1821) from Macau. And this time there was no answer. The tsarist government did not even want to discuss the Hawaiian project.

The main department of cancer, where Russian interests in the Pacific better understood, still hoped for some time to gain a foothold in Hawaii, at least on one of the islands. In the instructions signed by Buldakov, Kramer and Severin in August 1819, the ruler of the Russian colonies in America was ordered to send without delay to the island of Kauai a “deliberate expedition” in order to entice Qaulalia to establish friendly ties with “tender” bypass and rich gifts. It was planned to create a trading post on the island of Niihau, as well as to persuade the Hawaiian king to sell it to the Russians. However, soon the Petersburg management of the company, in fact, recognized the Hawaiian Islands as the sphere of prevailing influence of American interests. Since the Americans "have had great success in their intrigues to their common advantage, it seems that we have no hope of benefiting from these islands, all the more so that the sovereign's will is for us to use them just like other foreigners." Thus, there was no “will of the sovereign” for Hawaii to become Russian, otherwise the situation could be quite different.

In 1820, an American consular agent and the first batch of missionaries appeared in Hawaii. Sandalwood dealers, and then American whalers, were increasingly active. The Hawaiian kingdom quickly degraded. “The political relations of the people and the king,” MI reported. Ants to Petersburg at the beginning of 1822, remain the same: the king is shaking, the people are suffering, and the Americans are cashing in ... ”. The Hawaiian kingdom will relatively quickly cease to exist, and the archipelago will become the pivotal US strategic base in the Pacific.

Further cancer relations with the Hawaiian Islands were limited to acquiring food and salt there on a convenient occasion. From time to time tropical round-the-world expeditions visited the tropical “paradise”. Russian navigators invariably noted the benevolent attitude of the local population. Kotzebue, who again visited the islands in 1824-1825, indicated that the islanders accepted Russian navigators "preferably in front of all Europeans living here, everywhere and we were all caressed and we had no reason to be dissatisfied."

Thus, the tsarist government, apparently, at the suggestion of Westerner Nesselrode, missed the opportunity to receive a strategic outpost in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, which would ensure the safety of Russian America and its preservation as part of the Russian Empire. Mastering Hawaii would provide security, both military and food, for Alaska. Suffice it to recall that the problem of Alaska’s food supply was one of the most acute from the first moment of the existence of Russian America. Thus, the famous expedition Rezanov to California in 1806 was caused primarily by the acute shortage of grain in the colonies. The opinion of the famous cancer researcher, Lieutenant Commander P.K. Golovin, who visited America (the colonies) in 1860, is also very significant: “The Sandwich Islands provide all the convenience for keeping a permanent station there: from there the ways are open to America and Japan, and to China, and the commanders of our military courts will have the full opportunity to familiarize themselves with navigation in areas in which, in the event of war, all their activities will have to concentrate. ”

But the Russian Hawaii project was once again "hacked down" by the pro-Western circles of the Russian elite and the bureaucratic state apparatus. Sheffer, the German who defended the Russian national interests, was presented as an adventurer, an ambitious man who wanted to get the glory of Cortes and Pizarro. Although thanks to this “adventurer”, Russia received a colony, a food base and a possible military and strategic outpost of the empire in the Pacific Ocean practically without effort and serious investment. Obviously, with minimal effort, Russia would certainly have established itself in the Hawaiian archipelago. And without any "internecine war", since everything could be solved with the help of negotiations and the traditional "gifts" in such cases, buying part of the Hawaiian nobility, as the Americans did. It is also worth noting the sympathy of the Hawaiians for the Russians, which would facilitate the process of developing the islands. However, Petersburg, which almost always looked at the “enlightened West” to the detriment of national interests, actually simply gave way to Hawaii to the Americans. Unfortunately, this will not be the first loss, also Petersburg will calmly give up part of California, Alaska and the Aleuts.

Sources:

History Russian America (1732-1867): In 3-x vols. Ed. ed. Acad. N. N. Bolkhovitinov. M., 1997 // http://militera.lib.ru/explo/ira/index.html.
Kremlin S. Russian America. Open and sell! M., 2005.
Plotnikov A. Yu. The Russian Far Eastern Border in the XVIII - First Half of the XX Centuries. M., 2007.
Shirokorad A. B. Lost lands of Russia. From Peter I to the Civil War. M., 2006.
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Lost Lands of Russia: Russians Hawaii
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  1. Cartalon
    Cartalon 15 June 2016 05: 46
    -9
    The assumption that Russia could occupy, much less keep Hawaii, looks funny, it’s good that no one in Paraguay took Russian citizenship 200 years ago, or national interests would have appeared there.
    1. Pavel1
      Pavel1 15 June 2016 08: 57
      +2
      Evaluating the activities of politicians, that of the time that is now, observers make a common mistake by emphasizing key figures in the government. Could this Nesselrode act differently if his main activity was not related to strengthening Russia's position in the international arena, but some other implicit goals and objectives?
      And these goals were such that Russia, as a great empire and successor to the great empire of the past Tartaria, built a system and placed figures in the form of state rulers — kings and presidents on a new map of the world — these are also new states and peoples of Romania, Hungary, Poland, Finland- where serfdom was abolished even before the war with Napoleon. In the formation of the United States, the Romanovs took a direct part. The figure of Nesselrode herself, as well as all the other main dignitaries of the empire, could appear only with the absolute approval of the Romanov clan and their foreign relatives, therefore his whole policy This, of course, is first and foremost the policy of the Romanovs themselves, when not a single political step and not a single small part of the territory can be obtained or torn away in favor of one or another state, without the knowledge or approval of the Romanovs.
      Therefore, starting from Peter the Great, bypassing Stalin, with the exception of some questions to the present day, it is safe to say that the Russian rulers and politicians whom they appointed were engaged in only one thing DESTROYED THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE and destroyed the Russian people.
      1. russkiy redut
        russkiy redut 15 June 2016 15: 03
        0
        Oh immediately got Western falsifiers of history smile .
      2. iouris
        iouris 15 June 2016 15: 17
        -2
        Quote: Paul1
        DESTROYED THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE and destroyed the Russian people

        Colleague, RUSSIAN RUSSIAN.
        Politics is the art of the possible. From this situation it is necessary to draw the right conclusions.
        Nesselrode pursued a policy that ensured the modernization of Russia.
        The reason for the disinterest in expanding the borders of the Russian Empire, which would definitely cause friction by the British Empire, was that the modernization program was not completed. The technological lag of Russia did not allow it to set goals that caused similar foreign policy problems. Reforms yielded results only by 1913.
        Technological superiority over competitors is what underlies superpower status.
        1. Pavel1
          Pavel1 15 June 2016 21: 35
          +1
          Quote: iouris
          Colleague, RUSSIAN RUSSIAN


          in order to give such advice on the Russian language, one should at least be named in Russian, as for the word RUSSIAN, then in all chronicles, as well as in the Dahl dictionary 19c, this word was written with exactly one C, and two C is the opposite Translation from German, Russian, it is not typical to double consonants for no reason.
          As for the "technical lagging" of Russia at the beginning of the 19th century, this is nonsense, in terms of population and iron smelting, Russia was ahead of the rest of the planet or on a par with the Angles.
          1. iouris
            iouris 15 June 2016 22: 06
            -1
            Quote: Paul1
            iron smelting Russia was ahead of the rest or on a par with the English

            Read "Lefty" by the great Russian writer Leskov: about the conveyor production of English mechanical fleas and the Russian master who was able to shoe one English flea, after which she stopped dancing, as well as about what technical secret Lefty was able to find out from the British, and how it was all ended.
            1. Pavel1
              Pavel1 15 June 2016 22: 29
              +1
              Quote: iouris
              Read "Lefty" of the great Russian pis


              what stupid arguments you give, you decided to read all the tales here? There was no metal flea that would move by itself, and even "conveyor production" ??? We must rely on the five-axis machine to sharpen the flea details? And do you consider this an argument?
              1. iouris
                iouris 16 June 2016 12: 53
                +1
                Everything is clear in you: a bad case. A fairy tale is a lie, but a hint in it: a lesson for good fellows.
          2. Mikhail Matyugin
            Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 00: 37
            0
            Quote: Paul1
            As for the "technical lagging" of Russia at the beginning of the 19th century, this is nonsense, in terms of population and iron smelting, Russia was ahead of the rest of the planet or on a par with the Angles.

            Ahead of the population? Sorry, but you don’t know the basics of demography.

            Ahead of the planet for smelting pig iron? So it was in the era of Peter I and under Elizabeth, and already in the second half of the 18th century, another industrial revolution took place in England and it began to overtake Russia sharply, and our metal, very average in quality and with bad logistics (which means interruptions in supply) nobody needed it in such volumes (the British themselves began to cook it in place).
      3. Cat man null
        Cat man null 15 June 2016 21: 56
        -1
        Quote: Paul1
        nullified Russian people

        There was somehow the devil with the "Sveles"

        You are not relatives, an hour?

        Just around the bazaar - look like family brothers
  2. Simpsonian
    Simpsonian 15 June 2016 06: 36
    -9
    The adventurer Shaffer is likely to pair with Nesselrode is all ... compromised.
  3. romex1
    romex1 15 June 2016 06: 46
    +9
    national interests and national interests in any ... world to protect them, including in Paraguay.
  4. baudolino
    baudolino 15 June 2016 07: 34
    +5
    Just look at the map and the composition of the Russian fleet for the 1817 year to close the question of Hawaii.
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 01: 21
      0
      Quote: baudolino
      Just look at the map and the composition of the Russian fleet for the 1817 year to close the question of Hawaii.

      But was he a serious Russian merchant fleet?
  5. GOGY
    GOGY 15 June 2016 07: 49
    +4
    A very good and necessary article ... I myself have a book by Kremlev on my shelf, at one time I was also interested in the history of the development of Alaska and was very upset about the missed opportunities of Russia! Here are the fruits of the labor of the activities of the "Westernizers", it would be from whose mistakes the domestic "liberals" who are so eager to enter Europe can learn! But apparently liberalism and mental activity are incompatible ...
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 15 June 2016 13: 03
      0
      Quote: GOGY
      history of the development of Alaska and was very disappointing for the missed opportunities of Russia! Here are the fruits of the labor of the activities of "Westernizers", that would be on whose mistakes domestic "liberals" should learn

      Believe it or not, we "managed" in Alaska on our own, and without the hostile activities of Western agents of influence. The main enemy of Russia, always and first of all, is the bureaucracy and, in one person, fools and grabbers.
      1. iouris
        iouris 15 June 2016 19: 23
        0
        There are two problems. In this case, one repairs the other.
        Missed Opportunities is such a game. In another way, it is called "football".
        1. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 00: 26
          0
          Quote: iouris
          There are two problems. In this case, one repairs the other.

          In the period under review, the problem of fools and roads was on a smaller scale than exactly those indicated above.
          1. iouris
            iouris 16 June 2016 12: 55
            0
            How did you determine this? Where did the themes that Gogol and Saltykov-Shchedrin came from then come from? The latter, by the way, was the vice-governor of the Vyatka province.
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 15 June 2016 07: 51
    +2
    Thanks .. interesting ...
  7. kuz363
    kuz363 15 June 2016 08: 18
    -8
    Well, what kind of Hawaii does Russia need? Stupidity is utter. They can’t put things in order on their territory, and here is Hawaii.
    1. jPilot
      jPilot 15 June 2016 11: 43
      +4
      Do you even understand what the article is about? And here is the order and, as a consequence, "Give Hawaii" request This is an article about the HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN STATE, and about those pages of it that many do not know. And the praised Europa in every way tries to destroy it (history) and erase it from memory. And the liberals continue to look the aforementioned in the ass, and race to run to follow her instructions. And this is also an article about the Nesselrods, who were and are still being appointed as advisers. After all, Kudrin and others like them from the same cohort of "Western lovers" they admire Europa and do not want to do anything for the prosperity of RUSSIA.
      1. iouris
        iouris 15 June 2016 19: 24
        0
        Nesselrode, Kankrin is an attempt to introduce advanced technologies in Russia.
        1. jPilot
          jPilot 16 June 2016 04: 38
          0
          And it doesn't seem to you that the price for the introduction of "advanced technologies" is too high, or maybe you just need to invest in the development of your ADVANCED technologies and everything will be DIFFERENTLY better, the most important thing is to establish TOTAL control over the spending of funds (because we have a BAD wink ), and the west will rest in ALL parameters. For the RUSSIAN land is rich with "Kulibins", believe me.
          1. iouris
            iouris 16 June 2016 13: 05
            0
            Quote: jPilot
            Don't you think that the price for the introduction of "advanced technologies" is too high?

            It doesn't seem as if technology is really being introduced. If the investments go to the "cut", then this is a completely different story.
            Government technology is the most important. It is known that the state apparatus was often reformed with the involvement of foreigners who introduced these technologies (into a resisting environment) and then became Russian, because they were interested in the Russian project. Without a project, there will only be a cut (Browder, Yukos).
    2. reservist
      reservist 15 June 2016 13: 16
      +1
      In December 1897, the Russian squadron entered Port Arthur. Those. less than a hundred years later, nevertheless, in the Pacific Ocean an ice-free naval base was required.
      1. iouris
        iouris 15 June 2016 19: 25
        -1
        Even Stalin failed to gain a foothold in Port Arthur. Why?
        1. reservist
          reservist 16 June 2016 11: 28
          +2
          Joseph Vissarionovich just in 1945 succeeded ...


          but Nikita Sergeyevich gave the base to the Chinese in 1955 ...


  8. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 15 June 2016 08: 32
    +4
    Quote: kuz363
    Well, what kind of Hawaii does Russia need? Stupidity is utter. On its territory can't put things in orderand then give Hawaii.

    Dear, you read the article, did you miss the dates or what? How can one directly project the deeds of ancestors on today's day ...
    And the article is interesting, I read it with satisfaction, thanks.
  9. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 15 June 2016 08: 50
    0
    Hawaii could only become a protectorate provided that by then there was a permanent squadron of the Russian Navy in the Pacific Ocean. And - the availability of infrastructure on the lands of the RAC and the Far East. But alas, in real history there was none of this.
    1. Per se.
      Per se. 15 June 2016 10: 04
      +5
      The squadron could well have been formed from the same Baltic. The story of the plot is not far from the end of the war with Napoleon, when the authority of Russia was high enough for such actions. More historically, the later appearance of Russian squadrons in the Pacific Ocean to support the Yankees (1863-64 and in 1876) could have already been to support their own, and not just foreign territories. There would be a desire and goals, they just did not exist, not opportunities. In addition, the tsarist government has always had a strong Anglo-Saxon lobby. What history teaches ... Later, our "strategists" did not need Cuba and the base in Vietnam, miraculously they had not yet abandoned their small foothold in Syria. All around there are well-wishers and advisers why a "land" country needs a fleet and overseas bases, guardians-economists, from whom hundreds of billions are flowing over the hill, tens and hundreds of millions are stolen by officials, and the main "authorities" of the economy are looking into the US mouth.
      1. Bersaglieri
        Bersaglieri 15 June 2016 19: 25
        +2
        Alas, alas ... This had to be done systematically, starting from about 1805 (sorry, Rezanov died, yes ...)
      2. Bersaglieri
        Bersaglieri 15 June 2016 19: 26
        +1
        In 1865, there was already "another reality", namely, the systematic construction of "cruisers" after the Paris Treaty (in order to "dominate the Englishwoman" :))
  10. netvrz
    netvrz 15 June 2016 09: 26
    +4
    To keep Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, not to mention Hawaii, a serious fleet was needed in the Far East. And he just was not there. Sorry. It is possible that having a fleet, Port Arthur would not have had to be leased in almost a hundred years, but it would have been Russian territory. However, the history of the subjunctive mood does not have. A very informative article is a definite plus.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 15 June 2016 19: 26
      +1
      That's right!
  11. Aleksander
    Aleksander 15 June 2016 09: 52
    +1
    The article is interesting, but blaming the Russian government for neglecting Hawaii, in my opinion, is wrong.
    Russia 1820-ies was not a state with well-established and recognized borders and territories. And the country's vast territories (many of which have recently become part of Russia) had to be developed and defended, which Russia focused on in the first place.
    And completely, I think, right.
    1. Nehist
      Nehist 15 June 2016 10: 26
      +2
      I totally agree with you! At that time, the borders of Europe were redrawn and Russia had neither the strength nor the means to keep Hawaii. We can’t even master the Far East now, and at that time Hawaii, as a suitcase without a handle, could not be kept by Russia militarily or economically.
      1. Pavel1
        Pavel1 15 June 2016 10: 40
        +2
        Quote: Nehist
        Russia had neither the strength nor the means to keep Hawaii. We can’t even master the Far East now, while Hawaii was like a suitcase without handles


        already in those days, Russia was the largest state in terms of population, so planting garrisons on the islands to control the land is not a difficult task, this is not the case. Given the wealth of American land and the adjacent waters, Hawaii was very necessary as a transfer between Russia and America. The problem is the lack of political will.
        1. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 15 June 2016 14: 48
          0
          Quote: Paul1
          Russia was the largest state in terms of population, so putting garrisons on the islands to control the land is not a difficult task

          Sorry, but you have a very primitive idea of ​​logistics. Recall what happened to the Japanese garrisons in the Pacific islands even in the 20th century?

          And Russia was far from the largest state in terms of population.
          1. Pavel1
            Pavel1 15 June 2016 21: 46
            0
            Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
            Sorry, but you have a very primitive idea of ​​logistics


            Of course, you have an understanding of logistics at the level of the 21st century, the very word "logistics" appeared in the last 20 years and therefore people of the 19th century had no idea about it. The Angles, and only they could lay claim to overseas territories, could not transfer enough troops thousands of kilometers away to fight Russia and your comparison of the capabilities of the technology of the 20th and 19th century is simply illiterate.
            1. Mikhail Matyugin
              Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 00: 32
              0
              Quote: Paul1
              The Angles, and only they could lay claim to overseas territories, could not transfer enough troops for thousands of kilometers to war Russia and your comparison of the capabilities of the technology of the century 20 and 19 is simply illiterate.

              Comrade, I would just recommend being more correct in the statements. I gave a simple example - even in the era of much more advanced technology, the fate of the island Japanese garrisons was sad. Do you think that in the 19th century Russia could somehow supply them?!?

              And the British could not transport their troops? Oh well. Let me just remind you of the Crimean War - there Russian troops could not on time and without loss overcome a much shorter geographical route than the British and French regiments transported by sea in a circular way, from hell knows where.
              1. Pavel1
                Pavel1 16 June 2016 08: 08
                +1
                Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                ovoshch, I would just recommend being more correct in the statements. I AM


                so which country was larger than Russia in terms of population, you stated, but did not specify?
                1. Mikhail Matyugin
                  Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 09: 04
                  0
                  Quote: Paul1
                  so which country was larger than Russia in terms of population, you stated, but did not specify?
                  Well, just count the population of the English, French, Dutch and Spanish colonial empires, maybe something will become clearer.

                  If you don’t like this version of the calculus (although these were just united states with direct control), then just take Manchurian China and the Great Mughal India, and do not forget about the Ottoman Empire (although Russia at that time began to surpass the latter in terms of population).
                  1. Pavel1
                    Pavel1 16 June 2016 11: 52
                    0
                    Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                    Well, just count the population of the English, French, Dutch and Spanish colonial empires, maybe something will become clearer.


                    and that in the army of Napoleon were blacks? or in the Crimean war the Indians served with the Angles? Or was China able to oppose England in its hundreds of millions in opium wars? In short, you are one of those who just need to object, hiding the historical reality behind a meaningless stream of words. Russia COULD preserve both Hawaii and Alaska, and Russian America, there was no desire, and not from non-rural men, namely from the German tsars.
                    1. Mikhail Matyugin
                      Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 21: 28
                      0
                      Quote: Paul1
                      and that in the army of Napoleon were blacks? or in the Crimean war the Indians served with the Angles? Or was China able to oppose England in its hundreds of millions in opium wars?

                      Let's go. Well, why can't Russian people just admit - yes, they were wrong, ignoramus - and continue to climb into the bottle? request

                      Quote: Paul1
                      Russia COULD preserve both Hawaii and Alaska, and Russian America, there was no desire, and not from the non-agricultural man, namely from the German tsars.
                      Comrade, I’m kind of competent in the field of colony management in Russia and other countries at that time. And therefore, I responsibly declare that, ECONOMICALLY and TECHNICALLY, neither New Guinea, nor Russian America, nor Hawaii, the Russian Empire then could not even keep, not to mention to master and colonize.

                      "Purely for prestige" - it was possible to run a bunch of garrisons without the hope of returning and normal support, dooming them to death. But our tsars were adequate people and for some reason they did not do that.

                      Just as an example - "grabbing does not mean digesting". Russia then could not "digest" even the Caucasus and Turkestan, and we mastered the Far East only in the XNUMXth century, and that was due to the fact that there was no serious population there and there was no continental connection.

                      If we talk about remote overseas possessions, then for their successful development it was necessary to be an industrial capitalist power (and it was rather backward agrarian and feudal, if you forgot, with an internal version of slavery until the 1861 year).

                      Do you even know that the Russian administrators were not nowhere to take people for their territories in the same Alaska? Well, we are not the United States and not Europe, we had serfdom, and we had almost no free immigrants!
                      1. Pavel1
                        Pavel1 16 June 2016 22: 58
                        +1
                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        Let's go. Why Russian people can’t just admit - yes, they were wrong, ignoramus - and they continue to climb into the bottle


                        I’m not going to hide from anyone and say what I know and what I believe in. The fact that Russia at the beginning of the 19th century had the largest manageable human resources and industry was sufficient for me personally to maintain its overseas territories was beyond doubt.
                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        And therefore I responsibly declare that, ECONOMICALLY and TECHNICALLY, neither New Guinea, nor Russian America, nor Hawaii, the Russian Empire then could not even keep, not to mention to master and colonize.


                        Based on the theory of Fomenko and Nosovsky, we can say that Alaska and Western America were under the control of Great Tartaria, which means that there were enough Russian people in these territories, because before the Pugachev War, there were no Romanovs or other Westerners in Western America.
                        There are, however, quite official letters within the framework of the TI, of the manager of the Russo-American campaign Rezanov, where he writes that along with the Aleutian mestizos and Russians in the northern lands of America alone there were about 50 thousand people, and this is already a decent military force to protect the territory, and as for the profit from the fur trade, then it was already millions of times.
                        Well, if you look at the maps of Tartaria, you can see that the Philippines, Korea, and even Ceylon also entered this country, which means that Tartaria had ports and a fleet. However, the sea flags of those times talk about this.




                        https://topwar.ru/31944-izvestnyy-flag-neizvestnoy-strany.html
                      2. Mikhail Matyugin
                        Mikhail Matyugin 17 June 2016 09: 55
                        0
                        Quote: Paul1
                        The fact that Russia at the beginning of 19†™ s had the largest manageable human resources and the industry is quite sufficient for me personally to maintain its overseas territories is beyond doubt.

                        The problem is what exactly causes big doubts. I have already said about human resources. About industry - in general, forget, Russia remained a feudal state (not a capitalist-industrial!) Until 1860x, and even to 1890x!

                        Quote: Paul1
                        Based on the theory of Fomenko and Nosovsky, we can say that Alaska and Western America were under the control of Great Tartaria
                        Well, let's rely nevertheless on objective scientific facts and theories proved by science, and not on the theory of nobody knows. Or do you, when your teeth hurt, go to a plumber?

                        Quote: Paul1
                        together with Aleutian mestizos and Russians in the northern lands of America alone there were about 50 thousand people
                        See for example my article on the Russian monetary system in America. A catastrophic shortage of manpower! Unfortunately, Aleut could not even be considered allies (they turned out to be too wild and warlike people), and not just to be used for colonization.

                        It was necessary to rely solely on Russian immigrants, but they were almost nonexistent - all those who were free or fluent, who arrived, settled in Siberia and the Far East, units crossed the ocean.
                      3. Pavel1
                        Pavel1 17 June 2016 16: 02
                        +1
                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        Russia remained a feudal state (not


                        this "feudal" state washed the neck of the most advanced capitalist state - France, as well as all the rest of the "capitalist" who were with it.

                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        Well, let's rely nevertheless on objective scientific facts and theories proved by science, and not on the theory of nobody knows. Or do you, when your teeth hurt, go to a plumber?


                        come on, I brought you maps and pictures of the banners of Tartaria, for some reason you didn’t react, probably went to treat the teeth to a locksmith.

                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        See for example my article on the Russian monetary system in America. Catastrophic shortage of manpower


                        hiding the largest state in the world, to write that there were no Russians in America is a small lie.

                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        Unfortunately, Aleut could not even be considered allies (they were too wild and warlike people), and not just to be used for colonization.


                        the Russians easily subjugated the Aleuts or agreed with them, went on mixed marriages, and those who rebelled shortened them, in short order was there and everything developed there, as it was necessary, both production and trade, and life and protection of their interests.

                        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
                        It was necessary to rely solely on Russian immigrants, and


                        You recently told me that, against the Russian population, the entire population of the colonies should be considered correctly, is it already forgotten?
                      4. Mikhail Matyugin
                        Mikhail Matyugin 23 June 2016 19: 34
                        0
                        Quote: Paul1
                        feudal "state washed the neck of the most advanced capitalist state - France,
                        You forget a little that this was done in the UNION with England - the leading economic force in the world.


                        Quote: Paul1
                        that, against the Russian population, the ALL population of the colonies should be correctly considered, has already been forgotten?
                        No, just to consider the Aleuts or Chukchi as a population suitable for the COLONIZATION of new lands is ridiculous. The Russian tsars understood this perfectly and considered suitable exclusively as Cossacks as a colonization force.
  • russkiy redut
    russkiy redut 15 June 2016 15: 15
    +1
    What nonsense! Then the Americans took their hands as soon as we left there. Hawaii is a port, a port is money, it is trade, the so-called maritime powers want to lock us on the continent: England, America. No wonder the goal of Russia's foreign policy for many centuries has been the task of access to the sea !!! In all ages, the cheapest way to deliver goods was by sea !!!
    1. hirurg
      hirurg 15 June 2016 17: 42
      +1
      If you are going to eat, take as much as you eat.
      If they give you 6 hectares of land right now, will you take it?
      And process, harvest, and put a fence.
      Is it expensive? That's what they thought then.
      No need to row for yourself, especially if you can’t provide and protect. And Alaska was then sold precisely because of this.
      Now the situation is different. And toh is problematic.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 17 June 2016 09: 58
        0
        Quote: hirurg
        And process, harvest, and put a fence.
        Is it expensive? That's what they thought then.

        For example, the Spanish colonial empire. They took literally half the world. And what's the point? All the same, even in a small part they could not master, the nation’s forces were severely undermined, the economy was ruined and, as a result, everything fell apart or was taken away by more developed neighbors.
    2. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 15 June 2016 19: 28
      +1
      The Americans tidied up Hawaii ... hmm ... after about 70 years. In the 1820s they still didn’t even get to California :)

      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%B9%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D
      0%B5_%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B0

      In 1887, the armed detachments of the white forces forced the adoption of the "Bayonet Constitution." Since Liliuokalani, the last queen of the islands, tried to challenge the provisions of this “constitution”, a group of natives of islands of American descent, calling for help from American sailors from a ship in the bay, carried out a coup and overthrew the queen in 1893. A year later, the puppet Republic of Hawaii was proclaimed, with Sanford Dole as president. After the failure of the counter-coup attempt, led by Hawaiian nationalist Colonel Robert William Wilcox, who did not tire of rebelling against both monarchist and republican governments, the accession of Hawaii to the United States was only a matter of time. In 1898, at the height of the Spanish-American War, the United States annexed [2] Hawaii and in 1900 granted them the status of self-governing territory. When President William McKinley signed a “treaty” on the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands, the local population managed to thwart its entry into force by presenting 38000 signatures to a petition of protest; as a result, the annexation was approved only by the adoption in both houses of Congress of the corresponding "Newlands Resolution" on July 4, 1898.

      From 1901 to 1902, the first chairman of the Senate of the Hawaiian Islands was the revolutionary populist Nikolai Sudzilovsky-Roussel [3], also known as Kauka Lukini (in Russian, Kanak “Russian doctor”), who managed to carry out reforms in support of the Kanaks during his tenure , but could not resist the influence of the United States and was deprived of American citizenship for anti-American activities. The so-called Big Five - 5 companies that owned sugar plantations of the islands and established their oligarchic control over local politics - made every effort to ensure that Hawaii had unequal status within the United States, because in this way the American labor law did not extend to the islands.

      In 1908, the Pearl Harbor port, which since the late 7th century had played the role of the international, became the base of the U.S. Navy. The attack of Japanese aviation on this base on December 1941, XNUMX led the United States to enter World War II.

      On August 21, 1959, Hawaii received the status of the US state, the 50th in a row.
    3. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 01: 25
      0
      Quote: russkiy redut
      Hawaii is a port, a port is money, it is trade, they want to lock us on the continent with the so-called maritime powers: England, America.

      By the way, Russia had a lot of these ports in the Pacific then — and the trouble is, they all didn’t pay for themselves, they had to finance everything and everything from the budget. Trade speak? Money? Oh well.

      I emphasize once again - the problem was the inertness and lack of initiative of the Russian colonial administration in the Far East and in Russian America, which, when it could, ruined the right measures of ordinary researchers and industrialists.
  • Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 15 June 2016 13: 11
    +1
    The main problem of the Russian Empire was precisely the excessive centralization of power and the bureaucratic nature of government. This put pressure on local initiatives. At the same time, the Western colonial empires - and first of all the British - excellently supported the initiatives coming "from below", pushing the boundaries in every possible way and increasing the power of the economy.
    1. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 15 June 2016 21: 46
      +1
      Well, not everything is clear here. The administrative apparatus at the local level in the Russian Empire was surprisingly small. By the number of officials per thousand population, we were inferior to most European countries.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 01: 19
        0
        Quote: Sergej1972
        By the number of officials per thousand population, we were inferior to most European countries.

        It depends on how you count. Usually England is cited as an example, but its gigantic colonies are "forgotten".

        I'm talking about the effectiveness of management and about the existing support or the desire to destroy ("whatever happens") initiatives "from below".

        It would be simpler - Russia barely had enough talented administrators for the Caucasus and Turkestan, not to mention Siberia, and even about Russian America, and even more so some distant colonies could simply be "forgotten" in this matter.
  • Poplar505
    Poplar505 15 June 2016 14: 56
    +2
    Judging by the "minuses" addressed to those who speak directly and truthfully, there are many liberals, enemies of Russia and potential traitors on this site.
  • Onegin
    Onegin 15 June 2016 16: 49
    +1
    what to do on those hawaii, not fur or gold
    1. reservist
      reservist 16 June 2016 11: 55
      +1
      the same mine of gold miners needs to be fed with something ...
      Hawaii and California could be Alaska's "vegetable garden"
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 17 June 2016 10: 01
        0
        Quote: reservist
        the mine of gold prospectors needs to be fed with something ...
        Hawaii and California could be Alaska's "vegetable garden"

        No need to compare the current state of these lands and what they were at the beginning of the XIX century. Then it was - in one case, a small archipelago inhabited by cruel cannibals, and in the other - barren mountainous semi-deserts with a rare population.
        1. reservist
          reservist 17 June 2016 11: 23
          +1
          however, the Americans were able to trade with the Hawaiians, and the Spaniards - get comfortable in California
  • jcksmt
    jcksmt 15 June 2016 20: 39
    +1
    This pearl should be combined with Napoleon or Hitler against England.
    England and Russia are two empires on the edge of Europe. And to both, like a bone in the throat, a united Europe. Therefore, they united against Napoleon and Hitler. At this point in time. England sits in the EU and puts sticks in its wheels. Russia is trying to play on the contradictions of Western and Eastern Europe.
  • Selevc
    Selevc 16 June 2016 10: 33
    +2
    Quote: jcksmt
    England and Russia are two empires on the edge of Europe.

    England is generally an extremely curious country - the history of England is the history of a country that had nothing and built everything !!! Some other 500-600 years ago, England was a country torn apart by civil and religious wars and revolutions ... The country was in the outskirts of Europe. And after the discovery of America, the British realized the extreme benefit of their geographical position - in order for the country to be strong, being on the island you need to have a strong fleet. To build a strong fleet, you need a lot - a lot of forest. And in Britain, forests were scarce or long ago cut down - they figured out how to use open grassy wastelands - to breed sheep !!! Sheep is wool (sails, ropes, clothing for sailors, etc.). You can trade wool - and buy excellent ship timber from the same Russia !!!

    In the Middle Ages, continental Europe more than once landed troops for wars and the ruin of the islands - from the Vikings and William to the episodes of the 100-year war and the era of Cromwell ...
    Britain is extremely vulnerable to landing from the sea, which means the English Channel must be made an insurmountable barrier to the enemy. It means that the major continental powers of Europe need to clash and quarrel among themselves - let the barbarians fight among themselves on the continent and Britain will strengthen and become rich for now.
    Actually, the British actually engaged in successfully for some 400 years.
    In eternally warring Europe, nations were killing and destroying each other's potential - and England, meanwhile, was developing rapidly - during the 17-19th centuries, trade began to flourish in England and the Scientific and Technical Revolution took place.

    By the beginning of the 20th century, Britain is the number 1 power in the world - in the famous photo of the Potsdam three - the main ones are not Stalin and Roosevelt at all, but Churchill !!!
    But here's the bad luck - the geopolitical enemy understood the vulnerability of the British Empire - these are its colonies ... A blow was struck at the colonies - this was called in the USSR "The struggle of the third world countries against colonialism." And of course, without the help of the USSR, almost all the colonies of the British Empire would never have gained independence. For it is one thing for a white master to fight the Papuans with armed spears and arrows, and a completely different thing when the Papuans are armed with AK-3s. The colonialists chose not to risk it and get out of the colonies !!! The British Empire collapsed - and Britain was in crisis (47s 60s hippies, etc.).
    Now Britain is pursuing a very clever policy on the continent - like having joined the EU and having gathered almost all the peoples of Europe in one eurozone to confront Russia, the British themselves are likely to leave the union, substituting other nations for possible attacks. But in general, Britain never completely joined the EU and was as distant as possible from the processes taking place in Coventine. The British Empire, although it collapsed but did not die completely - there were fragments of the world in the form of islands and small territories - but in general for the base of the fleet a lot of territory is not needed.