In paragraph 12 of “Secret Instruction” we read: “All art and all efforts should be put into action in order to attract young men of well-behaved, handsome appearance, belonging to good families and in good condition. In order to lure such, the prefects of the schools should provide them with a special arrangement, do not allow teachers to insult them, praise them as often as possible, give them small gifts, allow them into the garden and give them fruits, and in solemn cases invite them to the common table. On the other hand, it should reach the peak, accuse them of various actions on the basis of some guesses, always show them a strict look, strictly compel them to practice and punish; finally, we must point out to them that the youthful age is inclined to be carried away by all that is bad, and to scare them that they will perish completely if they do not enter the Order ”.
The method of pressure and threats was effective at all levels.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the French government, headed by the radical Combe, was in sharp conflict with the Vatican. This conflict led even to a complete rupture of relations. The Vatican was particularly annoyed by the decision of the French government to close Catholic schools and ban monks from teaching even in secular schools. In response, Pope Leo XIII ordered to withdraw all Vatican gold from a French bank.
Three and a half decades passed, and in 1940, the French government, led by Henri Petain, rebuilt Catholic schools. Petain personally met with Hitler about the preservation of the southern territory of France "behind him." Henri did it.
Speaking about the Jesuit elementary schools, it is impossible not to recall their opposites - the schools that advanced Spanish teacher Francisco Ferrer taught at the beginning of the 20th century. It is impossible not to recall the tragic fate of Ferrer: in order to stop his activities, which are dangerous primarily for the Catholic Church, he was falsely accused of plotting against the king and, after a verdict of a military court, was shot in 1909 in Barcelona.
High school Jesuits betrayed always special importance. For centuries, they have continuously fought for influence on universities and in this struggle went resolutely for everything. AT stories Many of the old European universities were periods when, with the help of intrigues, the Jesuits managed to occupy a dominant position in them.
Theology and to Jesuit dominance was the main subject of study at universities, while with the Jesuits it began to forcefully push out everything else. The natural and philological sciences indulged in oblivion and were expelled, theology was also presented under the guise of philosophy, over and in everything dominated the dead scholasticism. In the XVI-XVIII centuries, it was, in particular, in Prague, Graz, Olomouc, Ingolstadt, Vienna, Freiberg, Heidelberg, Würzburg universities, and in many others.
The intricacies of international and religious relations in Western Europe of those times particularly contributed to the destructive activities of the Jesuits. It was a time of fierce religious persecution, when the Catholic and Protestant camps competed in cruelty and intolerance towards each other. There were religious wars between states and within individual countries.
In the first half of the 17th century, the Thirty Years' War took place, accompanied by completely exceptional atrocities, devastation and terror on both sides. Under these conditions, it was not so difficult for the Jesuits to win over the Catholic princes, who themselves were seeking support in the “Society of Jesus” - a tested force.
This support was largely due to the fact that the Jesuits began to manage the school. Who does not know that it is characteristic of the Vatican not to patronize science, but to pursue advanced scientists? When the inquisitors handed down the death sentence of Giordano Bruno, this meant that the executioners were busy with their executioners; when on the day of the execution of this martyr of science, two Jesuits last tried to snatch a refusal of conviction from him, it was also in the order of things; when he was declared blessed, then holy, and finally the church teacher of the Jesuit Cardinal Bellarmino, who signed Bruno’s sentence, and later became the torturer of the aged Galileo, this inquisitor’s apotheosis was logical in its own way. When the Vatican declared mourning for the opening of the monument at the site of Bruno's burning in 1889, this meant that the descendants of the murderers could not see how their ancestors' victims glorified. In all these cases, the church was itself, as at the time when it blessed the book to be released, where it is said that the sentence of the Inquisition on Bruno “retains fully its moral force today” (this phrase is contained in the book of A. Mercati ” Results of the Bruno Process ", published in Italy in 1947 year. It is also interesting to read the introductory article by Y. Kogan" The Historical Significance of Giordano Bruno "in the book by V.S. Rozhitsyn" Giordano Bruno and the Inquisition ", M., 1955 year, p. 30).
For centuries, the tested burden of persecution, slander fell upon the head of Galileo. In the true relationship of the Jesuits can be seen on the example of the tragic history of this scientist.
The Jesuits at one time preferred not to draw with their pious scolding attention to his astronomical discoveries, from which conclusions followed that destroyed the religious worldview at that time. At first they recognized these discoveries only as unimportant, though entertaining scientific curiosities, in order to quickly cast a shadow of oblivion on them.
The Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher, a contemporary of Galileo, responded in a very peculiar way to the then increasingly popular idea of many inhabited worlds, which logically flowed from the scientific and philosophical views of Copernicus, Bruno and Galileo. Kircher composed something like a science fiction novel, where he described his imaginary wanderings on different planets. But at the same time he was not interested in the questions of science, he asked the car: if there was water on Venus, would it be suitable for the rite of baptism, or if grapes grew on Jupiter, could it be used to drink wine from it during the communion rite?
Another Jesuit of those times, Riccioli, objected when he was told that the Copernican system of the world relatively simply explains the visible paths of celestial bodies moving across the sky: “The harder it is to explain the movements of stars,” he wrote, “the more revealed the greatness of God” (G. A. Gurev, “Copernican Heresy in the Past and Present,” Third Edition, M., 1937 Year, p. 117).
At the same time as Galileo, sunspots were discovered by a Jesuit astronomer Scheiner. It would seem that, following the great Italian, he should have drawn conclusions from this discovery in a different spirit.
However, Scheiner chose to enter into an argument with Galileo, denying his view on the nature of sunspots. Descartes is curious that Scheiner, in the depths of his soul, was a supporter of heliocentrism (a scientific presentation advanced by Copernicus). If this is true, then the Jesuit made a deal with his conscience and hid his own conviction in favor of the official Catholic point of view.
However, not only polemics and not only fantastic novels were met by the Jesuits of the discovery of Galileo.
“Galilia, a follower of the Jesuits,” wrote the official historian of the Society of Jesus, Cretino-Joly, as if nothing had happened. But after all, the Jesuits most of all owe their misfortunes to Galileo. The great scientist was well aware that they were the ones who were the most reactionary and familiar to astronomy more than others. He wrote to a friend: “I hear from certain sources that the Jesuit fathers told the deciding person (papa) that my book is worse and worse for the church than the writings of Luther and Calvin.” “Some Jesuit,” said Galileo in another letter, “declare in print in Rome that the opinion about the movement of the Earth is the most disgusting, disastrous, and nastiest of all heresies; that the dogma of the immovability of the Earth should not be touched ”(GA Gureyev, the above-mentioned essay, pp. 8 and p. 11).
The ensuing spiritual humiliation and eight-year imprisonment did not break the spirit of Galileo - he could still make many discoveries in isolation.
Such were the relationships of the Jesuits and advanced science in the epoch of Galileo.
However, one Jesuit of the Society of Jesus back in 1912 year admitted: “A Jesuit never becomes a scientist solely for the sake of knowledge or the joys of research. His work goes beyond purely scientific purposes: the results obtained serve him as the material from which weapon and fortresses for the struggle for moral and religious benefits. "
The fact that this author was pleased to call moral and religious benefits, in essence, is a complete rejection of genuine science.
Cardinal Bellarmino has the following maxim. “The science leading to a prosperous death is the most important of all”; “What more can one invent by insanity, how can one neglect that science?” He asked in the book about “happy” death, referring to his science — theology. ("The science of safely dying, based on the rules of goodness, Christianity, God-pleasing life. The writing of Robert, Cardinal Bellarmina". Translated from Latin by Vasily Belyaev, part 1, M., edition NI Novikov and K, 1783 year, p. 7 -8).
Bellarmino's reasoning is not his private opinion, the very essence of the then view of science was reflected in the words of this Jesuit.
What subjects were taught in theological and philosophical faculties of the universities of the Society of Jesus? Dozens of items. Here are the teachings about the trinity of God, about the Virgin Mary, about the sacraments, about the inspiration of the holy scripture, pastoral theology, liturgical theology, mystical theology. And also there is aesthetics, morality, sociology, law, psychology, pedagogy, philosophy of science, history of philosophy, questions “on the rights and duties of various groups of people”, history of religion and other humanitarian disciplines published by A. Tondi (see his writings, pages 161-163).
No wonder Leibniz wrote that the Jesuits could not trust either libraries or archives so that they would not destroy those documents that they considered inconvenient for themselves. Indeed, among the historians who came from the depths of the Society of Jesus or were inextricably associated with it, there are many who interpret historical facts in a most surprising way. They include, for example, J. Cretino-Jolie, who wrote The Religious, Political, and Literary History of the Society of Jesus — a plump, multivolume review. With a view of extreme objectivity, this author extols the Jesuits in everything - contrary to reason and well-known facts.
Another example is a group of Catholic scholars who released the first two volumes of World History in Switzerland in 1952 and 1953. Suffice it to say that in this collective work, the authors (some of them wear a robe) ignore or openly attack even such positions of science that, from the point of view of any conscientious scientist, have not required proof for a long time.
Another of these figures, the most respected in foreign ethnography, is the Jesuit Wilhelm Schmidt, the author of works that propagate racism in a scientific form.
And at the same time, the Jesuits did their best to make the works of progressive historians of various countries and peoples inaccessible to Catholics. For example, in the “Index of forbidden books” there were books by many historians who were distinguished by anticlerical or anti-religious views, including the writings of the Frenchman Michelet, the Englishman Gibbon, and others.
In the Catholic journals, the study of the American historian G. Lee, published in the nineteenth century, was devoted to the inquisition.
For a long time unwanted books were forbidden. There was a time when authors were destroyed along with books. In the 17th century, the great Italian historian Paolo Sarpi, who held an anti-Papa stance in the political conflict of the Venetian Republic with the Vatican, was dealt with this way. The monk Sarpi was not an atheist, he only dreamed of improving the church and hated the Jesuits. He wrote: “Nothing is more important than undermining the credibility of the Jesuits; destroying it, we will destroy Rome, and if Rome dies, religion will reform itself ”(letter from 5 July 1619). The monk died from the blows of mercenaries who inflicted on him fifteen deadly wounds. The main work of Sarpi, "The History of the Council of Tries," was entered in the "Index of forbidden books."
We note that the activities of many Catholic "professors" have nothing to do with science, but they are involved in the most reactionary politics. Jesuit Tomislav Kolakovich, a professor of theology, has repeatedly met Stepan Bandera to jointly organize heinous crimes against the Ukrainian people.
To be continued ...