About the struggle of the Jesuit order for the youth, for the school, about its most harmful influence on the development of the sciences, let us say in particular. This will help to understand the origins of the formation of fascist and nationalist ideas and methods that were taken by the followers of Jesuit affairs. Stepan Bandera was one of them.
From the very first years of the existence of the “Society of Jesus,” wherever the Jesuits appeared, they immediately sought to set up their schools — the novices (lower schools) and colleges — and recruit young people from rich and distinguished families there. There were also children of Protestants among her, tempted by free tuition and exaggerated rumors about the pedagogical talents of Loyola's followers. To the Jesuits, every such occasion opened up a convenient opportunity to influence Protestant families.
For the same reasons, in the 16th-17th centuries, the Jesuits of Poland recruited children into their schools not only Catholics and Protestants, but also Orthodox Ukrainian and Belarusian feudal lords.
Less than ten years after the foundation of the order, and the collegia were already counted in dozens and in Italy, and in Spain, and in Portugal, and in the Netherlands, in the Czech Republic, and in France, and in Poland, and in Hungary, and in Lithuania, and far away India and other countries. The Roman College in 1555, five years after its foundation, released the first hundred students who completed the full course. In 1580, she already had more than 2000 graduates. Catholic historians report that by 1640, by the centenary of the order, in all its schools there were up to 150 000 students.
Even if we halve and quadruple this number, which the Jesuits themselves called at one time, the fact that tens of thousands of young people systematically, day after day, were subjected to Jesuit treatment already in those distant years, would remain indisputable.
The colleges taught the beginnings of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music; Special attention was paid to the sciences needed by preachers: Latin and Greek grammar, as well as rhetoric and dialectics (that is, art to speak and argue eloquently and eloquently). By the way, Bandera loved to play music.
Over all of this stood, of course, theology. A student could be made an orator, a missionary, a teacher, a “leader of conscience” —the confessor of some rich person.
Voltaire, who studied at the Jesuit college in his youth, wrote about the results of his teaching: “I did not know that Francis I was captured by Pavia, or where Pavia was; I did not know the country in which I was born, did not know either the main laws or the interests of my homeland; I understood nothing in mathematics, nothing in sound philosophy; I knew only Latin and nonsense. "
The writer Fontenelle, a contemporary of Voltaire, also learned from the Jesuits and remembered it equally bitterly and bitterly: “I was barely ten years old when I began to understand nothing.”
In some places, for the sake of advertising colleges and academies, as well as for warming up their reputation as great teachers, Jesuits bought valuable tools and visual aids for the money of wealthy patrons, collected libraries. Thus, in 1766, the Vilna Jesuit Academy issued a sextant and a transit instrument from Paris, made under the supervision of the famous astronomer Laland. It should be noted, however, that with the help of these most valuable tools and devices, students were inculcated not an advanced Copernican worldview, but an obsolete Ptolemaic one.
Educational institutions for the preparation of the Jesuits now have the same main features that differed hundreds of years ago. Pedagogy was reduced to instilling slavish devotion to the order in pupils, to teach them to automatic discipline, to convert the will of superiors into blind executors, to suppress all sorts of glimpses of independent thought.
In Jesuit schools, sophisticated types of spiritual drill are now used. Pupils from the first minute of their stay in such a school are put in a demeaning position. The most elementary human feelings here are eradicated completely, the ability of the students to meekly endure the difficulties created, without reasoning to fulfill even meaningless orders, to do unnecessary heavy and dirty work is being tested all the time.
The ideal in this respect are the Jesuits, who were also approved by Loyola for their pious patience: uninterrupted and purposeless carrying from place to place piles of heavy stones or careful pouring water into a stake stuck in the ground in the hope that he will turn green if the faith in such a miracle is strong enough.
All this does not have a gross form. Teachers are different, as a rule, ingratiating, gentle manners, at every step they commemorate God and teach their wards to the same. Pupils are prescribed to confess frequently and in the most detailed manner, to spend time in spiritual exercises, the sequence of which has been carefully thought out.
Here is a sample of the exercises, invented by Loyola himself, to instill in students the horror of the imaginary torments of hell:
“The first point is that in the eyes of imagination I see immense glowing fires and souls, like prisoners in burning bodies.
The second point is that I hear the ears of imagination crying, howling, crying, blasphemy against our Lord Christ and against all his saints.
The third point is that I smell the smell of hellish smoke, sulfur, cesspool and rot by the smell of imagination.
The fourth point is that I taste bitterness of tears, sorrow, remorse of conscience in hell with a touch of the imagination.
The fifth point is that I feel the heat that covers and burns souls with the touch of imagination.
I must recall all souls in hell. ”
Loyola has developed a strict order in which the student has to imagine such pictures with the tension of all the power of imagination — one at a time, others repeatedly or many times, for hours or whole days — so that they will completely paralyze the will.
A person who has been living under the yoke of such pedagogy for years is gradually turning into a mannequin, a puppet of his mentors, who does not have the right and even the ability to do anything important on his own impulse.
In addition, all long time in a Jesuit school students are engaged in self-torture.
The book of the former Jesuit A. Tondi, who had been entangled by Jesuit networks for sixteen years, told the world that the curriculum developed by Loyola is being observed in all details in the educational institutions of the “Society of Jesus”. Tondi wrote:
“I have never been in prison, but I believe that there is no other prison in the world where a prisoner would be so constrained and constrained by external and, mainly, internal rules and duties. Man is depressed, destroyed by them. Under such conditions, he soon turns into an ideally submissive, attentive, exemplary, blindly and meekly subordinate subject, as required by the spirit and letter of the instructions of Ignatius. ”
In another place in the book, Tondi talks about such a terrible moral torture as the forty-day silence that was introduced for beginners in Jesuit schools. It is prescribed at this time four or even five times a day to perform spiritual exercises, it is allowed to talk only once a week, when an unfortunate prisoner can leave the prison for only a few hours. Tondi writes that teenagers are obliged to spend eight days thinking about sins, about doomsday and hell. Eight days children are in the twilight. Then, after a short easing of the regime's strictness, the turn of even tougher exercises begins, gradually turning the students into weak-willed people.
“Such a regime would have even a horse become insane,” writes Tondi.
In novitiate and collegiums, as in general throughout the order, espionage flourished. Thanks to this, the heads knew about every step of each student. Strictly punished and the guilty and the one who should have been informed about the misbehavior of a neighbor, and not informed. We know the rule by which a person who is forgiven is forgiven if he convicts another of the same offense.
The students had no right to lock their things with a key; they could not, without censorship of the school authorities, not only send a letter, but even talk on the phone, choose a book for themselves to read or a doctor if they get sick.
Tondi writes that shortly before the Second World War, when he was studying in Rome at a Jesuit school, the Society of Jesus general Ledokhovsky himself often went there, searched, searched through the things of students and selected what he found reprehensible.
In connection with all that has been said, it is interesting to quote Joseph Stalin’s opinion of Jesuit upbringing.
Having mentioned in one conversation the outrageous order that existed during his teaching in the Tiflis Orthodox Theological Seminary (“surveillance, espionage, climbing into the soul, mockery”), Stalin described them as Jesuitism. “At 9, the call for tea,” he recalled, “we go to the dining room, and when we return to our rooms, it turns out that during this time all our storage boxes were searched and reproached, out of protest against the mocking regime and the Jesuit methods, which there were in the seminary, I am ready to become and really became a revolutionary, ”wrote Stalin (JV Stalin, works, volume 13, p. 114).
In addition to those schools that prepared the new members of the Jesuit Order, there were other schools dedicated to poor families. Such were, for example, in Western Ukraine, the school of the Uniate monastic order of the Basilians - the Ukrainianized branch of the "Society of Jesus".
The classic of Ukrainian literature, Ivan Franko, spoke about the pedagogical misery and great moral harm that these schools inflicted. In the autobiographical story “Father of the Comedian,” he portrayed the Basilian school of the city of Drohobych, as she recalled in 1864 year.
Basilian teacher father Telesnitsky was a sadist. He replaced the teaching by torturing the children with a blunt stick. The children screamed in pain, fear and resentment, and he “ran through the class amid these cries, laughing, rubbing his hands, bouncing and saying. Although everyone was learning and trying with all their might to protect themselves from beatings, no precautions helped. More timid, summoned to the board, lost their voice, forgot what they had learned; others, though they knew, but, making sure that even for the slightest mistake, they were waited by the same punishment as those who knew nothing, they lost faith in themselves, waved at everything and went to class, hoping for mercy God, that maybe somehow terrible Basilian oversight. Or did not go to school for several days. And in the meantime, in the meantime, there was constant anxiety, screams, and crying, and screams rang out and everything was ruled by the wild, almost idiotic laughter of the humorist father. ”
The pedagogical career of this villain ended only after he saw one boy die.
The brutal methods of the “father of the humorist” do not at all contradict the requirements of the Jesuit teachers, who consider the flogging not only permissible but necessary. In Poland, the Catholic magazine “Farus” gave such advice to teachers: “Corporal punishment should be carried out with the help of a stick the thickness of a little finger. Acts of corporal punishment should not be performed on a school bench, but in a more spacious place — at the teacher’s desk. The teacher cannot fully rely on the experience in this matter, if the place of punishment is a school bench, as the offender can deftly dodge with such a calculation that the neighbor has struck the blow, or lie down in such a way that the blow will not be on the back, but on the neck head or outstretched hand. "
Jesuits extremely negative attitude to the introduction of public education in Russia. As early as the beginning of the 19th century, a foreign diplomat, a Jesuit de Maistre, who was in the Russian court of Alexander I, wrote: “In Russia, some kind of mania seized the government, pushing it to introduce enlightenment among the masses of the people with the most rash haste. Meanwhile, this mania to knowledge produces the most disastrous phenomena. For Russia, science is not only useless, but also harmful. Do you want your greatness to equal your strength? Constantly to the last detail resist this spirit of novelty and change. As for the sciences, in any case, what do you find in them? Your military and government officials have not graduated from any academies; than to fill them with foreigners, especially Russians ”(M. Moroshkin,“ Jesuits in Russia from the reign of Catherine II to our time ”, part 2, St. Petersburg, 1870 year, p. 493).
It is curious that in his letters de Maistre, in essence, repeated the words of the Polish Jesuit (it is believed that it was Aloisy Kulesh), who, even a hundred years before, had demanded to keep Russians on Polish soil away from science: “Being in ignorance, they will fall extreme poverty and remain in the most contemptible humiliation, therefore, they will be forced to either completely fall from their poverty, or to change their religion for some kind of improvement and improvement of their condition. A Russian peasant who learned in a simple rural school leaves his master for several dozen miles and seeks freedom ”(“ The project on the destruction of the Greek-Russian religion in Poland’s regions separated by the Jesuit in the 16th century ”, 1862 year, book IV) .
To be continued ...