Military Review

Warhead: what's inside and how it works after separation from the rocket

79


Take a look at some typical warhead (in reality, there may be constructive differences between warheads). This is a cone of lightweight durable alloys. Inside there are bulkheads, frames, power cage - almost everything is like in an airplane. The power frame is covered with durable metal plating. A thick layer of heat-resistant coating is applied to the casing. It looks like an ancient Neolithic basket, richly plastered with clay and burned in the first experiments of man with heat and ceramics. The similarity is easily explained: both the basket and the warhead will have to resist external heat.

Warhead and its stuffing


Inside the cone, mounted on their "seats", there are two main "passengers" for which everything is started: a thermonuclear charge and a charge control unit, or an automation unit. They are strikingly compact. The automation unit is about the size of a five-liter jar of pickled cucumbers, and the charge is about an ordinary garden bucket. Heavy and weighty, the union of banks and buckets will explode kilotons for three hundred fifty - four hundred. Two passengers are connected by a connection, like Siamese twins, and through this connection they constantly exchange something. Their dialogue is ongoing all the time, even when the rocket is on combat duty, even when these twins are only being taken from the manufacturing enterprise.


The first Soviet ballistic missile P-7
became the ancestor of a large family of space rockets, which made a huge contribution to the development of manned space flight. The newest modifications of the Soyuz rocket are the only means of crew delivery to the ISS.

There is a third passenger - a unit measuring the movement of a warhead or in general controlling its flight. In the latter case, working controls are built into the warhead to change the trajectory. For example, executive pneumatic systems or powder systems. And on-board electrical grid with power sources, communication lines with a step, in the form of protected wires and connectors, protection against electromagnetic impulses and temperature control system - to maintain the desired charge temperature.

After leaving the bus, the warheads continue to gain altitude while simultaneously rushing towards targets. They rise to the highest points of their trajectories, and then, without slowing down the horizontal flight, they begin to roll down faster and faster. At a height of exactly one hundred kilometers above sea level, each warhead crosses the formally designated human boundary of outer space. Ahead of the atmosphere!

Electric wind


Below, in front of the warhead, there was a huge, contrastingly brilliant from terrible high heights, covered with a blue oxygen haze, covered with aerosol suspensions, a boundless and boundless fifth ocean. Slowly and barely noticeably turning from the residual effects of separation, the warhead continues its descent along a gentle trajectory. But to meet her quietly pulled a very unusual breeze. Slightly touched her - and became noticeable, he fitted the hull with a thin, backward wave of a pale white-blue glow. This wave is breathtakingly high-temperature, but it still does not burn the warhead, because it is too outdated. The breeze blowing around the warhead is electrically conductive. The speed of the cone is so high that it literally breaks up air molecules into electrically charged fragments, and impact ionization of air occurs. This plasma breeze is called the hypersonic flow of large Mach numbers, and its speed is twenty times the speed of sound.

Because of the great rarefaction, the breeze is almost invisible in the first seconds. Growing and compacted with a dimple into the atmosphere, it first heats more than it presses on the warhead. But gradually it begins to compress its cone with force. The tide spins the warhead forward. It does not turn right away - the cone swings slightly back and forth, gradually slowing down its vibrations, and finally stabilizes.

Hypersound Heat


Compacted as it descends, the flow is increasingly pressing on the warhead, slowing its flight. With deceleration, the temperature gradually decreases. From the enormous values ​​of the beginning of the entrance, the white and blue glow of tens of thousands of kelvins, to the yellow and white shine of five to six thousand degrees. This is the temperature of the surface layers of the sun. The shine becomes blinding because the air density is growing rapidly, and with it the heat flux into the walls of the warhead. The heat shield is charred and starts to burn.

It does not burn from friction about the air, as it is often wrongly said. Because of the enormous hypersonic speed of movement (now fifteen times faster than sound) from the top of the hull, another cone diverges in the air - shock-wave, as if enclosing a warhead. The incoming air, getting inside the shock-wave cone, is instantly compacted many times and tightly pressed against the surface of the warhead. From intermittent, instantaneous and repeated compression, its temperature immediately jumps to several thousand degrees. The reason for this is the crazy speed of what is happening, the transcendent dynamism of the process. Gas-dynamic flow compression, not friction — this is what warms the sides of the warhead now.


Stage breeding MX missiles Peacekeeper,
numbering ten warheads. Missile decommissioned. Ballistic missiles with split warheads from the Americans are installed only on submarines.

The worst part is the bow. There is the greatest compaction of the oncoming flow. The area of ​​this seal slightly moves forward, as if detaching from the body. And held in front, taking the form of a thick lens or pillow. This formation is called the “detached head shock wave”. It is several times thicker than the rest of the surface of the shock-wave cone around the warhead. The frontal compression of the incoming flow is the strongest here. Therefore, in the disconnected head shock wave the highest temperature and the highest heat density. This little sun burns the nose of the warhead in a radiant way - flashing, radiating heat from itself right into the nose of the hull and causing a strong burning of the nose. Therefore, there is the thickest layer of thermal protection. It is the head shock wave that illuminates the terrain at night for miles around a warhead flying in the atmosphere.

The sides become very hard. They are now also fried unbearable shine from the head shock wave. And burns hot compressed air, turned into a plasma from crushing its molecules. However, at such a high temperature, the air is ionized and simply from heating - its molecules disintegrate into pieces from the heat. It turns out a mixture of shock-ionization and temperature plasma. By the action of friction, this plasma grinds the burning surface of thermal protection, like sand or sandpaper. Gas-dynamic erosion occurs, which consumes a heat-shielding coating.

At this time, the warhead passed the upper limit of the stratosphere - the stratopause - and enters the stratosphere at an altitude of 55 km. It moves now with a hypersonic speed of ten to twelve times faster than sound.


Nuclear rain
The photograph shows the fall of the divided warheads of the American MX missile in the area of ​​the Kwajalein Atoll range in the Pacific Ocean. This can be observed only during the test. Real nuclear warheads would not have reached the ground, undermining the charge at an altitude of several hundred meters.

Inhuman overload

Severe burning changes the geometry of the nose. The stream, like a sculptor's chisel, burns out in a nasal covering a pointed central projection. Other surface features appear due to burnout irregularities. Changes in shape lead to changes in flow. This changes the pressure distribution of compressed air on the surface of the warhead and the temperature field. There are variations in the force effect of the air compared to the calculated flow around, which gives rise to the deviation of the drop point - a slip is formed. Albeit small - let's say two hundred meters, but the heavenly projectile will hit the enemy’s missile shaft with a deviation. Or not fall at all.

In addition, the pattern of shock-wave surfaces, head waves, pressures and temperatures is constantly changing. The speed gradually decreases, but the air density quickly increases: the cone falls lower and lower into the stratosphere. Due to the uneven pressures and temperatures on the surface of the warhead, due to the speed of their changes, thermal shocks may occur. From the heat-shielding coating they are able to break off pieces and pieces, which makes new changes in the pattern of flow. And increases the deviation of the drop point.

At the same time, the warhead can enter into spontaneous frequent rocking, changing the direction of this rocking from “up-down” to “left-right” and back. These self-oscillations create local accelerations in different parts of the warhead. Accelerations vary in direction and magnitude, complicating the impact pattern experienced by the warhead. It receives more loads, asymmetry of shock waves around itself, uneven temperature fields and other small charms, instantly growing into big problems.

But this does not exhaust the incoming flow. Because of such a powerful pressure of oncoming compressed air, the warhead is experiencing a huge braking effect. There is a large negative acceleration. The warhead with all entrails is in a rapidly growing overload, and it is impossible to escape from overload.

Astronauts do not experience such overloads at lower. The manned vehicle is less streamlined and filled inside is not as tight as a warhead. Astronauts and not in a hurry to descend quickly. The warhead is weapon. She must reach the goal as soon as possible, until they hit. And the more difficult it is to intercept it, the faster it flies. The cone is the figure of the best supersonic flow. Retaining high speed to the lower atmosphere, the warhead encounters there a very large inhibition. That is why we need strong bulkheads and power frame. And comfortable “seats” for two riders - otherwise it will be thrown off from the places of overload.

Siamese twins dialogue


By the way, what about these riders? The time has come to remember the main passengers, because they are not sitting passively now, but are going through their own difficult path, and their dialogue becomes more meaningful in these very moments.

The charge during transportation is taken apart. When mounted in a warhead, it is assembled, and installing a warhead in a rocket, it is equipped to full combat configuration (a pulsed neutron initiator is inserted, equipped with detonators, etc.). The charge is ready to fly to the target aboard the warhead, but is not yet ready to explode. The logic here is clear: constant readiness of the charge for the explosion is not needed and theoretically dangerous.

In a state of readiness for an explosion (near the target), it is necessary to translate it with complex sequential algorithms based on two principles: reliability of movement to the explosion and control over the process. The detonation system strictly charges the charge to ever higher levels of readiness. And when the combat command comes to the blasting unit from the control unit, the explosion will occur immediately, instantly. A warhead flying at the speed of a sniper's bullet will pass only a couple of hundredths of a millimeter, not having time to shift in space even by the thickness of a human hair, when its charge begins, develops, completely terminates and is completed thermonuclear reaction, highlighting all the standard power.



Final flash

Having greatly changed both outside and inside, the warhead passed into the troposphere - the last ten kilometers in height. She slowed down a lot. Hypersonic flight degenerated into supersonic three-four Mach units. The warhead is already dim, fading away and approaching the target point.

An explosion on the surface of the Earth is rarely planned - only for objects that are sunk into the earth like rocket mines. Most goals lie on the surface. And for their greatest destruction, an explosion is carried out at a certain height depending on the power of the charge. For tactical twenty kilotons this is 400 − 600 m. For a strategic megaton, the optimum height of the explosion is 1200 m. Why? From the explosion on the ground are two waves. Closer to the epicenter of the blast wave will collapse earlier. It will fall and be reflected, rebounding to the sides, where it will merge with the fresh wave that has just come down from above, from the point of the explosion. Two waves - falling from the center of the explosion and reflected from the surface - are added together, forming in the surface layer the most powerful shock wave, the main factor of the damage.

With test launches, the warhead usually reaches the ground unhindered. On board is a half centner of explosives, exploded during a fall. What for? First, the warhead is a secret object and must be safely destroyed after use. Secondly, it is necessary for landfill measuring systems - for the rapid detection of the drop point and the measurement of deviations.

A multimeter smoking funnel completes the picture. But before that, a couple of kilometers before the strike, a test device of the storage device was fired from the test warhead with a record of everything that was recorded on board during the flight. This armored vehicle will protect against loss of onboard information. It will be found later when the helicopter arrives with a special search group. And record the results of a fantastic flight.

The first intercontinental ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead

The Soviet R-7 became the first in the world of an ICBM with a nuclear warhead. She carried one three-megaton warhead and could hit objects at a distance of 11 000 km (modification 7-A). The brainchild of S.P. Although Korolev was put into service, it turned out to be ineffective as a military rocket due to the impossibility of being on duty for a long time without additional refueling with an oxidizer (liquid oxygen). But P-7 (and its numerous modifications) played a prominent role in space exploration.

The first head of the ICBM with shared warheads

The first in the world of ICBMs with a split head was the American rocket LGM-30 Minuteman III, the deployment of which began in the 1970 year. Compared with the previous modification, the combat unit W-56 was replaced by three light combat units W-62, set to the breeding level. Thus, a rocket could hit three separate targets or concentrate all three warheads on one strike. Currently, on all the Minuteman III missiles in the framework of the disarmament initiative, only one combat unit is left.

Variable power warhead


Since the beginning of the 1960-ies, technologies for creating variable-capacity thermonuclear warheads have been developed. These include, for example, the W80 warhead, which was installed, in particular, on the Tomahawk missile. These technologies were created for thermonuclear charges built according to the Teller-Ulam scheme, where the fission reaction of uranium or plutonium isotopes triggers a fusion reaction (i.e., a thermonuclear explosion). The change in power occurred by amending the interaction of the two stages. It makes sense to control the power of the warhead depending on the type of target and the firing distance.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.popmech.ru/weapon/238047-boegolovka-chto-vnutri-i-kak-ona-rabotaet-posle-otdeleniya-ot-rakety/
79 comments
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  1. Hammer
    Hammer 12 June 2016 06: 33
    +9
    WMD for the smallest laughing
    1. Ramzaj99
      Ramzaj99 12 June 2016 10: 58
      +10
      Visual material)))
    2. The comment was deleted.
  2. kuz363
    kuz363 12 June 2016 06: 50
    .
    "After leaving the bus, the warheads continue to climb" Don't know which bus? Are they being bombarded with buses instead of rockets? In general, the author described the process in a very interesting and detailed way.
    1. Gennady Chepur
      Gennady Chepur 12 June 2016 07: 47
      +34
      "Bus" is in the slang of missilemen - a carrier rocket with a block of multiple warheads.
      1. PKK
        PKK 12 June 2016 07: 57
        +3
        Previously, they spoke a carrier, not a bus. About tadpoles and warheads, they tried to shuffle less, there was a taboo.
      2. corporal
        corporal 12 June 2016 08: 02
        +10
        Quote: Gennady Chepur
        "Bus" is in rocketry slang

        This is a breeding unit hi
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. corporal
          corporal 12 June 2016 08: 10
          +2
          http://

          Yes there he is.
        4. ammunition
          ammunition 13 June 2016 22: 46
          0
          Quote: Corporal
          This is a breeding unit


          Looked at the picture in the article - "Nuclear Rain".
          -------------------
          What do you think ? Is not one better in 5 megatons than 8 pieces in 150 kilotons?
          --------
          If the warheads, after separation, diverge over long distances .. for targets that are tens and hundreds of kilometers apart, then - Yes. Separating is good. And if they fly like in the picture? So heap that they will extinguish their own shock waves?
          1. clidon
            clidon 15 June 2016 05: 21
            +1
            What is more effective than a land mine or cluster munition?
      3. Wedmak
        Wedmak 12 June 2016 08: 31
        +21
        "Bus" is in the slang of missilemen - a carrier rocket with a block of multiple warheads.

        Not a booster, but a breeding unit. After separation, he begins to jump from orbit to orbit, releasing warheads. As if spreading them along the trajectories.
      4. Anglorussian
        Anglorussian 12 June 2016 10: 27
        +2
        this is on the slang of rocketeers
        This is a breeding unit translated from English.
      5. Simple
        Simple 13 June 2016 10: 59
        +2
        Bus is a SCREEN PLATFORM.
        A ICBM is a pencil / item


        Carrier rocket used to deliver warheads
    2. The stranger
      The stranger 13 June 2016 12: 36
      +2
      The "bus" is one of the ways to dispense warheads. By analogy with a bus that drops passengers one by one where they need it. So is the warhead, as the target is removed for each.
    3. SPQR1977
      SPQR1977 14 June 2016 19: 04
      0
      One could guess. Or was it sarcasm? what
  3. PKK
    PKK 12 June 2016 06: 59
    +6
    And the author Nikolay is well versed in warhead processes during combat use. And I only now realized that the accuracy of a warhead depended on the quality of the coating, the same asbestos-green color, and the quality of which depended on the condition of the locksmith manufacturer Tolik after the weekend. But the military reception then did not doze off and kept Industry in good shape. It is sad that the author Nikolai, such knowledge is unlikely to help earn a civilian. The author of success.
  4. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 12 June 2016 08: 11
    +3
    It was interesting to read. Definitely "+".
    1. fennekRUS
      fennekRUS 13 June 2016 18: 14
      +1
      Quote: Razvedka_Boem
      It was interesting to read.

      Poetically, figuratively) The popularizer disappears
      1. lukewarm
        lukewarm 14 June 2016 17: 42
        +2
        Why does it disappear? wink Just doing his own thing. It was very interesting.
  5. blind
    blind 12 June 2016 08: 25
    +1
    very interesting . what challenges do designers have to solve
  6. Wedmak
    Wedmak 12 June 2016 08: 34
    +7
    Interesting article. I would also like to add that there, above, the jamming units work out their task, false targets are issued, the booster blocks themselves and the bus are also undermined after breeding, in order to increase the number of interference and overload the missile defense.
  7. Olegmog
    Olegmog 12 June 2016 09: 47
    +2
    The first time I read it. Very interesting!
    Yes, earlier on this information was
    the strictest taboo!
  8. Kostya Andreev
    Kostya Andreev 12 June 2016 09: 59
    +1
    it’s better not to see how a warhead works, but take a word, which I did by believing the author of the article !!!
  9. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 12 June 2016 10: 22
    +2
    This article and in our textbook on life safety and in European does not hurt to realize what kind of gin in a bottle on their territory.
    1. Wedmak
      Wedmak 12 June 2016 10: 30
      +2
      They are already intimidated by everyone. Moreover, mainly by their own media. True, they are scammed by tanks and sudden landings. They don’t think about the fact that somewhere in the taiga, between the trees, on a country road, Yars is traveling with 700-800 tons of death, ready to fly onto their heads at any time. Or, most likely, they don’t know.
  10. Antiprogressor
    Antiprogressor 12 June 2016 10: 27
    0
    Quote: PKK
    And I just now realized that the accuracy of the impact of the warhead depended on the quality of the coating, the same asbestos-green color, and the quality of which

    There, the safety of the insides depended primarily. And, thanks to the failures with this turbidity, the military temporarily left the r-7 carrier alone, which Korolev took advantage of, quickly organizing the PS-1. So failures alone lead to the triumph of the whole country. And then the military tightly transferred to Chelomei and other greats, and the seven are still being modernized ...
  11. gridasov
    gridasov 12 June 2016 10: 32
    .
    In fact, a complete misunderstanding of the physical processes occurring on the surface of the warhead is obvious. First, it is necessary to understand the process of the cause of the appearance of plasma effects on the surface of the outflow. To do this, you need to understand the mathematics, or rather the geometry of the direction of the vectors, which create the potential between the surface of the outflow and the potential of the medium. And already the medium turns into a directed gas-dynamic flow. On the outflow surface, there are never linear vectors of gas-dynamic flow motion. They can only be circumcision-circular with the expansion or contraction of the cone vector.
    1. corporal
      corporal 12 June 2016 13: 28
      +3
      Quote: gridasov
      Actually, it’s obvious .......

      I didn’t understand Nichrome, but just in case I’ll put it +
      Maybe an unrecognized genius.
      1. Alex
        Alex 13 June 2016 12: 29
        +5
        Quote: Corporal
        Nichrome did not understand
        This user is an intelligent typing system. So your condition is understandable: you have already encountered this stream of words more than once.


        but just in case I’ll put +
        Well, unless purely neighing ...

        Maybe an unrecognized genius.
        It is unlikely that follows from the foregoing.
        1. The stranger
          The stranger 13 June 2016 12: 46
          +1
          Well, a specialist in artificial intelligence and linguistics is already needed here :) I do not know if this is a program, but the most terrible thing is that there really are people who are able to behave like that. That is already a question of border psychiatry, at least. I saw it myself, and even unfortunately had to deal. But this question, in my opinion, has already been exhausted by Comrade. major pft, fkb, just below :)
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 14 June 2016 17: 19
            -2
            This may not surprise you, but we really learn from people the process of understanding with us. Imagine that beings with "higher" intelligence have come into contact with your community and are trying to start communication. You people are no worse and no better than others. You are simply adapted to the corresponding conditions of existence and are at your level of the development algorithm. But since it is difficult for us to talk about the level of emotionality and the effects of these relationships on the psyche, we are simply trying to push people to those decisions that you yourself will not reach.
          2. gridasov
            gridasov 14 June 2016 18: 26
            -2
            Man is trying to create artificial intelligence based on, not even numbers, but on-off momentum functions. Therefore, without even focusing on the primitiveness of the solution used, I’ll say that soon people will create a system that works as the basis of the language, on the nine numbers of nat. row. But there will be a problem that it will be necessary to adapt the machine language with the human language. And the next stage will be the language of human communication in the same nine letters of the alphabet. Then the contour of the relationship between the machine man and the essence of nature, which is also built on numbers, or rather on the properties of numbers, which so far is not even perceived, will be closed. This is a function of a number expressed by its constant value. But this is all in the future.
    2. Zefr
      Zefr 13 June 2016 09: 11
      +4
      I corrected:
      Bocam is getting a little tough. They are now also frying with an unbearable radiance from a head shock wave. And it burns red-hot compressed air, which has turned into a plasma from the crushing of its molecules, nonlinearly moving on the surface of the gas-dynamic flow expiration by rolling-in - circular vectors with the expansion or contraction of the cone vector ..
    3. SPQR1977
      SPQR1977 14 June 2016 19: 06
      0
      did it give google info or wikipedia?
  12. Alex
    Alex 12 June 2016 10: 38
    +3
    Nikolay, thank you for the interesting post. Figuratively, without pathos, just without primitivism and interesting for the uninitiated. Definitely "+"!
  13. Atomist
    Atomist 12 June 2016 11: 05
    0
    Thank you, very interesting material.
  14. Old26
    Old26 12 June 2016 11: 05
    +6
    Quote: Olegmog
    The first time I read it. Very interesting! Yes, earlier on this information was
    the strictest taboo!

    Don't be creative. The author did not discover anything super-secret. Normal, solid article "for dummies", so that at least they understand what is happening and how. Articles of this kind have always been a "hobbyhorse" for magazines such as "Tekhnika Molodezhi"

    Quote: avg-mgn
    This article and in our textbook on life safety and in European does not hurt to realize what kind of gin in a bottle on their territory.

    In ours, yes. And in Europeans ... You seriously think that this is "terra incognita" for them and they do not know anything about it. If you think so, then in vain. Usually we got information about our developments from Western sources. Take the same magazine "Foreign Military Review" and see where the photographs and materials come from. Mostly from Western sources. Among them is the well-known "Jane". And take my word for it, out of 600-800 pages, 20 percent were devoted to Soviet technology. And the same descriptions of BG's actions according to the Teller-Ulam scheme were written by them, not by us. So they know. And the fact that the average person is intimidated by them, so we have the same thing.

    Quote: Wedmak
    They don’t think about the fact that somewhere in the taiga, between the trees, on a country road, Yars is traveling with 700-800 kilotons of death, ready to fly onto their heads at any time. Or, most likely, they don’t know.

    Yes they know. It's just that the average person is periodically scared to be more obedient and vote for those for whom it is necessary
    1. mav1971
      mav1971 14 June 2016 10: 14
      +3
      Quote: Old26

      In ours, yes. And in Europeans ... You seriously think that this is "terra incognita" for them and they do not know anything about it. If you think so, then in vain.


      I had a great personal experience communicating with European inhabitants.
      And now I know from people close to me how everything is happening now.
      They, 99% of Europeans, whether Irish, Spaniards, Germans, really do not know anything about the reality of atomic weapons.
      They are really scared of tanks and paratroopers.
      They are really ready to fight with Russia as CNN shows on Iraq, Yugoslavia, Mali, Syria, Afghanistan, Ukraine - they have already been prepared for this.
      And they do not even think about the possible use of nuclear weapons.
      And they are not told about it.
      On the possibility of use in which case.
      And they again scream about the terrible Russians.
      And at least it was just necessary to know that a wounded beast is a hundred times worse.


      And the fact that we drew a lot from their sources - so these sources are the lot of knowledge of all 0,01% of the population of Europe and America.
      They are not interested in this news.
  15. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 12 June 2016 11: 51
    +1
    When we tell the child that the current lives in the outlet, he understands, but does not believe (until he checks), so the over-the-top warriors understand everything, but try as you want, but fear can not be got anywhere, you’ll live hot.
  16. marshes
    marshes 12 June 2016 12: 35
    0
    The article gives the altitude of operation of the battle head and also that in dense layers of the atmosphere they, warheads, are already at super sound speeds.
    After all, it is possible in automatic mode, for example TOP-2, to destroy warheads even before approaching, to create something like an "iron dome".
    1. DenZ
      DenZ 14 June 2016 10: 06
      0
      Quote: marshes
      After all, it is possible in automatic mode, for example TOP-2, to destroy warheads even before approaching, to create something like an "iron dome".

      No, from TOR-2 it is impossible. The speed of the warhead in the fall will not allow the TOP-2 to bring it down. Or (in another way) TOR-2 is not intended to shoot down strategic missile warheads. For this, the S-500 is suitable (maybe the S-400, I'm not sure for sure).
      1. clidon
        clidon 15 June 2016 05: 25
        0
        C-400 can't. S-500 ... except with a nuclear warhead.
        1. Simpsonian
          Simpsonian 17 June 2016 04: 15
          0
          Maybe with the usual.
        2. Simpsonian
          Simpsonian 17 June 2016 04: 15
          0
          Maybe with the usual.
  17. tundra
    tundra 12 June 2016 12: 38
    +5
    I’ve set up a plus article, after so many years I’ve finally been explained popularly to me,
    what I observed for 2 years at the Kamchatka training ground.
    Video, how many different did not watch and a hundredth share does not convey that severe beauty.
    The officers told us that the finish line is thousands of times more spectacular than the start.
    And we also joked, this is the last thing people will see in the event of a nuclear war.
  18. Old26
    Old26 12 June 2016 12: 49
    0
    Quote: marshes
    After all, it is possible in automatic mode, for example TOP-2, to destroy warheads even before approaching, to create something like an "iron dome".

    The speeds of the "Thor" are not the same, and the power of the warhead is too low to hit the BG
    1. marshes
      marshes 12 June 2016 12: 53
      0
      Quote: Old26
      The speeds of the "Thor" are not the same, and the power of the warhead is too low to hit the BG

      Well, I hope work is going on? There will be interest in them. At least for the destruction of blocks from less technologically advanced countries, such as Pakistan or ...
  19. gridasov
    gridasov 12 June 2016 12: 54
    .
    The horrifying thing is that the way the author presents the material is exactly the same reasoning and scientists creating such devices. After all, it is obvious that everything that is said is said in the language of a storyteller or a dreamer. All the processes described have no exact modeling. There are no traceable algorithms and directions for the development of processes at each point of the object and what is the flight space of this object. Moreover, there is no way to analyze the processes in terms of when and what can happen and how this can be hindered or promoted. There is no analysis within the framework of temporal events or transience for different vectors of processes. In short, there is no way to subject the physical processes that potentially need to be applied to a comprehensive analysis. In this case, everything can be very simply reduced to the level of a fairly simple mathematical analysis for functions of a constant value of a number, if we build a model of all those events that are interconnected according to the algorithms for their implementation. A model that will take into account the relationship of any dimension in quantitative-numerical parameters with vectors and potential. Then you can build a mathematical model based not on reference units of dimension, but on their totality, which can define individuality, as a local space with all their properties. (Mathematicians must understand me and remember that in the past, similar calculation methods have been repeatedly used without reference samples of dimension ) With all this, almost everything is solved much easier than the methods of modern solution of problems and problems. You can simply change and control the processes of ionization of the outflow surfaces through the distribution of magnetic force fluxes inside and outside the object. Then all the fabulous percussive or other names will simply fit into the algorithms of processes in the language of mathematics, and not abstractions. Then there is no need to use high-strength materials or silicon inorganic foam sheathing. By the way, the voiced topic has such an important moment of its significance and the search for solutions that on the basis of new technologies the same aircraft turbines will be built - completely silent and with the highest quality factor and operating economy. Therefore, when looking at the "engine of the future" PD-14, the obvious emerges immediately that these are devices that are far from well thought out in understanding the processes taking place in them.
    1. Idiot
      Idiot 12 June 2016 19: 43
      +27
      For gridasov (1). Don’t read anyone else !: The law of unity and struggle of opposites is expressed in the unity of the psyche and its development as the struggle of opposites making up this unity, development through the resolution of contradictions, where the contradictions in the psyche are a reflection of the contradictions of the objective world. Moreover, they can not always be expressed sharply, at first they have the nature of only differences. But this is only the initial form of contradiction, gradually developing into the opposite, and only then into a clear contradiction. Let us dwell on the types of contradictions, they are antagonistic and non-antagonistic. They are distinguished by the tendency inherent in them; in the case of antagonistic contradictions, this is a tendency to aggravate and deepen the contradictions, which leads to their resolution by eliminating one of the struggling parties. In social development, such contradictions are characteristic of exploiting societies. Non-antagonistic contradictions are not contradictions of hostile opposites, but such forces and tendencies that, along with contradictions, have something in common in the main, fundamental. The tendency of such contradictions appears in their mitigation and overcoming. Despite all the differences in these contradictions, all of them are resolved in the struggle and through the struggle of the new against the old, the struggle of the advanced, progressive, old and obsolete. It is worth noting that the division of contradictions into antagonistic and non-antagonistic is not only social in nature, but also is inherent in nature. So how are these contradictions reflected in the psyche? Mental contradictions generated by antagonistic social contradictions, and in the psyche, are of the same nature, that is, the nature of sharpness and fierce struggle, while non-antagonistic contradictions, reflected in the psyche, proceed more gently. However, the common feature of both of these contradictions remains the need to resolve them. The resolution of the contradiction in the psyche leads to the resolution of it in practice, but does not mean it yet. That is why, being internally resolved in the human psyche, the contradiction must be resolved externally. But this may not happen.
      1. The stranger
        The stranger 13 June 2016 00: 08
        +4
        Gyyy :)))
        Severely you him ... :))
      2. _Krechet_
        _Krechet_ 13 June 2016 16: 36
        +3
        In your answer -
        Quote: pft, fkb
        For gridasov (1). Do not read anyone else!: ...
        you can figure it out if you don’t rush, and understand everything to the last word. Unlike the post to which you replied.
        1. Alex
          Alex 13 June 2016 18: 45
          +10
          gridasov is a modern version of the Mad Hatter of Lewis Carroll. Remember - every word of the Hatter was familiar and understandable, but together they formed something completely unbelievable.
      3. Svateev
        Svateev 14 June 2016 16: 57
        0
        Quote: pft, fkb
        The law of unity and struggle of opposites

        Political school? Or just quoted from somewhere?
      4. gridasov
        gridasov 14 June 2016 17: 27
        -3
        Nothing new or progressive, so that on the one hand it can be said that you are trying to understand the essence of reasoning and are making efforts, and on the other hand you are not the one who is able to understand anything from more complex but simple concepts. You people too love to perceive everything on emotions and do not know how to work with information as such. In your statements you yourself make the test. Obviously, the test for unfitness. People generally like to boast of their knowledge and attribute it to their own halo of greatness, but at the same time the presence of any knowledge is not used to move forward. The principle is a step forward and two backward, it is like a process constant of human development
        1. BM-13
          BM-13 21 June 2016 18: 31
          0
          Quote: gridasov
          You people too love

          Here it is, done! gridasov is a representative of extraterrestrial intelligence. now it’s clear why it’s so hard to understand.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  20. Resistance
    Resistance 12 June 2016 12: 56
    +1
    By style of presentation, I almost reached Prokhanov, Yevtushenko is still far away: o)))
    A 5 liter jar and a bucket - that’s why the state should be opened. secrets?
  21. Beefeater
    Beefeater 12 June 2016 13: 20
    +1
    A good article, in any case, everything is clear and accessible
  22. teacher
    teacher 12 June 2016 13: 39
    .
    within the framework of the disarmament initiative, only one combat unit was left
    whose? Who are you fighting for?
  23. Old26
    Old26 12 June 2016 14: 27
    +2
    Quote: marshes
    Well, I hope work is going on? There will be interest in them. At least for the destruction of blocks from less technologically advanced countries, such as Pakistan or ...

    The maximum speed of targets hit by the Tor complex is 700 m / s. Even Pakistani missiles have speeds of the order of 3-4 km / s, So that nothing "Thor" from the BB MRBM and ICBM can hit, Only what it is intended for. In particular, it can hit MLRS shells like the Iron Dome.
    1. marshes
      marshes 12 June 2016 14: 33
      0
      Quote: Old26
      In particular, it can hit MLRS shells like the Iron Dome.

      And now it’s clear, and so it can amaze, out of the possible that you have. And then we got into the zone, you can send an answer if you are worried
  24. Old26
    Old26 12 June 2016 14: 43
    +6
    Quote: hoca
    within the framework of the disarmament initiative, only one combat unit was left
    whose? Who are you fighting for?

    Does the author have to fight for someone and be a "hurray-patriot" at the same time? A person gives information, interesting information, so it is imperative to look for the political context and "enemies under the bed" in everything? It was clearly and understandably said that the Minuteman-3 had one instead of three warheads. Under the START II treaty, we also had to unload our RS-3 warheads to one warhead. But the treaty was not ratified and we did not reduce the number of BGs. The statesmen have reduced it.
  25. Old26
    Old26 12 June 2016 15: 01
    -1
    Quote: marshes
    And now it’s clear, and so it can amaze, out of the possible that you have. And then we got into the zone, you can send an answer if you are worried

    You have nothing that can hit the MRBM. And it doesn't matter, Pakistani or Iranian. We have ... Moscow is covered, and so, most of the country is not protected from the same medium-range missiles. The MRBM can intercept the S-400, but there are only 12 regiments. South "naked"
    1. marshes
      marshes 12 June 2016 15: 58
      0
      Quote: Old26
      You have nothing that can hit the BDSD.

      And that Cupid is in the Karaganda region. can intercept
      ?
      Quote: Old26
      South "naked"

      Yes, seriously. The Indian Ocean, or rather, the submarine, is a great danger.
      So the Muscovites will survive in all cases. laughing And we are better kept from large settlements.
      Now it’s clear why the elder brother did not buy a big house in New Zealand, although the press already remembered about the sleeping volcano, to see that the population would not fall down. smile
  26. Old26
    Old26 12 June 2016 16: 55
    0
    Quote: marshes
    And that Cupid is in the Karaganda region. can intercept

    Do you mean the polygon sample on Sary-Shagan? Very, very doubtful. And the range is small for this type of PR

    Quote: marshes
    Yes, seriously. The Indian Ocean, or rather, the submarine, is a great danger.
    So the Muscovites will survive in all cases. And we are better kept from large settlements.

    Everything can be a danger. Boats in the Indian Ocean, Pakistani and Iranian missiles. Although we are in good relations with Iran now, we should not forget that the country is threshold, there are interests in the region, expansion is possible if there is an opportunity (sorry for the tautology) .How should we not forget how the previous Iranian president treated Russia. It’s good that it’s moderate now. And about staying away from large settlements, this does not always work. For example, I live in a city with almost half a million people. True, there are already no industrial enterprises that could be targets for YBG in the city, but HZ, what those on their minds
    1. marshes
      marshes 12 June 2016 18: 13
      0
      Quote: Old26
      Do you mean the polygon sample on Sary-Shagan? Very, very doubtful. And the range is small for this type of PR

      Yes, about him, but rather "stormy activity" began there.235 apparently give birth.
      300 Almaty and Astana are guarded. And the most workaholics are 31 e.
      In order to block something, it is necessary to contact a little to the south. Although I would like to pass 200.
      We can do our own and ourselves, although there is joy that TOR-2 can get. laughing Short-range and medium-range air defense systems we acquire.
  27. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 12 June 2016 17: 18
    +5
    A good informative article, worthy of publication in the journal "Tekhnika-Molodyozhi", as in the Soviet years. And even then (in the USSR) there was such a series of DOSAAF - a conscript about the army. There are minor roughnesses: in the process of simplification, the author uses the term "burning", "burning". Combustion is a chemical reaction, well, they do not exist at temperatures of the order of several thousand Kelvin. There, ablation occurs - the transition of a substance from a solid to a gaseous state (and subsequent ionization). And so - respect to the author!
  28. Sheikh
    Sheikh 12 June 2016 19: 31
    +2
    Yeah, as the process of destroying life fascinates, there is probably something in it.
    Special thanks for the photo, now I will know what the last moments of a victorious nuclear war look like, very beautiful.
  29. andrewkor
    andrewkor 12 June 2016 20: 17
    0
    I remember in the 5th grade I wrote the essay "The Journey of a Water Drop" in about this style!
  30. Wofripra
    Wofripra 12 June 2016 20: 36
    +2
    I liked the article. Simple and easy to understand, and without unnecessary details, the author gives an idea of ​​the essence of the processes that are going on.
  31. ML-334
    ML-334 12 June 2016 22: 19
    0
    Strongly resembles the "Chebarkul" meteorite.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 12 June 2016 23: 37
      0
      Only by the presence of a shock wave
  32. Slon_on
    Slon_on 13 June 2016 09: 06
    +1
    It is written simply and informatively. But now we are asking for material about the types of construction of special ammunition - cannon, explosive.
    About charges of variable power - "Comrade General, we were counting on a kiloton, but it will be like a star!"
  33. t118an
    t118an 13 June 2016 13: 27
    -2
    the author used to be called a Military Secret .. and the article was not canceled ..
    1. The stranger
      The stranger 13 June 2016 17: 27
      +6
      It used to be called "general culture" and was published in popular science books for advanced students. In the late 50s - early 60s, there were generally such a series of brochures. Himself such an old book of those years, I probably read it in the eighth grade. Like "Return from space".
      There, in more detail not only these, but also related issues were covered. With tables of experimental data, including the sublimation of different materials for the sacrificial layers of landing vehicles.
      So, the reaction of some to this good article can only be assessed as "forgetting the knowledge of the Ancients", although over time, when such problems were solved at school Olympiads, only 20 years passed ... (((

      What was about to happen, they knew even before the First World War. Explosion physics has been done before. Gas dynamics was understood already in the 30s, due to the development of cumulative charges. But how to build structures that can work in such an environment, and even manage them, is a question today. This is really a secret, but I do not see such information here. And even if they are not known to a narrow specialist, then he is unlikely to understand what this is all about, and even more so - he will not be able to use them, because these are not kitchen technologies.
  34. Slippery
    Slippery 13 June 2016 23: 01
    0
    Quote: Persistence
    A 5 liter jar and a bucket - that’s why the state should be opened. secrets?

    Thank you to the author, the special agent will go by my summer house and ask strictly well, dear people, the military is hung up and scattered, but he doesn’t have a comrade strict special officer, we all have 3 liter containers and we don’t use buckets, we have basins .
  35. oops
    oops 14 June 2016 03: 04
    0
    Let him now write about planning hypersonic warheads. How they induce and change the flight path ...
    1. Hellbringer
      Hellbringer 14 June 2016 15: 31
      +3
      Oh, that’s from the USA.
      "Can I give you another key to the apartment where the money is?" (FROM)
      In general, recently, comrades from the United States have become very active in the regions.
  36. Old26
    Old26 14 June 2016 21: 52
    0
    Quote: Hellbringer
    Oh, that’s from the USA.

    Pay less attention to the flags. They change regularly enough for me: the flag of the USSR, Russia, USA, Great Britain. Now Iceland EMNIP. Despite the fact that I do not exit through a proxy. I live in the south of Russia
  37. The comment was deleted.
  38. Old26
    Old26 14 June 2016 21: 59
    +1
    Quote: Hellbringer
    Oh, that’s from the USA.

    Pay less attention to the flags. I don’t know why, but they change regularly. I have at least. Periodically, the flags of the USSR, then Russia, then the USA, then England, then Iceland. Iceland was about 20 minutes ago. Now the US flag. Although I live in the south of Russia
  39. Rock616
    Rock616 23 June 2016 20: 09
    0
    Beauty is a terrible power fellow
  40. An-mi
    An-mi 3 July 2016 08: 11
    0
    Yes, it’s not so!
    Sophisticated technical device.