Military Review

Donkey's jaw, as well as David and Goliath!

53
“He found a fresh donkey's jaw and, holding out his hand, took it, and killed a thousand people with it. And Samson said: With the jaw of an ass mob, two mobs, with the jaw of an ass I killed a thousand people. ”
(Judges 15: 11-16)



Interesting, isn't it? A man took a donkey's jaw and killed a thousand people. That is, it is obvious that everything is in God's hand. He wished, and Samson gained strength, he wanted, and he lost it! However, in this case the reference of the Bible has a slightly different meaning, namely, the source study. The fact is that many theological plots are reflected in the miniatures with which artists decorated medieval manuscripts. At the same time, their main feature was that, having a finished biblical story, the medieval miniaturist took as a model ... the people around him! He simply did not know and could not see anywhere, but what people looked like at that distant time. The concept of historical development was deeply alien to him, so his miniatures were a kind of "photos of time" and, studying them, we can thus get to know how people of the Middle Ages looked at different times, and, of course, how they looked weapon and armor. Accordingly, both the shepherd David and the giant Goliath, miniature painters of different eras painted completely differently, which gives us reason to consider their images very valuable historical sources.

Donkey's jaw, as well as David and Goliath!

Samson beats his enemies with his ass mouth. A miniature from the famous “Bible of Macieus” or the “Crusader Bible” that belonged to Louis the Holy. Dated 1240 - 1250 Located in the Pierpont Morgan New York Library, two sheets at the National Library in Paris, one at the Getty Museum. Pay attention to how lovingly, one can say, and with skill the weapons of the people depicted on the miniature and their attire are written out. We see two felchens at once, although only about half a dozen of them were actually found.


But the modern reconstruction of this "sword", very similar ... yes, to the donkey's jaw! That's just to prove it can not be!

That is, it is enough for us to arrange medieval miniatures by years to clearly see how weapons and armor changed from year to year and century from a century. Accordingly, these changes are seen on effigious sculptures and are complemented by various other artifacts that have come down to our time. But we will talk more about the metal products of the Middle Ages, but now we are interested in “pictures”, all of which are united by one biblical storyline. On some - Samson with a donkey's jaw in his hands, on others - the shepherd David kills the giant Goliath.


Well, this is the earliest image of David and Goliath of those that I managed to find. This is a miniature from Psalter from Canterbury, it dates from the 1155 - 1160 years, and is still in the same Morgan library. The shepherd is not interested in us, but Goliath simply asks for a drawing depicting a warrior of this time. He has a helmet with the tip bent forward, a long chainmail with a slit, put on an even longer shirt, and a shield in the shape of an inverted drop.


Next miniature from France, 1151 - 1175 The original is at the National Library of the Netherlands. And on this miniature we see all the same. Is that the mail has a front cut and looks a little shorter, and the shield has a belt - a tug.


This miniature is from a manuscript from Germany, 1170 - 1180. And here it was clearly not without the influence of the Byzantine school. Look, on Goliath, in addition to chain mail, some scaled armor is clearly visible, quite characteristic of Byzantine icon painting and painting. But in general, weapons still remain international and uniform!


The capital letter O from the French manuscript 1180. The helmet acquired a noseband with an extension on the face, the shield became patterned, and the legs, too, finally received protection. There is obviously something quilted on them.


Now we have Goliath 1185 from France. As you can see, the helmet on his head is “swollen”, it is possible that it is painted or covered with striped fabric, the body is covered with chain mail from head to toe, but the chain mail armor on his legs is not in the form of stockings, but simple stripes tied on the legs from behind. Apparently, it was more economical.

But this is a kind of comic book of three pictures, one after another. Again, they are again David and Goliath, but now from Spain, the manuscript from Barcelona, ​​which dates from the period from 1200 - 1300 year. Library of San Lorenzo de Escorial. The first miniature shows how Saul dressed David in metal armor, but he did not like it. Not used to it.


On the next miniature (it is in front of us) we see Goliath dressed as a typical knight. Helmet, shield, spear with a triangular pennon-pennon pennant, mail armor, and on his legs he has chain mail stockings. The element of humor: we see how the young David’s stone “flashed” into his forehead, so much so that only the spray flew!


Well, here the ill-fated Goliath fell from his horse, and David chops off his head. The armor of Goliath, as you can see, is very simple and is not covered with anything on top, but his horse is depicted in a cowboy.


This miniature from Aeneid 1210 - 1220. Thuringia, the State Library of Berdin, there is no David and Goliath, but then the helmets as well as their stamp decorations are perfectly reproduced. On horses, they put on quilted blankets, and on shields we see the coats of arms of their owners.


Goliath from the Bible of Matsiyevsky disguised himself as a real dandy: on his head a painted helmet “Cap de Fer” (that is, an “iron hat”), on the body is a chainmail hauberk with a hood, on his knees are quilted knee pads, but his knee pads are from metal plates on strings, the truth is still the most simple, not anatomical shape. The shield in the form of "iron" has decreased in size, and surcoat appeared in the form of a long sleeveless shirt over the armor. Recall that this is 1240 - 1250's.


The Donkey's Jaw is a miniature of 1300 from Zurich, Switzerland, and the manuscript from which it was taken is in the library of the canton. We look attentively and note that the first warrior’s sword depicts crosses, obviously, the manufacturer’s “mark”, that all the warriors are already in surcoats, but for some they are girded, and for some not. And helmets ... helmets are tapered, that is, they continued to be worn along with everyone else.


A miniature dated 1300 - 1350's. from Austria, Württemberg Library. Here we already see bascinetts helmets on the soldiers, even with holes along the edge. That is, at this time they were already quite widespread!


Finally, another picture of the assassination with the donkey's jaw: 1450 year, a manuscript from Belgium, is in the library of Morgan. On it, we see infantrymen in lamellar armor, brigandines and fechchens in their hands. That is all the same, as we are told, and other sources, and, in particular, the same effigii.


Well, now compare the miniatures presented here with the works of contemporary artists, well, let's say, the drawing of the same Angus McBride. On it we see the 1170 warriors - 1180's. Obviously, when working on it, he used not one, but many different miniatures, including relying on those that we could see here. That is, the reconstruction carried out by him was worked out very carefully.


The pattern on which we see the knight 1190 of the year is worked out even more carefully, here we see everything in detail, right down to the pattern on the fabric. The sword depicted in the figure was once described by E. Oakshott, and his photo was in all his books, including in black and white. It should be noted that this is exactly what the knights who participated in the victorious battle of Montjisar and the tragic battle of Hattin could look like.

So modern illustrators, depicting warriors of the middle ages, have an excellent base for creating their works, and almost every detail of the weapons of one or another armor can be attributed both on the basis of real finds and medieval miniatures, of which there are many thousands today. (!), with only the smallest part of them digitized and available for viewing on the Web!
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  1. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 17 June 2016 07: 16 New
    +6
    I liked the article very much! Thanks a lot!
    Pleased with miniatures.
    The thoughts of medieval artists are interesting, the world seemed to them the same in their time and in biblical times.
    Here we, the inhabitants of Russia of the 21st century, do not think that those who lived before could think in other categories, especially in a deeply religious society.
    1. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 17 June 2016 12: 22 New
      0
      do not judge by yourself, and do not generalize ....
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 17 June 2016 08: 14 New
    +2
    Wow! The miniatures are wonderful ... Yes, and the article is wonderful .. Thank you ..!
    PySy .. While I wrote the koment, I remembered ..... We went in without knocking, almost without sound, Put into action a baton from bamboo, Tyuk directly into the crown and there is no Cook.
  3. Penzuck
    Penzuck 17 June 2016 08: 16 New
    +4
    Just a Texas chainsaw massacre ... in the third picture from the end ... wink (+)
  4. Kenneth
    Kenneth 17 June 2016 08: 26 New
    +3
    Very informative article
    I was pleased with the comparison of the jaw with the sword, despite the fact that there is a picture with the jaw and in place it does not look like any place. Anyway. It seems that Weller believed that the donkey jaw is part of the siege machine.
  5. baudolino
    baudolino 17 June 2016 08: 47 New
    +2
    In the modern version, Goliath should be in unloading and with Kalash.
    1. kalibr
      17 June 2016 09: 18 New
      +2
      A huge man in a vest and helmet, with ... and Goliath, the guy in the mask of Guy Fawkes, who lit him with a railway nut in his forehead from a sling made of a neckerchief!
  6. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 17 June 2016 09: 37 New
    +3
    Traditionally, articles by Vyacheslav Olegovich are very good!

    Quote: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
    We look carefully and note that the cross of the first warrior shows crosses, obviously the “mark” of the manufacturer, that all the soldiers are already in surprise, but for some they have a girdle and some do not. And helmets ... helmets are conical, that is, they continued to be worn along with everyone else.
    Yes, for the first time I see miniature stigmas that are found on many swords actually found.

    There is also a version that each cross marked on the sword or the participation of its owner in the Crusade - well, something similar to modern tattoos among prisoners (like the number of domes for example). Or participating in a major battle, or taking a vow to kill a certain number of enemies, or the degree of quality of training (from 1 to 5).

    Quote: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
    But the modern reconstruction of this "sword", very similar ... yes, to the donkey's jaw! That's just to prove it can not be!
    Yes, a beautiful illustration with a falshion!

    But here are still variants of the associative series, much closer to the biblical events - this is the jaw of a donkey, as it is.
  7. Riv
    Riv 17 June 2016 09: 52 New
    +4
    Well ... Interesting. Just don't forget: "This is an artist, he sees it that way."

    It is unlikely that Samson was hacked precisely by a falshion (the European transcription of the name is somehow closer to me). Such blades gained fame as an additional weapon of the English archers. This is already somewhat later than the described period. And the fact that few of them were found is also explainable very simply: the falsion is very convenient in the household. They did not cherish him and did not try to save him. The weapon lived out its life as a trophy, chopping chicken heads.

    And certainly the blacksmith of that time would not bother, forging fintiflyushki on the blade.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 17 June 2016 14: 09 New
      0
      Quote: Riv
      And the fact that few of them were found is also explainable very simply: the falsion is very convenient in the household. They did not cherish him and did not try to save him. The weapon lived out its life as a trophy, chopping chicken heads.
      And certainly the blacksmith of that time would not bother, forging fintiflyushki on the blade.

      a kind of medieval machete, which you can chop heads and hens, and people good Nothing has changed in so many years!
  8. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 17 June 2016 10: 41 New
    +3
    In continuation of my last post.

    Quote: Riv
    It is unlikely that Samson was cut precisely by a falsion.
    Of course not. And here is what Samson could well have done with - variants of ancient Egyptian weapons included in the "khopesh" or "hepesh" group.

    This name is translated either as "sickle", "blade", or as "animal's leg" or "bone for cutting".

    Compare with the photograph of the donkey's jaw above - and you will find a clear resemblance.
  9. surrozh
    surrozh 17 June 2016 10: 45 New
    +1
    There was clearly some real event, and then this event was legendary and spread around the world in "artistic processing". They found Sodom, and salt pillars, and the remains of either meteorites, or a volcanic eruption that destroyed the sodomites.
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 17 June 2016 13: 56 New
      0
      Quote: surozh
      There was clearly some real event, and then this event was legendary and spread throughout the world in "artistic processing".

      Not even in the artwork. In the course of the progress of historical science, it turns out that the Bible is a very true book.
  10. Riv
    Riv 17 June 2016 11: 10 New
    0
    Leaving aside the main topic of the article, here's another thing that interested (inspired by previous articles): the word "bow" is quite often found in the Bible, including as an epithet. Since we're talking about biblical characters:

    "33 God girdes me with strength, makes me the right way;
    34 makes my feet like a deer, and sets me up at the heights;
    35 teaches my hands to abuse and strains my muscles like a copper bow ... "
    2 Samuel

    This is exactly the epithet. What kind of copper onion? That is, these weapons were very common and familiar in everyday life. But there is a nuance! Luke is mentioned exclusively in the Old Testament. Not once in the gospel.
    Where did it all go?
    1. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 17 June 2016 12: 28 New
      0
      copper bow - crossbow
      1. kalibr
        17 June 2016 12: 55 New
        +1
        But gastrafet and solenarion - ancient types of crossbow, had a wooden bow, that’s the thing. There were individual metal parts, but very few.
    2. Alex
      Alex 17 June 2016 13: 23 New
      +2
      Quote: Riv
      But there is a nuance! Luke is mentioned exclusively in the Old Testament. Never in the Gospel. Where did it all go?
      Here the following explanation is possible: during the writing of the Old Testament, the bow was a fairly common and formidable weapon, a kind of analogue of modern automatic weapons. It would be strange if the Jews did not reflect this (as well as many other things from the history and culture of other nations) in their "sacred" book. By the time of the writing of the Gospel, the importance of the bow in military tactics had considerably decreased, Roman legionaries with their swords and spears became more popular, which also found its reflection in another "sacred" book.

      This is exactly the epithet. What kind of copper onion?
      Probably. Copper in those days was considered a symbol of military prowess and military power, unlike gold and silver, which were considered attributes of administrative power.

      Vyacheslav, thanks for the next material. Your style is already quite easily recognizable and articles are easy to read.
    3. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 17 June 2016 13: 58 New
      +2
      Quote: Riv
      What kind of copper onion? That is, these weapons were very common and familiar in everyday life. But there is a nuance! Luke is mentioned exclusively in the Old Testament. Not once in the gospel.

      Well, firstly, the biblical "copper" is an analogue of the modern term "bronze". There is almost no mention of pure copper.

      And the bow - first of all, yes, the proliferation of armor greatly reduced the effectiveness of the bow. Secondly, the "arrows of the devil" are a clear associative link between Christianity and the bow.
      1. brn521
        brn521 17 June 2016 15: 38 New
        +1
        Quote: Alex
        By the time the Gospel was written, the value of onions in military tactics had fallen quite strongly.

        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
        And the bow - firstly, yes, the spread of armor greatly reduced the effectiveness of the bow.

        I think that there is a combination of factors. I will designate one more. The bow is primarily a hunting weapon. If the settled population grows, and the territory is small, then hunting quickly loses its meaning. The bow, instead of developing to a combat level, disappears. It must be specifically supported by cultural traditions and military tactics. Otherwise, as a kind of army, archers will have to be raised from scratch.
        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
        Secondly, the "arrows of the devil" are a clear associative link between Christianity and the bow.

        Just a weapon feature. Arrows rarely kill immediately. But the wounds are deep. Bleeding, inflammation, infection, if there is no advanced medicine. The result is a vile weapon aimed not so much at victory, but at the expense of harm to humans.
        1. Riv
          Riv 17 June 2016 16: 51 New
          +1
          That is, in slavery among the Egyptians, the Jews did not lose their fighting traditions, but how was Christ born - and everything was lost? It is unlikely. Simply, the Gospels were most likely not written and translated by Jews.

          See for yourself: Peter, when they seized Christ, was going to defend him with the sword. Only Roman citizens could carry weapons openly (a sword!) In the provinces under the direct control of the procurator. Paul himself said: "I am a Roman citizen" - and even specified that by birthright. The percentage of Roman citizens among the apostles found in Judea is off the charts. So maybe the rest ... not stateless?
          Indirect evidence is that the apostles for a long time got away with their pranks, and Christ himself was personally judged by Pilate and (attention, Karl!) Did not find fault. Would a procurator bother for a scourge without a clan and tribe? Only if this scourge was a citizen of Rome - then yes, would have been simply obliged.
          1. Alex
            Alex 17 June 2016 17: 45 New
            +2
            If Christ were a Roman citizen, the Sanhedrin would not have the right to judge him by definition. And the fault of Christ before Rome was also in the fact that his teaching refuted the divinity of the power of the Roman emperor (and himself: according to the then widespread tradition, dead emperors were automatically ranked as gods).

            Anyway, this whole story with the condemnation of Christ is rather muddy. I get the impression that the last thing Pilate wanted was his condemnation, while the "masses" just demanded his execution and precisely by the verdict of the Roman court, that is, crucifixion (as a state criminal), and not stoning (as an apostate from Yahweh).

            Quote: Riv
            That is, in slavery among the Egyptians, the Jews did not lose their fighting traditions
            Currently, more and more historians are inclined to think that the "Egyptian slavery" was dramatized later when creating a written version of the Torah. As well as significantly exaggerated fighting qualities ...
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 18 June 2016 23: 41 New
              +1
              "Anyway, this whole story with the condemnation of Christ is rather muddy." ////

              It happened after the death of King Herod. "Time of Troubles". Constant capture attempts
              thrones, false prophets, national leaders ....
              Christ "fell under the distribution." Any preacher was immediately "sewn" on a political matter,
              for reinsurance. The Romans were nervous, the local rabbis too
              were shaking with fear. The principle "no man - no problem" worked.
              And then his interesting philosophy spun after the collapse of the Jewish state as a result of
              The Judean War and then the rebellion of Bar Kochba.
              1. brn521
                brn521 20 June 2016 10: 52 New
                0
                Quote: voyaka uh
                The Romans were nervous, the local rabbis too
                were shaking with fear. The principle "no man - no problem" worked.

                Well, that’s the basis of Christian accusations against the then Israeli authorities. They forgot about God, began to promote their own selfish interests. And to teach the people the same, while making arbitrary amendments to the law. As a result, they went mad and stopped distinguishing good from bad. Then we observe the country destroyed due to unjustified show-offs, the destroyed temple, the next 2000 years of suffering. But even to look historically, what chance was missed. The newborn religion went uphill. After a couple of hundred years, the Roman Empire could turn into the Israeli.
                1. voyaka uh
                  voyaka uh 20 June 2016 14: 10 New
                  +2
                  "After that we observe the country destroyed due to unreasonable show-off, the destroyed temple" ////

                  Israeli historians see this in a slightly different way. Herod ruled for a very long time and skillfully - the country flourished, received from Rome the status of "autonomy" and not an ordinary colony. But she switched (as often happens) to the "manual control" of the leader-king. When he died of old age, there was a crisis - and a political one,
                  and economic. Herod built a lot - everything stopped - tens of thousands of unemployed builders of all professions in Jerusalem alone.
                  It had little to do with the Jewish religion - the people
                  just wanted to eat.
                  And - uprisings (Judean War, Bar Kokhba). Rome overtook the troops, defeated and dispersed the Jews to their distant colonies.
                2. The comment was deleted.
          2. brn521
            brn521 17 June 2016 19: 50 New
            +1
            Quote: Riv
            That is, in slavery among the Egyptians, the Jews did not lose their fighting traditions, but how was Christ born - and everything was lost?

            Almost 1,5 thousand years have passed. At the same time, the population grew from a handful of tribes to a rather big state. In this situation, there will be almost no one to hunt archers.
            Quote: Riv
            Would a procurator bother for a scourge without a clan and tribe?

            No, it is about the loss of a significant part of the judiciary by the Jews. severe punishments can only be Romans. As for the procurator, he had the following problem. 1) the Romans despised the Jews and did not miss the opportunity to point them to their place in the empire. Therefore, I really did not want to bend to the demands of the savages and condemn one of them to execution. 2) Jews loved to show off and on any occasion raised a riot. Therefore, there was an attempt to reassure them by scourging the detainee. What did not ride. I decided to bend it all the same. If Roman citizenship were available, Roman law would come into play (I think there is no need to explain how voluminous and serious) and there would be a full debriefing. Without scourging and crucifixion in the end, of course. And a full justification in the event of a possible riot - had to stand up for a citizen, for imperial law, and therefore for the empire. And so the riot would start because of nonsense, a local savage, which is unpleasant, and in front of the authorities, you can end up being extreme.
            1. Riv
              Riv 17 June 2016 20: 07 New
              +1
              Well, yes ... Well, yes ... The population has grown, there are more beer bottles, but the donkey population has declined in number. And the Jews became nothing to fight, so they were conquered by the Romans.

              Evgeny Vaganovich, you are ignorant of Roman justice, and you have not even read the Bible.

              "Then gathered the chief priests and scribes and elders of the people in the court of the high priest named Caiaphas,
              and they laid in the council to take Jesus by cunning and kill;
              but they said: just not on a holiday, so that there is no indignation among the people. "


              Well, of course they did. Christ was not judged by the Sanhedrin. The high priests and elders were only witnesses in court against him.

              "And when the chief priests and elders accused Him, He did not answer.
              Then Pilate says to Him: Do you not hear how much they testify against You? "


              And it was Pilate who judged Christ.

              "Then he released Barabbas to them, and Jesus, having beaten him, delivered him up to be crucified."
              (everywhere: from Matthew)

              Pilate, not the Sanhedrin.
              Well nichrome you don’t know, guys. :)
              1. brn521
                brn521 20 June 2016 11: 20 New
                0
                Quote: Riv
                Well, of course they did. Christ was not judged by the Sanhedrin. The high priests and elders were only witnesses in court against him.

                Strange argumentation. Argue with yourself, for the sake of arguing, or what?
                Of course, Pilate judged Christ. And I outlined the issues that he needed to solve. I repeat. 1. Reluctance to cave in under the savages, fulfilling their demand for a death sentence. 2. Unwillingness to provoke another riot. As a result, first an attempt to find a compromise solution - beating and putting on public display. And when it didn’t help, condemnation to execution.
                Quote: Riv
                you are ignorant of Roman justice

                So what's the matter? Give real arguments based on the tenets of Roman law. My opinion: Jesus was not the subject of Roman law. 1. He was not a citizen. 2. It was not the property of a Roman citizen, i.e. a slave. 3. did not commit a crime against Roman citizens. Therefore, any sentence could be imposed based on local politics. I would, being taught by modern realities, in the place of the Roman governors of such irritants, putting a potential adversary in the ears, seized and hid for the time being. Those. would send Jesus to Rome, ostensibly in a special court, designed specifically for troublemakers of Roman peace. And he hinted that if calmness is not restored and maintained, then this will serve as an excuse for the signified Jesus. Those. in fact, he didn’t stir up water, since the raised butch did not calm down.
          3. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 18 June 2016 23: 28 New
            +1
            "That is, in slavery among the Egyptians, the Jews did not lose their military traditions" /////

            Lost completely. Therefore, when they returned from Egypt - sheer defeats
            from more or less strong opponents. 300 years of continuous battles with the Greek Philistines -
            not a single victory! The Bible, by the way, writes very honestly about this. No
            "Divine help", "miracles".
            1. Mikhail Matyugin
              Mikhail Matyugin 23 June 2016 19: 05 New
              0
              Quote: voyaka uh
              Therefore, when they returned from Egypt - sheer defeats
              from more or less strong opponents. 300 years of continuous battles with the Greek Philistines -
              not a single victory!

              By the way, there were a handful who survived the rout in the Nile Delta, and who founded only 5 cities on the coast.
  11. ando_bor
    ando_bor 17 June 2016 12: 50 New
    0
    But the modern reconstruction of this "sword", very similar ... yes, yes, to a donkey's jaw!

    A sword from Rorbi is the normal version for the analogy with a donkey's jaw, only more advanced and, apparently, tricked out not only by manufacture, but by application technique.
    But what can you do, hard times have come, the Bronze Age has died, there is no new bronze, the old will end, the iron is still very small, and so it was necessary to return to the Neolithic.
  12. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 17 June 2016 14: 00 New
    +1
    Quote: ando_bor
    But what can you do, hard times have come, the Bronze Age has died, there is no new bronze, the old will end, the iron is still very small, and so it was necessary to return to the Neolithic.

    Well, how to say, there was a case, Samson freed himself unexpectedly and they found something (perhaps some ancient weapon, the name of which was translated as "donkey's jaw"), than he was able to fight back.
    1. ando_bor
      ando_bor 17 June 2016 15: 36 New
      0
      There were no accidents, God helped Samson.
      And I say this without any religiosity, the fact is that religion, it consolidates and sets a model for the behavior of society, Samson prayed to the correct God, his religion gave rise to all Abramics and has survived to this day because it set more effective models of behavior than the one that Philistines professed , without delving into what they had there, but apparently something of the "bronze" is effective in relatively stable conditions of the Bronze Age, but ineffective in the era of global shocks to which this time belongs. If not, we would now be discussing the miraculous victory of the heroic enemy of the "Samson Horde".
  13. ver_
    ver_ 17 June 2016 15: 51 New
    -2
    [quote = surozh] There was clearly some real event, and then this event was legendary and spread around the world in "artistic processing". They found Sodom, and pillars of salt, and the remains of either
    meteorites, or a volcanic eruption that destroys sodomites.

    And this was not necessary to look for. The eruption of the volcano Vesuvius and the death of Pompeii occurred in 1631 .. Sodom and Gomor - the cities were not far .. There is an obelisk with a date ..
    Only one question arises - When were these "Holy Scriptures" written ..
  14. Korsar4
    Korsar4 17 June 2016 21: 07 New
    +2
    Wonderful article! As the window in the epic opened.
  15. SlavaP
    SlavaP 18 June 2016 18: 42 New
    0
    Hmm, you have to have a very unhealthy imagination to translate the biblical expression לחי-חמור as "donkey's jaw" ... Try googling and something completely different and very interesting will come out.
  16. D. Dan
    D. Dan 19 June 2016 00: 47 New
    0
    From the pages of the bible, Goliath personally appears to me to be a strong and courageous warrior, and the shepherd boy's holiday is a coward. Read the "Bible" and you will see the essence of this coward and traitor. And he wouldn’t have killed Goliath, if only he hadn’t driven him or chattered ... or stumbled on his balalaika ...
  17. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 23 June 2016 19: 04 New
    -1
    Quote: SlavaP
    Hmm, you have to have a very unhealthy imagination to translate the biblical expression לחי-חמור as "donkey's jaw"

    And how can you translate it if you are a Hebrew expert?