This year marks the 50 years since, as in 1966, the infantry combat vehicle BMP-1 was adopted by the Soviet Army. In terms of its characteristics: mobility, security, and firepower, the new vehicle was significantly superior to the armored personnel carriers that had previously been used to transport infantry. The Soviet Union became the first country to adopt an armored vehicle of this class. Its layout has become a classic for the BMP. The engine compartment is located in the front of the hull, in the middle of the hull is a tower with weapons, in the rear of the hull is the troop compartment.
In the future, BMPs became widespread in the armed forces of other states, displacing the lungs Tanks. In terms of protection, the BMP-1 was close to the floating tank PT-76. Frontal armor BMP-1 withstood shelling of 12,7-20 mm caliber ammunition, the side, the stern and the roof of the hull protect against fragments and rifle bullets.
Armament BMP-1 had a pronounced anti-tank orientation. Soviet commanders believed that motorized rifle units operating autonomously should have ample opportunities to oppose enemy tanks. In this regard, the 73-mm smooth-bore gun 2А28 "Thunder", paired with an 7,62-mm PKT machine gun, and the Malyutka anti-tank missile 9М14М were included in the armament of the combat vehicle. The gun installed in the turret has a circular firing sector, elevation angles -5 ... + 30 degrees.
The main purpose of the 73-mm gun launcher is precisely the fight against armored vehicles. Some time after the adoption of the BMP-1, the cumulative PG-2В shot with a cumulative PG-28В gun was used as a weapon for the 15А9 gun. This cumulative ammunition is also used in the 73-mm LNG-9 anti-tank grenade launcher.
An active-reactive shot with a cumulative grenade consists of a powder propellant charge in a short sleeve and a cumulative PG-9B grenade with a jet engine. The grenade leaves the cannon at a speed of 400 m / s, and then accelerates with a jet engine to a speed of 665 m / s. In this case, the maximum range of shooting is 1300 meters, and the range of a direct shot at the target height of 2 meters - 765 meters. That is, the effective range of fire for armored vehicles from 73-mm guns of the BMP-1 is comparable to the range of firing from a PKT machine gun, caliber 7,62 mm.
Weight: Shot PG-15В - 3,5 kg, grenades ПГ-9В - 2,6 kg. The first version of PG-9В could penetrate 300 mm armor. The armor penetration of a modernized cumulative PG-9C grenade amounts to 400 mm of homogeneous armor. The cumulative jet of this munition is able to overcome 1 meter of reinforced concrete, 1,5 meter of brick or 2 meter of soil.
Layout of an active-jet shot with a cumulative PG-15В grenade
The BMP-1 ammunition with the 1974 of the year also includes OG-15В fragmentation shots intended to destroy manpower and destroy light field fortifications. Mass: FG-15B shot - 4,6 kg, FG-9 grenades - 3,7 kg, grenade contains 375 grams of explosive.
For the 2А28 “Thunder” gun, a loading mechanism is used, thanks to which the technical rate of fire is 8-10 rds / min (real 6-7 rds / min). Semiautomatic loader with electromechanical drive and mechanized conveyor-type ammunition. It provides storage, transportation and removal of shots to the line of issue. After the introduction of the BMP-1 ammunition set of OG-15B fragmentation shots, the feed mechanism was excluded, since the loading of OG-15В can only be done manually. In connection with this, loading with cumulative shots PG-15V was also carried out manually. The ammunition of the gun is 40 cumulative and fragmentation shots.
At the time of adoption by the BMP-1, its 73-mm gun could, within the effective firing range, fight tanks: Leopard-1, M48, M60, AMX-30, Chieftain. However, after the appearance of multi-layered armored tanks and the massive introduction of dynamic protection (reactive armor), the capabilities of 73-mm cumulative ammunition became insufficient. In the course of combat operations, where BMP-1 was used, the weakness of the gun was revealed during the suppression of tank-dangerous targets - infantry with RPG and ATGW. In addition, when undermining the BMP-1 on an anti-tank mine, the fuze shells of 73-mm guns often became a combat platoon and self-destructed after a short time interval. When this occurred, the detonation of the entire ammunition with the death of the crew and the landing. All this led to the fact that the military in the future demanded the introduction of small-caliber automatic weapons into the armament, which has great potential for dealing with helicopters, light-armored equipment and infantry of the enemy.
Even at the stage of development of the BMP-1 against tanks at medium distances, it was decided to equip the machine antitank guided missile 9K11 "Baby" complex with the launch range 500-3000 m. The missile 9M14 weight 10,9 kg flew 3000 meters in 25 seconds at a speed of 120 m / with. The combat unit of an ATGM with a mass of 2,6 kg, pierced normal 400 mm of homogeneous armor. In the BMP-1 ammunition there were 4 anti-tank missiles "Baby". Later, a modernized anti-tank 9М14М appeared with armor penetration to 460 mm.
Thus, the 73-mm gun and the ATGM complemented each other. However, for the effective use of a joystick-controlled anti-tank missile through wires, the level of professional skills of the gunner-operator had to be quite high. In combat, the operator, after launch, visually observes the flight of the ATGM and corrects it. At a distance of less than 1000 meters, the rocket can be guided "by eye". At long distances, an 8 multiple optical sight is used. For visual observation of the rocket on the trajectory, a well-marked tracer in its tail section is used. During the Doomsday War, in order to maintain the qualifications of the Egyptian “Malyutka” ATGM operators at the proper level, it was necessary to conduct training sessions on a simulator daily. Even so, the probability of hitting a moving tank did not exceed 0,7. In the case of getting into the tank M48 or M60, the armor is not equipped with dynamic protection and penetrated approximately in 60% of cases.
For the first time, the opportunity to assess the anti-tank weapons capabilities of the BMP-1 presented itself during the next Arab-Israeli conflict in 1973. Although the Egyptians due to improper tactics and poor crew training lost an unreasonable amount of BMP-1, these cars made a strong impression on the Israelis. Thus, during the fighting in the area of Kantar, light and passable BMP-1s were able to cross the salt flats and shot stuck Israeli tanks. Sufficiently effective armament BMP-1 against tanks used by the Syrians in the 1982 year. It is believed that on the account of the gunner-operators several destroyed Israeli tanks "Magah-3" during a night battle in the Sultan-Yakub area. Also, the Syrians declared the destruction of the "Magah-6" and "Merkava" tanks in other military episodes. But by the middle of the 80-x after the appearance of the DZ and the new generation of tanks, the capabilities of the BMP-1 armament did not meet modern requirements. In this connection, in return for the 9K11 ATGM “Baby”, in the 1, the BMP-1979 BMP-9 was re-equipped with the Fagot anti-tank complex 111-1. The upgraded car received the designation BMP-1P. Up to this level, during the overhaul, a large part of the early release of the BMP-XNUMX was available.
The launch range of the first variants of the Fagot ATGM was 2000 meters. But at the same time, the guidance became semi-automatic, which means that after the launch of the rocket, the operator only needed to hold the target in an optical sight. At the same time, the automation itself was driving a wire-controlled rocket to the line of sight. The armor penetration of the first 9М111 missiles remained at the level of the 9М14М ATGM, but the maximum flight speed increased to 240 m / s, and the "dead zone" decreased to 75 meters. Later they were developed and entered service with a missile with a launch range of 2500-3000 meters with armor penetration 600 mm.
The introduction of an ATGM with a semi-automatic guidance system significantly increased the likelihood of hitting the target and reduced the requirements for the training level of the gunner-operator. However, it should be understood that even with the increased likelihood of penetration and armor penetration, the ability of the BMP-1 to combat modern main battle tanks remains very modest. The 2А28 “Thunder” gun is hopelessly outdated and has a chance to penetrate only the onboard armor, and the anti-tank missile, which is not equipped with a tandem warhead, does not guarantee overcoming the multi-layered frontal armor. In addition, the ATGM in combat is essentially a one-time weapons, reloading the launch container under enemy fire is extremely problematic.
Soon after the adoption of the BMP-1, the design bureau of the Kurgan Machine-Building Plant began designing a new infantry fighting vehicle with an improved weapon system. The reason for this was the information about the creation in Germany and France of BMP "Marder" and BMP AMX-10P. In addition, helicopters armed with ATGM began to play a major role in the fight against tanks. To combat them, a small-caliber automatic gun was needed. By the beginning of the 70-x, the priority task of the BMP was to fight not against tanks, but against tank-dangerous targets — anti-tank artillery and infantry armed with an ATGM and RPG, as well as the destruction of lightly armored targets: the BRDM, BTR and BMP. The border Soviet-Chinese conflict on Damanskiy Island played a role in the decision to modernize the BMP armament, where the low effectiveness of the 73-mm cannon in the fight against enemy manpower was revealed.
In 1977, the small-batch production of the BMP-2 began, its main difference from the BMP-1 is the armament complex. In the new, more spacious turret, an automatic 30-mm 2A42 gun with ammunition in 500 shots was installed as the main armament. The gun has separate power with the ability to change the type of ammunition - one tape is equipped with armor-piercing tracer shells, the other - high-explosive-incendiary and fragmentation-tracer. Shooting from 2А42 is possible with single and automatic fire with a high and low rate. 30-mm PKT machine gun is paired with a 7,62-mm cannon. For the fight with tanks initially installed ATGW "Fagot." In addition, there are six 81-mm “Cloud” grenade launchers for setting up a smoke screen.
The first BMP-2 were sent for military trials to the 29 tank division, stationed near Slutsk in Belarus. After entering the "limited contingent" in Afghanistan, cars from the BVI were sent for Pyanj. At the same time, in Kurgan, 1980 began mass production of BMP-2.
During the fighting in Afghanistan, the BMP-2 has proven itself well. Of course, our motorized infantrymen did not have to fight combat helicopters and tanks there, but the 30-mm automatic cannon with elevation angles −5 ... + 74 ° was the best fit for defeating the firing points of the rebels on the mountain slopes. In addition, 30-mm projectiles are not detonated during explosions of BMP-2 on mines and land mines.
In order to increase security in the 1982, the BMP-2D was created. On this modification, additional side armor screens were installed, the side armor of the turret was increased, the driver was covered from below with an armor plate. Because of the increased mass from 14 to 15 t, the machine lost its ability to swim, but in the conditions of Afghanistan, greater security turned out to be more important.
It is considered that the 30-mm gun can fight only with lightly armored vehicles. Thus, an 30-mm 3BR8 armor-piercing projectile at a distance of 100 meters penetrates an 45 mm armor plate mounted at an angle of 60 °, and at a distance of 500 meters - an 33 mm of armor. However, it should be borne in mind that the fire on the bronzer can be fired in a queue, and the 2А42 submachine gun has quite good accuracy. This means that at relatively short distances, the shells will fall almost in one place. At the end of the 80, the author happened to observe the decommissioned T-54 tank used as a target at the test site. His 100-mm frontal armor was literally “gnawed” by 30-mm armor-piercing shells. The early-type turret with “lures” also had holes. From this it follows that the 30-mm armor-piercing projectile line-up, fired at close range, is fully capable of penetrating the onboard armor of the main battle tank, damaging observation devices, scopes, and armament, setting fire to the mounted fuel tanks. In the course of real hostilities, cases of disabling and even destruction of modern tanks by the BMP-2 were repeatedly recorded.
Compared with the BMP-1, the anti-tank capabilities of the “two” have significantly increased, including through the use of the latest series of ATGMs 9K111-1 “Konkurs” and 9K111-1М “Konkurs-M” on the machines. The launch range of the anti-tank guided missile 9М113М of the Konkurs-M complex is 75-4000 meters. The missile is guided along a wire line in a semi-automatic mode. An anti-tank guided missile with a tandem warhead is capable of penetrating 750 mm of homogeneous armor after overcoming dynamic defenses. In total, the BMP-2 has 4 ATGM. However, their reloading takes a lot of time and the most effective combat against tanks is possible during operations from ambushes.
The analysis of the combat use of infantry fighting vehicles, the change in tactics of combat operations, and the emergence of new weapons and ammunition development capabilities led to the formulation of new requirements for a fundamentally new infantry fighting vehicle with significantly increased firepower.
In 1987, the BMP-3 was put into service, its production began at the Kurgan Machine Building Plant. The new combat vehicle was strikingly different from the familiar BMP-1 and BMP-2. The front layout of the engine and transmission compartment, which is traditional for Soviet cars of this class, has been replaced by aft one - like in tanks. With the front arrangement of MTO - the engine serves as additional protection in case of penetration of frontal armor. At the same time, due to the front centering, the BMP-1 and the BMP-2 are prone to "pecks", which significantly limits the speed of movement over rough terrain. When the engine is in the rear position, the weight is more advantageously distributed along the length of the machine, the volume of habitable space increases and the driver's view improves.
The body of aluminum armor alloys is additionally reinforced with steel screens. According to the manufacturer, frontal armor 30-mm armor-piercing projectile 2А42 from the distance 300 meters. It is also possible to further increase the level of security due to the installation of modules of invoice armor. But at the same time, the weight of the car increases from 18,7 to 22,4 tons, it loses its ability to swim, the mobility and running gear life decreases.
For the BMP-3, the Instrument Design Bureau (Tula) created a very unusual set of main armament installed in a low-profile conical turret. It consists of a low-pulse 100-mm gun, the 2A70 launcher and the 30-mm 2A42 automatic cannon. With guns rigidly "consistent" 7,62-mm PKT machine gun. BMP-3 has a developed fire control system. It includes the 2EX52 weapon stabilizer, the 1D16 range finder, the ballistic platform for the operating system, the tachograph, the speed sensor and the heading sensor, the 1K539-1 sight gauge, the PPB-13 sight, the 2PX-2 aiming device, the 110-01 sight gauge, the 01XXUMX-6 sight gauge, the 60-100 aiming device; Vertical aiming angles -XNUMX ... + XNUMX ° allow you to hit targets on the mountain slopes and upper floors of buildings, as well as carry out mounted shooting XNUMX-mm projectiles and fight low-flying air targets.
Ammunition 100-mm guns 40 unitary shots, of which 6-8 ATGM. The range of ammunition includes a 17 ZUOF with a high-explosive fragmentation projectile (OFS) ZOF32 and ZUBXNNXXK1-10 with ATGM 3X9. Due to the automatic loader, the 117-mm 100-2-gun fire rate is 70 rds / min. The 10 projectile fits into the conveyor of the automatic loader. A unitary shot of ZUOF 22 with OFS ZOF17 with an initial speed of 32 m / s can hit targets at a distance of up to 250 meters. In terms of its destructive characteristics, it is similar to the high-explosive fragmentation projectile of a tank 4000-mm D-100T cannon and is capable of fighting enemy enemy manpower, suppressing tank-dangerous targets, destroying field-type shelters and destroying light-armored vehicles. In 10, 90UOF2 and 70UOF3-19 shots with increased firing range and increased projectile action were created for the 3А19 gun.
In addition to high-explosive fragmentation projectiles from the 100-mm guns of the BMP-3, it is possible to fire in semi-automatic mode at the beam of the 9K116-3 ATUR laser. Structurally and according to its characteristics, the guided weapons complex (KUV) is similar to the KUV “Bastion” of the T-55M tank and the Kasttet 100-mm anti-tank gun MT-12 and is capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 4000 meters. The armor penetration of the first version of the 9М117 ATGM was 550 mm of homogeneous armor. In the future, improved versions of the 9М117М and 9М117М1 appeared with a launch range increased to 5000-5500 meters. According to the manufacturer's handouts, the 9М117М1 Arkan missile with a tandem warhead can penetrate the 750 mm homogeneous armor plate after overcoming the DZ. Mathematical modeling has shown that to defeat М1А2, Leclerc, Challenger-2 tanks, 2-3 of Arkan ATGM is necessary. For use in the armament of the existing BMP-3 new guided missiles in our country, it is necessary to refine the CRC. So far, their ammunition contains only the 9М117 ATGM, which can no longer guarantee penetration of frontal armor of modern tanks.
Since 2005, small-scale production of the universal automated combat module (Bachcha-U tower) has been in progress. It is designed to equip advanced and upgraded models of armored vehicles and, compared to the original weapon system, the BMP-3 has a number of advantages. Module "Bakhcha-U" in the combat position weighs 3600-3900 kg. The ammunition has 4 ATGM and 34 OFS.
Fighting module "Bakhcha-U" at the exhibition "Engineering Technologies", 2014 year
Thanks to the use of new, more efficient guided (including the Arkan ATGM) and unguided munitions, advanced sensors and a ballistic calculator, the range and effectiveness of firing increased significantly. Thanks to the introduction of the satellite positioning system (GPS / GLONASS), it is possible to fire with new 100-mm high-explosive fragmentation projectiles from closed firing positions at a range of up to 7000 meters.
Coupled with 100-mm gun BMP-3 30-mm automatic cannon 2A72 with ready to use ammunition rounds 500 Munitions completely unified with 30-2A42 mm cannon and its ability to combat bronetselyami similar gun mounted on BMP-2.
The start of serial production of the BMP-3 coincided with the collapse of the USSR and the beginning of the “economic reforms”. This is the most negative impact on the fate of the car in the Russian armed forces. Given that the army had a large number of well-mastered BMP-1 and BMP-2, the need for a fairly complex BMP-3, with still-existing "childhood sores", was not obvious to the leadership of the Russian Defense Ministry. The BMP-3 armament complex turned out to be too difficult to be mastered by conscript soldiers, and the creation of the necessary repair infrastructure required additional investments. All this led to the fact that the BMP-3 was mainly built for export, and there are very few capable vehicles of this type in the Russian armed forces. However, work to improve the BMP-3 did not stop. Recently it became known about the tests BMP-3 with artillery module AU-220M "Baikal".
For a number of characteristics of the AU-220М “Baikal” with an 57-mm automatic gun, even more preferable than “Bakhcha-U”, it is also important that it will be significantly cheaper during mass production. According to the developers, the rate of fire of “Baikal” is up to 120 rds / min, the maximum range is 12 km. Ammunition includes high-explosive fragmentation, armor-piercing and guided projectiles. By "managed", obviously, you should understand fragmentation shells with remote undermining of the trajectory. Maximum range - 12 km is also a purely advertising statement; no one in their right mind can fire 57-mm guns at ground targets at such a range. But if we discard the advertising husk and analyze the characteristics of the AU-220M “Baikal”, it can be concluded that for the BMP it is in many ways the optimal armament.
The 57-mm automatic artillery system when firing existing armor-piercing shells is guaranteed to hit all existing BMP and BTR, it can also pose a serious threat to the main battle tanks. In the case of adopting a new ammunition with increased armor penetration can be introduced into the ammunition. 57-mm fragmentation shells for automatic firing will be much more effective than 30-mm for suppressing tank-hazardous manpower. In the case of the introduction of remotely programmable ammunition or projectiles with a radio fuse and the creation of an appropriate fire control system, the BMP-3 will receive the functions of an effective anti-aircraft self-propelled unit.
In order not to overload the article with unnecessary volume, it does not deliberately consider the “airborne infantry fighting vehicle” armament complex: BMD-1, BMD-2, BMD-3, BMD-4 - since they are almost identical in weaponry and, accordingly, the capabilities of fighting with tanks BMP ground forces. Partly confirming the weakness of the anti-tank capabilities of the Airborne Forces was the adoption of the SPrut-SD with the 125-mm smooth-bore tank gun.
At the Victory Parade in 2015, the wheel-mounted BMP of the middle weight category “Boomerang” and the heavy tracked BMP “Kurganets-25” were presented. According to information published in open sources, promising infantry fighting vehicles will be armed with an uninhabited Boomerang-BM combat module with an 30-mm 2-42 cannon. The gun has selective power, 500 ammunition of shots (160 BPS / 340 OFS), with a gun 7,62-mm PKTM machine gun is paired. For the fight against tanks, four launch containers of the Kornet ATGM 9K135 are intended. Guidance ATGM 9M133 carried out by a laser beam in a semi-automatic mode. The target launch range of the 9M133 ATGM is 5000 meters, armor penetration beyond the DZ is 1200 mm of homogeneous armor, which is enough to penetrate the frontal armor of modern MBT.
It is known about the creation of an upgraded version of the "Cornet-D" with a firing range of up to 10 km. The 9М133ФМ-3 rocket with a high-explosive warhead can be used to combat air targets flying at speeds up to 250 m / s. For hitting air targets with a miss to 3 meters, the ATGM is equipped with an additional non-contact fuse. Targeting a combat module can be carried out by the gunner and the commander. Due to robotization, the universal combat module after capture is capable of tracking the movement of the target and conducting its firing. In the future, it is planned to equip new infantry fighting vehicles with more sophisticated anti-tank weapons operating on the principle of "fired and forgotten."