Military Review

The real "Tsar Cannon": 305-mm rail artillery system TM-3-12

41
The Tsar Cannon, one of the symbols of the Moscow Kremlin, is familiar to many as one of the iconic sights of the Russian capital. However, this bombard did not have to take part in the hostilities, although, as it turned out in the course of research, they still fired from it at least once. Anyway, it is more a monument, attracting tourists and having a decorative value. But this does not mean that artillery systems were not created in our country, which not only could be proudly called “king-cannons”, but were also widely used in combat operations. TM-3-12 can be safely attributed to such systems.


TM-3-12 is quite easy to decipher: marine transporter, type 3, caliber 12 inches. This is an 305-mm rail artillery 1938 model of the year. This railway super-heavy artillery system was equipped with some parts and mechanisms taken from the towers of the battleship "Empress Maria", which sank on October 20 1916 of the year under unexplained circumstances. It is only known that there was an explosion of the powder cellar on the ship, but it was not possible to establish what caused it. There is a widespread misconception that the guns for this artillery system were taken from the same sunken battleship, but this is not so. The guns for the creation of this artillery installation were borrowed from the old pre-revolutionary stocks, which were intended for unfinished line battle cruisers of the "Izmail" type. This information has the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945, located in Moscow. It should be noted that all three TM-3-12 installations have been preserved to this day. One of them is located in the aforementioned museum on Poklonnaya Hill, the second is in the Museum of railway equipment named after V. Chubarov at the former Warsaw station of St. Petersburg, the third is located on the territory of the Krasnaya Gorka fort in the Leningrad Region.



In total, three such super-heavy artillery systems were produced in the USSR, which were consolidated into the 9-th separate artillery railway division. The division consisted of 5 separate echelons, three of which were combat, which included the TM-3-12 artillery transporters themselves, one echelon was equipped with air defense systems, and another was a mobile base. As part of the division, these installations took part in the Soviet-Finnish as well as the Second World War. For the transportation and maintenance of a division of three TM-3-12 units, 110 rolling stock units and 459 personnel were necessary.

In October, the Central Design Bureau for Shipbuilding (TsKBS-1930) was formed at LMZ - Leningrad Metal Plant in October, which, under the leadership of A. G. Dukelsky, began developing a series of railway conveyors designed to house large-scale coastal defense weapons. As part of this work, the TM-3-1, TM-14-2 and TM-12-3 installations were created. The design of the TM-12-3 railway artillery installation began in 12 by the same design team, which at that time changed its name to TsKB-1935. The final draft of the conveyor was completed in May 19. The production of installations was established in the city of Nikolaev at the plant named after Marty. Their production was delayed for a number of objective reasons: the first installation was ready - 1936 July 1 of the year, the second - 1938 December 1 of the year, the third and last of the installations was ready 1938 January 1 of the year.

From 21 to 23 July 1938, the first installation was tested at NIMAP. At the same time, the drawbacks of her electrical equipment scheme were discovered and revealed. In the following two installations, this deficiency was eliminated; in addition, in order to facilitate the construction of conveyors, a number of parts were made instead of steel from duralumin. In January, 1939, all installations passed the second stage of testing, after which they began their preparation for troop testing. From 20 to 30 August 1939, all three TM-3-12 railway transporters passed ground tests, except for firing tests. By 7 February 1940, the installation passed the tests by firing at the Rzhevsky range, after which they were officially put into service. According to other data under Leningrad, they have already departed in January 1940.



The TM-3-12 railway super heavy artillery system managed to take part in the Soviet-Finnish war. These artillery mounts were used to fire at the powerful defenses of the Mannerheim Line, and also bombarded Vyborg. The fire was carried out with the circular railway branch Sestroretsk - Beloostrov, which was commissioned in 1896, well known to the residents of St. Petersburg. This branch was ideally suited for the operation of these artillery systems. After the end of the war, the installations were shipped to the Hanko Peninsula, which the USSR received from Finland on lease for 30 years under the terms of the peace agreement. The first foreign naval base for the Soviet Union was created here.

It was here that the installation marked the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. With their artillery fire, 305-mm railroad installations suppressed Finnish gun emplacements located on nearby islands, and also did not allow the warships of the Finnish Navy to conduct targeted shelling of the Hanko peninsula. During the defensive battles (the defense of Hanko lasted from 22 June to 2 December 1941 of the year), they fired 108 at the enemy, spending approximately 570 shells (according to other sources - 625). It was not possible to evacuate these bulky installations from the peninsula in the conditions of war, so before evacuating the base they were partially dismantled, and partly they were destroyed by personnel by organizing explosions.

Despite this, between June 1942 and July 1943, the Finnish repair team was able to restore the TM-3-12 transporters and return them to service. After the withdrawal of Finland from the war under the terms of the truce concluded, all its trophies that were captured from the Soviet Union were subject to immediate return. In January, the 1945 of the year in combat readiness of the USSR received three TM-3-12 transporters back. The 305-mm railway artillery units were incorporated into the 1-th Guards Marine Railway Krasnoselskaya Red Banner Artillery Brigade. In service, they remained until the 1961 year, after which they were sent for conservation.



In terms of its design, the TM-3-12 transporter was a further development of the railway artillery systems developed earlier by the TsKBS-3 specialists, this is TM-1-14 (356 mm) and TM-2-12 (305 mm). As a prototype, it was decided to use the TM-2-12 transporter, but intended for installation on the TM-3-12 12-inch gun had a significantly longer length (52 caliber instead of 40 calibers from the TM-2-12 gun). In order to ensure the highest elevation angle specified by the technical specification in 50 degrees, the developers had to include a machine tool lifting mechanism in the combat position in the design of the new conveyor. At the same time, the Soviet designers took into account the rather negative experience of using the electromechanical drive for lifting the machine, implemented on the TM-1-14 rail artillery, this time using a hydraulic drive. In addition to improving the reliability of the lifting mechanism, this step reduced the time needed to perform this operation from 15,4 to 8,5 minutes.

Also was redesigned and feed scheme to the gun half-charges and shells. First of all, a shell cart was introduced into the cellar car, which rolled along the rails in the aisle between the racks. A cart loaded with a projectile rolled onto the front platform of the cellar car. The semi-charges on the front platform of the car were fed over the rolls, after which they were manually loaded into a cocor. Lifting the cocoons with the help of cranes was not very convenient in terms of time and masking. For this reason, in the design of the TM-3-12 conveyor, the length of the charging trolley was increased by supplying it with the winch necessary for lifting the kokor, this winch and replaced the cranes. But nevertheless they decided to keep the cranes, because with their help the supporting legs were installed. The charging platform had one more winch and a trolley for the horizontal movement of the cocor. It is worth noting that the TM-3-12 was the first conveyor where the filling process became fully automatic. So on TM-1-14 only a projectile was sent pneumatically, and half-charges were sent manually. On the TM-2-12 installation, both the projectile and the semi-charges were sent in a rush, but the latter simply did not reach their place in the cannon of the gun, therefore the final delivery was still carried out manually. And only in TM-3-12, the package was fully automatic and was produced by the throw of the charging table. This had a positive effect on the rate of fire of the installation: one shot at TM-1-14 took about 40 seconds, at TM-2-12 - 35 seconds, at TM-3-12 - 30 seconds, which allowed up to two shots per minute.



Even before the arrival of the TM-3-12 installations near Leningrad in January 1940, under the city in the strictest secrecy there was a construction of rotary platforms for circular shelling and railway entrances to them. The main method of firing for heavy Soviet railway artillery installations was firing from the base, which was a concrete massif with dimensions of 16x16x3 meters on an iron frame. A conveyor on rails that were embedded in concrete, drove on such a foundation. After that, the supporting cylinder was lowered from the conveyor, which was bolted to a concrete base. Then trolleys rolled out from under the conveyor, and he was already leaning only on the movable base (that same cylinder), as well as two rear rollers. The construction of such a structure was usually carried out for several weeks. At the same time, the installation was transformed from a railroad into an ordinary coastal one and was able to conduct circular shelling, which was especially important when firing at moving targets.

There was an artillery installation and an additional method of shooting - directly from the wheels. Since the horizontal guidance angle of the 305-mm guns on a railway installation did not exceed 5 degrees, the shooting was usually carried out from specially built railway branches, which were called "whiskers". The radius of the data of the whiskers was 500 meters. In order to change the angle of horizontal guidance of the gun by 10 degrees, the TM-3-12 transporter had to go several tens of meters along the line forwards or backwards.

The artillery installation ammunition consisted of both old armor-piercing and high-explosive shells of the 1911 model year, weighing 470 kg, and newer ammunition. The new ammunition that was put into service in the 1928 year, attributed the high-explosive long-range projectile mass 314 kg. The same projectile was used for firing from TM-2-12 artillery mounts. However, in this case, due to the significantly greater length of the gun, the initial velocity of the projectile increased to 950 m / s (against 823,5 m / s in TM-2-12), which allowed to confidently hit targets located at a distance of 29 632 meter.

Tactical and technical characteristics of TM-3-12:

Overall dimensions: length - 33,9 m, width - 2,9 m, height - 4,8 m.
Mass in the stowed position - 340 tons.
Caliber - 305 mm.
Barrel length - 52 caliber, 15,85 m.
Barrel life - 400 shots.
Rate of Fire - 1,8-2 rds / min.
The greatest angle of elevation guns, hail. - + 50 °.
Declination angle, hail. - -2,5 °.
Angle of horizontal guidance, hail. - 5 °.
High-explosive projectile mass - 314 kg.
The initial velocity of the projectile - 950 m / s.
Maximum firing range - 29 632 m.

Information sources:
http://zonwar.ru/artileru/rail_guns/305-mm_tm3-12.html
http://www.museum.ru/C8379
http://северная-линия.рф/2014/09/26/сверхтяжёлая-железнодорожная-артилл
http://www.popmech.ru/design/45843-tsar-pushka-2-sukhoputnyy-linkor
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  1. bionik
    bionik 9 June 2016 06: 30
    +8
    Soviet 305-mm railway artillery mount TM-3-12 at a position in the Leningrad region.
    1. bionik
      bionik 9 June 2016 06: 32
      +3
      Soviet 305-mm railway artillery mount TM-3-12 at a position in the Leningrad region.
    2. Mysmart_balance
      Mysmart_balance 12 June 2016 23: 10
      -1
      http://mysmart-balance.ru/
  2. Mentor
    Mentor 9 June 2016 06: 45
    +19
    The guns for creating this artillery installation were borrowed from old pre-revolutionary stocks that were intended for unfinished battlecruisers of the Izmail type.

    "Ishmaels" were to be armed with 356-mm guns. And their guns were on TM-2-14 transporters. After such a blooper, reading on is no longer interesting. And if we are to write about the "Tsar Cannon" of the USSR, then it is worth describing the 500-mm gun, the barrel of which was ready before the war itself. Article "minus" for superficiality and gross mistakes.
    1. Verdun
      Verdun 9 June 2016 11: 30
      +8
      Quote: Mentor
      Ishmaels "were to be armed with 356-mm guns.
      In this regard, I completely agree with you.
      It’s worth describing a 500-mm gun, the barrel of which was ready before the war itself.
      As far as I know, before the war, not guns were developed, but 500 mm mortars. A concrete-piercing projectile of such a weapon pierced a reinforced concrete arch more than four meters thick. The most powerful gun that fought during the Second World War on the side of the USSR was a 406 mm gun designed for the battleships of the Soviet Union. The first created sample fired from the Artillery range near Leningrad. The projectile weighing 1108 kg, the B-37 gun sent to a range of 45,5 km.
    2. torp
      torp 11 June 2016 17: 42
      +3
      The author has not yet covered the topic that trunks in Hanko were damaged and the firn was removed from the ships stolen by the White Guards in France! The Germans then gave them these trunks to them!
  3. Amurets
    Amurets 9 June 2016 06: 45
    +13
    << Despite this, in the period from June 1942 to July 1943, the Finnish repair detachment managed to restore the TM-3-12 transporters and return them to service. After Finland's withdrawal from the war, under the terms of the concluded truce, all of its trophies that were seized from the Soviet Union were subject to immediate return. In January 1945, the USSR received three TM-3-12 transporters back in a combat-ready state. These 305-mm railway artillery mounts became part of the 1st Guards Marine Railway Krasnoselskaya Red Banner Artillery Brigade. They remained in service until 1961, after which they were sent for conservation. >> For some reason
    the author does not specify that the bodies of the guns, which the Finns used to repair the transporters, were removed by the French from the battleship General Alekseev in Bizerte, when the ship was dismantled for scrap. References: Bragin. road ".
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 19 June 2016 22: 06
      0
      Perhaps I didn’t know or in a hurry I missed, but in general the article turned out to be good
  4. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 9 June 2016 07: 03
    +4
    Power! Railway battleship!hi
  5. kugelblitz
    kugelblitz 9 June 2016 07: 29
    +6
    By the way, for some reason, the article did not show the possibility of firing from a stationary position. It was for them that this artillery system was developed, for full circular fire. Carts rolled out. Hence the external volume compared to German systems, since they were deployed on a special turntable, which greatly complicated and increased the cost of the battery. Our borrowed this machine from the American coastal artillery systems PMV, which, in principle, I think is correct, the simple design of stationary positions, which are not so bad to lose when retreating and, if possible, quickly build new ones.





    1. qwert
      qwert 9 June 2016 12: 43
      0
      Quote: kugelblitz
      By the way, for some reason, the article did not show the possibility of firing from a stationary position. It was for them that this artillery system was developed, for full circular fire. Carts rolled out. Hence the external volume compared to German systems, since they were deployed on a special turntable, which greatly complicated and increased the cost of the battery. Our borrowed this machine from the American coastal artillery systems PMV, which, in principle, I think is correct, the simple design of stationary positions, which are not so bad to lose when retreating and, if possible, quickly build new ones.

      Thank you, but I kept thinking why they are inoda without front carts. awkwardly standing with a bulging bow and stern.
      1. kugelblitz
        kugelblitz 9 June 2016 16: 19
        +3
        Here is a clearer photograph of the guns in stationary positions.



        The Germans had a completely different principle.

    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 9 June 2016 18: 06
      +1
      Quote: kugelblitz

      And this, by the way, is the predecessor of the TM-3-12 - the TM-2-12 gun with the 305/40 gun (spare barrels produced by Vickers, ordered for the last four of the EBR RIF).
  6. qwert
    qwert 9 June 2016 07: 29
    +5
    Quote: Mentor
    "Ishmaels" were to be armed with 356-mm guns. And their guns were on TM-2-14 transporters.
    Well this is a well-known fact. By the way, these guns were the best in their caliber, and oddly enough, they even surpassed those that the British put on the King George-class battleships in the late thirties.
    Quote: Amurets
    For some reason
    the author does not specify that the bodies of the guns, which the Finns used to repair the transporters, were removed by the French from the battleship General Alekseev in Bizerte, when the ship was dismantled for scrap. References: Bragin. road ".
    And I read about it from some French author.
    1. yehat
      yehat 10 June 2016 16: 29
      +1
      Quote: qwert
      By the way, these guns were the best in their caliber, and oddly enough, they even surpassed those that the British put on the King George-class battleships in the late thirties.

      there is nothing strange. fifth George’s guns were made using outdated wire technology, and the Russian guns had different and more reliable ones.
      As for the 356 mm guns for Izmail, no one had created anything better until the end of WWII.
      The Americans put on their battleships the same slightly modified guns, the documentation for which was assigned when tsarist Russia ordered the manufacture of 356mm guns from them. However, in terms of ballistics, they were WORSE than 356mm guns and no wonder - tsarist Russia spent more than 15 years to develop this technology.
  7. Tsoy
    Tsoy 9 June 2016 07: 34
    +2
    mda ... you can't shoot such a thing on sparrows ... thanks for the article.
  8. Old26
    Old26 9 June 2016 08: 26
    +3
    The PLUS article, although there are some inaccuracies, in particular, the mention of the caliber "Ishmael"
    1. UVB
      UVB 9 June 2016 08: 42
      +5
      Quote: Old26
      although there are some inaccuracies

      This is not an inaccuracy, but absolute nonsense about the Ishmael guns, I completely agree with Mentor. These guns were used in the TM-1-14 installations. At the beginning of World War II, the USSR Navy had two three-gun batteries: number 6 in the Far East and number 11 on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland as part of the 1st Guards Naval Railway Artillery Brigade. Throughout the war, the 6th battery did not take direct part in hostilities, while the 11th battery was actively used in the defense of Leningrad, waging counter-battery battles and shelling areas where the Nazi forces were concentrated.
      All six railway installations were decommissioned in the 1952 year.
      1. qwert
        qwert 9 June 2016 12: 44
        0
        Quote: UVB
        All six railway installations were decommissioned in the 1952 year.

        And completely in vain. Oh, this is a passion for Comrade Khrushchev's rockets
  9. nivander
    nivander 9 June 2016 08: 48
    +1
    near Koenigsberg these guns fired at least a thousand shots
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 9 June 2016 10: 25
      +4
      about a thousand sturgeon, of course, it was much smaller (So, the 305 / 40-mm gun withstood 300 shots, 305 / 52-mm 200, and 356 / 52-mm only 150. After the specified number of shots, the gun was removed from the conveyor and sent to the factory ( "Bolshevik" or "Barricades"), where the inner pipe was replaced by an operation, which usually lasted several months), but in general, yes, they fired at Lubava and Koenig, this is a fact
      1. qwert
        qwert 9 June 2016 12: 45
        +1
        Quote: Stas57
        about a thousand sturgeon, of course, it was much smaller (So, the 305 / 40-mm gun withstood 300 shots, 305 / 52-mm 200, and 356 / 52-mm only 150.

        I also wanted to say that with such guns the survivability of the barrel is not very large, so the 1000 shots look very doubtful.
      2. faiver
        faiver 9 June 2016 19: 28
        0
        and the 180mm railway guns have the same procedure for part of the trunks and also for several months or easier?
  10. cap
    cap 9 June 2016 09: 08
    0
    Interesting article. Thank.
  11. Potter
    Potter 9 June 2016 10: 27
    +2
    The guns for these transporters were indeed from pre-revolutionary stocks, but certainly not from Izmail. For battleships of the Sevastopol type, the trunks were made in a double set, for replacement after being shot. Part of these spare trunks and went to the conveyors.
  12. faiver
    faiver 9 June 2016 10: 46
    0
    I wonder how many shots the gun barrel was designed ...
    1. Stas57
      Stas57 9 June 2016 11: 33
      0
      So, the 305 / 40-mm gun withstood 300 shots, 305 / 52-mm 200, and 356 / 52-mm total 150. After the specified number of shots, the gun was removed from the conveyor and sent to the factory ("Bolshevik" or "Barricades"),
      1. faiver
        faiver 9 June 2016 13: 09
        0
        decent smut ...
      2. Amurets
        Amurets 9 June 2016 13: 20
        +1
        Quote: Stas57
        So, the 305 / 40-mm gun withstood 300 shots, 305 / 52-mm 200, and 356 / 52-mm total 150. After the specified number of shots, the gun was removed from the conveyor and sent to the factory ("Bolshevik" or "Barricades"),

        I won’t specify the barrel survivability, it is different for each type of projectile. The long-range projectile of the 1928 model was four times more likely to wear out the barrel. they tried to shoot these shells only in case of emergency. The barrels changed on batteries. Examples: replacing trunks on the 35th battery after the explosion in the 2nd tower on December 17, 1941. Replacing all 4 trunks on the 30th battery, replacing the barrel on the tower battery of Fort Krasnaya Gorka. And I don’t think that transporters from the Far East transported across the country to replace trunks. Yes, trunks were transported to the above plants for repair. Links: http: //www.bellabs.ru/30-35/35.html
        http://wiki.wargaming.net/ru/Navy:305-%D0%BC%D0%BC_%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B
        8%D0%B5_%D0%9E%D0%B1%D1%83%D1%85%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE_%D0%B
        7%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0_%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B7%D1%86%D0%B0_1895_
        %D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0
        Fortress Russia issue number 3 there is all about the 981st battery called Voroshilovskaya. By the way there, on the battery positions are spare trunks after repair.
        1. Monarchist
          Monarchist 19 June 2016 22: 11
          0
          Read Shirokorada there will find a lot of information
  13. Martinez
    Martinez 9 June 2016 13: 29
    +4
    I express my gratitude to the author of the article. I learned a lot of interesting things about the place of service of my grandfather.
    My grandfather, Yulia Panteleimonovich Chernokaltsev, served as the reconnaissance spotter in the 1st Guards Naval Railway of the Krasnoselskaya Red Banner Artillery Brigade.
    Went through both wars - "Winter" and the Great Patriotic War. He was wounded twice, finished the war in Königsberg. He was awarded two Orders of the "Red Star".
  14. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 9 June 2016 13: 53
    0
    Quote: qwert
    Quote: Mentor
    "Ishmaels" were to be armed with 356-mm guns. And their guns were on TM-2-14 transporters.
    Well this is a well-known fact. By the way, these guns were the best in their caliber, and oddly enough, they even surpassed those that the British put on the King George-class battleships in the late thirties.

    Oddly enough, Ishmael's guns were on par with the 14 "King George. But do not forget that with regard to sea armor-piercing shells, the British did not stand still since the 20s. I recommend a very sensible site with information on naval guns from different countries http: / /www.navweaps.com/
  15. 2s1122
    2s1122 9 June 2016 15: 15
    0
    And what is the weight of TNT in the shell?
    1. The comment was deleted.
  16. Mentor
    Mentor 9 June 2016 17: 24
    +3
    [quote = Verdun] [quote = Mentor] Ishmaels "were supposed to arm themselves with 356-mm guns. [/ quote] In this regard, I completely agree with you. [quote] about it is worth describing a 500-mm gun, the barrel of which was ready before the war itself . [/ quote] As far as I know, before the war, not guns were developed, but 500 mm mortars. A concrete-piercing projectile of such a weapon pierced a reinforced concrete vault more than four meters thick. The most powerful cannon that fought during the Second World War on the side of the USSR was a 406 mm gun developed for battleships the Soviet Union. The first created sample fired from the Artillery range near Leningrad. A shell weighing 1108 kg, the B-37 cannon sent to a range of 45,5 km. [/ quote
    No, not mortars, just a howitzer. The landmen ordered. I will try to find my notes on guns of especially high power.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 9 June 2016 18: 38
      +1
      Quote: Mentor
      No, not mortars, just a howitzer. The landmen ordered.

      Like a howitzer. Otherwise, it would not be called TG-1, but TM-1. smile

      EMNIP, then ordered 2 types of installations:
      ТП-1 under 356 mm the gun with a barrel of 54,4 caliber.
      ТГ-1 under 500 mm howitzer with a barrel of 27,7 caliber.

      The developer is the notorious "sharaga" OKB-172.
  17. sgapich
    sgapich 9 June 2016 23: 00
    +2
    Photo from Poklonnaya Gora.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 10 June 2016 15: 54
      0
      Quote: 2s1122
      And what is the weight of TNT in the shell?

      If you are talking about high-explosive shells, then there is more in ours. There is only one BUT - the main projectile used against battleships is an armor-piercing projectile, since the concept of using land mines against heavily armored sea targets has not taken root anywhere. The King's shell is 22kg. TNT in our 20,4 kg. On the energy of the shot br. projectile at King 206,5mJ. Ishmael 200mJ. A significant gain from the Izmail guns was in comparison with English peers 14 "/ 45 (35.6 cm) Marks II, IV and V, where ours confidently led the projectile weight (747,5 kg. Versus 631 kg.) As well as in the energy of the shot (200 mJ. against 170mJ.)
  18. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 10 June 2016 18: 26
    +1
    Quote: yehat

    there is nothing strange. fifth George’s guns were made using outdated wire technology, and the Russian guns had different and more reliable ones.
    As for the 356 mm guns for Izmail, no one had created anything better until the end of WWII.
    The Americans put on their battleships the same slightly modified guns, the documentation for which was assigned when tsarist Russia ordered the manufacture of 356mm guns from them.

    The KD5 guns are not wire, but with a solid monoblock barrel, made by centrifugal casting, into which a thin liner was inserted. And the barrels for the Ishmaels were not produced in America, but in England at the Vickers factories.
  19. General70
    General70 10 June 2016 21: 39
    +1
    I wonder how the supply of ammunition was carried out for this artillery system, in the conditions of the besieged Leningrad? sad hi Thank you in advance for clarification.
    1. The stranger
      The stranger 13 June 2016 03: 31
      +2
      But no way. Shells for such guns are generally numbered, each next slightly larger than the previous one, due to the wear of the liner. They are made as a kit for each barrel, and apparently sent to the positions of the guns along with the barrel. With the latest shell, the barrel goes to the factory for repair.
  20. Lens
    Lens 11 June 2016 08: 15
    +1
    Lord! Thank you for the article. Do not tell me what any online resource on artillery, where you can see a systematic list of art systems of the Second World War of small countries. Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Poland ... A kind of encyclopedia. No matter how I tried to find, either the USSR or Germany, well, the USA and Great Britain. I'd like to improve my level in this matter.
  21. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 13 June 2016 14: 55
    +1
    Quote: Alien
    But no way. Shells for such guns are generally numbered, each next slightly larger than the previous one, due to the wear of the liner. They are made as a kit for each barrel, and apparently sent to the positions of the guns along with the barrel. With the latest shell, the barrel goes to the factory for repair.

    The shells are not numbered and all are maximally the same both in weight and in diameter. The Germans were engaged in numbered shells in their "Paris Cannon". The issue of a drop in the speed of the projectile with wear of the barrel was solved by making appropriate amendments when firing.
    1. The stranger
      The stranger 13 June 2016 17: 30
      0
      Ah, got it. Did not know.
      Thank you!