Hoisting the flag over Iwo Jim. 1945 year.
September 11, 1941 chiefs of staff of the army and fleet General Marshall and Admiral Stark of the United States of America reported to Roosevelt their views on the general production program. The ultimate goal of the war for the United States, the command of the American armed forces outlined "preserving the territorial, economic and ideological integrity of the United States and the rest of the Western Hemisphere, preventing the collapse of the British Empire, preventing further expansion of Japanese territorial dominance, and ultimately creating a balance of power in Europe and Asia. will most certainly ensure political stability in these areas and the future security of the United States. " Declaring the need to be ready "to fight Germany, entering into combat contact with her forces and decisively breaking her will to fight," they proposed to create an army of 215 divisions, of which 61 tank, with a total population of 8,8 million people (Yakovlev N.N. The USA and England in the Second World War // http://historic.ru/books/item/f00/s00/z0000025/st030.shtml).
Meanwhile, “this program could not satisfy the political leaders of the United States, from their point of view, the narrowness of military thinking left an imprint both on the recommended goals and on the way to achieve them. The US monopoly circles openly declared their claims to world domination (the chairman of the US National Industrial Conference, V. Jordan, for example, spoke on December 10 on 1940: “Whatever the outcome of the war, America in international affairs and in all other aspects of life the path of imperialism. The scepter passes to the United States "), and the generals saw the old world after the end of the war, but without a threat to America. Therefore, political goals did not fit.
Militarily, the ruling circles of the United States followed a policy of "balance of power," which provided for the preservation of their own forces, while professional military insisted on a head-on strike - to leave the multi-million American army at the Nazi stronghold. The “victory program” did not receive the government’s approval, only its individual components began to be implemented ”(Yakovlev NN Ibid.). Thus, the final sentence was signed by the Great British Empire, and the Soviet Union would now have to single-handedly smash the main forces of the Nazis in full compliance with Truman's "and let them kill each other as much as possible." America’s aid to the Soviet Union under the Lend-Lease program was largely offset by its economic cooperation with the Nazis.
15 February 1942, the British, having surrendered Singapore, opened the way for the Japanese to the Dutch East-India. After disembarking 14 February to Sumatra, 28 February to Java, and 1 April to the Dutch New Guinea, the Japanese received the oil and other strategic raw materials they needed to continue the war. By suppressing the resistance in the Philippines to 9 in May and expelling the British to 20 in May from Burma, the Japanese secured their communications with East India. The further advance of the Japanese into the south and central Pacific stopped the victories of the American fleet 7-8 in May in the Coral Sea and 4-5 in June at Midway, after which the Japanese and the Americans began a long confrontation in the Pacific.
In the most difficult conditions for Britain, the imperialistic claims of the American monopolies immediately rush “to the decrepit British Empire. ... In July, 1942 in the American press published a memorandum from Downey, a representative of the powerful General Motors concern, entitled "America in the post-war world." Downey developed plans for world domination of American monopolies. “The real war,” he wrote, “is merely the struggle for control of the world ... The British Empire is now as much a part of our country as Cuba, Hawaii, the Philippines, Alaska. Since we are involved in the defense of the British Empire, we must have equal rights in the development of resources on its territory. England now needs a strong partner to help her lead the world. The United States will play this role in the years to come. ”
Of course, Asia and the Pacific Basin, according to the statements of advocates of American imperialism, is only one of the areas of the globe where the British monopolies must retreat, accepting the full dominion of American monopoly capital. Ziff at the time of the end of the war wrote caustically in ... his book: “In the future, the functions of England in the world economy will not be determined by the exaggerated role that this small island played in the past. To the point of absurdity, the disproportionate economic power of England was based on tremendous financial and sea supremacy and will disappear with it. ” And in another place: “After the war, a change in the balance of power will lead to a change in relations between the United States and England. It will be the relationship of a strong, rich and influential Carthage and the dying island fortress of Tire ”(Avarin V. Ya. The Struggle for the Pacific Ocean // http://flot.com/publications/books/shelf/avarin/65.htm).
26 May 1942 in London, the Soviet Union and Great Britain signed an alliance treaty in the war against Hitler Germany and her associates in Europe and on cooperation and mutual assistance after the war. After giving 1942 in June a promise to open a second front, the United States and England did not keep it. The withdrawal of Japanese troops to the border with India intensified at the end of May 1942, Rommel’s actions in North Africa against the British with a long-term goal of reaching India through the Middle East. 21 June, the Germans took Tobruk, 23 - crossed the Egyptian border, and 30 June reached the British defensive line at El Alamein. However, on November 4, after several months of fierce fighting, Rommel was forced to begin a retreat. The American and British troops who landed in Morocco and Algeria on November 8 of the year, and Rommel fell into a trap. In response, the Wehrmacht occupied Corsica and the continental part of southern France.
Hitler's attempt to interrupt the supply of the Red Army and Soviet industry with Baku oil along the Volga River with a simultaneous breakthrough to India through the Caucasus and Iran in the summer and autumn of 1942 ended in a deafening failure in February of 1943, when the fascist German forces near Stalingrad were surrounded and defeated. In May, Rommel's tank army also surrendered in Tunisia in May. In the summer, Soviet troops defeated the Germans at the Kursk Bulge, and the allies from Tunisia landed in Sicily and began advancing deep into the Apennines Peninsula. In August, the fascist regime collapsed in Italy, 1943, and in the fall, after signing an armistice with the allies and declaring war on Germany, Italy was occupied by Wehrmacht troops. In the 1944 year, freeing the occupied areas of the USSR and destroying the backbone of the Wehrmacht, the Soviet Army began its triumphal liberation campaign in Europe.
In July 1944, the United States, having received currency hegemony at the Bretton Woods Conference, finally pushed aside its weakening competitor - Great Britain. Not wanting to allow the liberation of Europe by the Red Army alone, the Allies opened a second front in France. “By April 1945, the Red Army completely controlled the territories of Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and partially - Czechoslovakia. Both Soviet and Anglo-American troops conducted a swift offensive inland into the territory of the Nazi Reich's agonizing. On April 13, Soviet troops occupied Vienna, the capital of Austria; on April 16, they launched an operation to capture Berlin. April 25th historical meeting of American and Soviet troops on the Elbe, in the vicinity of the city of Torgau "(Operation" The Unthinkable "// https://ru.wikipedia.org). On April 30, 1945, during the Soviet assault on Berlin, Hitler, having shot himself with a pistol, committed suicide. On May 9, 1945, Nazi Germany capitulated.
At the time, Hitler made a dizzying political career, rising from a homeless tramp to the sole ruler of Europe. To explain such an unbridled takeoff, the Nazis invented the legend of its truly magical, spellbinding influence on people. In reality, the craven Hitler, with his hysterical nature, hid from troubles and repeatedly tried to shoot himself in attacks of neurasthenia - after an unsuccessful beer putsch, the suicide of his niece Gela Raubal, and the failed 1932 elections of the year. This ungainly Austrian failed artist, avoiding women and laughter at a vegetarian, who started the ascent of political Olympus by an officer's informant was obviously a slave, but not leading.
Even superficially, he looked like a servant. In the spring of 1923, in Soviet times, Saxony existed an order to arrest Hitler, and when a communist police detachment stopped a Ganfshtengl car in which Hitler was located, the owner saved his protege by passing him off as his lackey. An attempt to introduce Hitler into the German beau monde always failed - if I am not mistaken, the absurd Hitler dressed in his tuxedo was confused with the waiter. And even the coming of Hitler to power has changed little. In particular, during the visit of the arrogant lord Halifax to Berlin, Hitler wished to honor the distinguished guest and personally meet him, so Halifax, to the general horror, took the Fuhrer of the German nation for a livery and tried to give him a coat and hat.
According to Joachim Fest, “all the descriptions of this time that we have are a mixed picture of his eccentric and clumsy features; in the presence of people with a reputation, Hitler felt constrained, withdrawn and not devoid of servility. At one of the conversations with Ludendorff, which took place at that time, after each phrase of the general he lifted himself from his chair to respectfully say: “Yes, Your Excellency!” Or “I agree with you, Your Excellency!”. This insecurity, which tormented his sense of insecurity [the outsider] in bourgeois society, remained with him for a long time. According to the available evidence, he tried his best to draw attention to himself - he came late, his bouquets were larger, and the bows were deeper than usual; periods of gloomy silence were alternated with choleric torrents. his voice was harsh, and he also spoke about insignificant things with passion. ...
The fear of being humiliated in society, clearly pursuing him, reflected the irreparably lost connection of the former occupant of the doss-house with bourgeois society. And in his clothes the smell of a male hostel was long and inescapable. When Pfefern von Salomon, who later became the leader of his assault detachments, met him for the first time, Hitler had an old business card, yellow leather shoes and a backpack behind him. The commander of the Volunteer Detachment was so confused that he even refused to meet him. Ganfshtengl recalled that Hitler wore a purple shirt, a brown vest and a bright red tie to his blue suit, and a protruding rear pocket betrayed the presence of automatic weapons. Only in time did Hitler learn to define his style, which corresponded to his idea of the great tribune of the people, up to his adventurous tunic. And this picture also betrays his deep insecurity, combining in himself frankly striking elements and quotations from that long-standing vision on the theme “Rienzi”, from Al-Capone and General Ludendorff ”(Fest I. Hitler. Biography. Path up // Per. A.A.Felorova, NS Letnevoy, AMAndronova (German: Veche, 2006. - C. 220 — 222).
It must be said that at first the German nationalists had two leaders — one war hero, Erich Ludendorff, the other an unknown corporal, who did not have German citizenship or livelihood. During the shooting of the beer putsch, Ludendorff walked through the police cordons, who did not dare to shoot at the war hero, while Hitler ran to his American curator's house and, before Ganfshtengl's wife took the gun from him, tried to shoot himself. From prison, Hitler again went straight to Puci. Only such a willing to defend the interests of their patrons until the last German, completely dependent on them, the obligated non-dependent leader of the German Nazis to all of them, who had a penny of his own life, and the other half made him the Americans.
Hitler was by no means a “self-made person”, that is, a person who, through hard work, achieved success in life on his own. The Americans diligently and sympathetically nurtured the world famous Hitler - a tyrant, dictator, evil genius, the very embodiment of evil. Like Hanfstaengl, Allen Dulles continued to oversee the Nazis throughout the war. According to him, he saved Prescott Bush, the father of the 41st and grandfather of the 43rd US President, from punishment, when in 1942, together with Roland Harriman, the brother of the famous financier and diplomat Averell Harriman, the US ambassador to the USSR from 1942 to 1946, was convicted of links with the Nazis, who laundered their assets in the Union Banking Corporation through the investment company Brown Brothers Harriman & Co, and in 1944 he conducted separate negotiations with the Nazis.
In the Pacific, in 1943, the Americans captured the Solomon Islands, landed in New Guinea and drove the Japanese out of the Aleutian Islands. In Tehran in December 1943, Stalin agreed in principle to the Allies to help in the war with Japan. In 1944, the Americans captured the Marshall, Caroline, Mariana Islands and landed in the Philippines, and the British launched an offensive in central Burma. “By agreeing with England on themselves“ responsibility ”for military operations in the Pacific, the United States government believed that this ocean thereby became the sphere of exclusively American influence and domination.
The British representatives received from the American headquarters only the most minimal information about American strategic operations in the Pacific. The further progress was made in developing plans for military operations against Japan proper, the more decisively the American generals prevented the British from participating in the drafting of these plans and, in particular, from participating in leadership in the course of their intended implementation. The Americans sought to prevent the return of the English fleet to the Pacific Ocean. Eldridge is well aware of these issues: “The strategy in the Pacific was implemented by the United States in such a way that England did not take any part in plans to seize the Japanese islands. It is well known that the US military fleet under no circumstances agreed to the presence of the English fleet in the Pacific Ocean. ”
For some time, the American fleet had a real monopoly on the Pacific theater of war. The British were limited to the Indian Ocean and did not appear even off the coast of Australia. However, the complete removal of British ships from Pacific waters turned out to be the same impracticable dream of the American admirals as the wishes of the most aggressive American imperialists for the immediate transformation of Australia into the 49 state of the United States of America. At the end of 1944, the London government, having increased its naval forces in the Indian Ocean, singled out a squadron under the command of Admiral Frazer "to help" Americans in the Pacific. The base of this squadron was assigned to Australia. Formally, the squadron was supposed to operate under the American high command.
This meant that the London government did not intend to give up without a struggle and bargaining the entire Pacific basin to the monopoly of the United States and that it also intended to counter the transformation of Australia into the 49 state of the United States. The return of the English fleet to the Pacific at the end of 1944, however, turned out to be only symbolic. After Japan’s capitulation, the US government and the commander of the American occupation forces in Japan, General MacArthur, took the line to completely remove not only England, but also Australia and other allies from participating in the occupation policy in Japan. With no less sharpness than on the issues of strategy in the Pacific, Anglo-American differences arose in connection with waging war in South-East and South Asia (V.Ya. Avarin. The Fight for the Pacific Ocean // http://flot.com /publications/books/shelf/avarin/63.htm).
In February, 1945 of the year in Yalta, an agreement was signed, under which the USSR pledged, through the 2-3 month, after Germany’s surrender, to enter the war with Japan. 5 April 1945, the Soviet Union announced to Japan the denunciation of the neutrality pact. 12 April, Roosevelt died. His successor was Vice President Harry Truman. 27 April, the USSR began to develop a plan for war with Japan, and from May to June 1945 relocated Soviet units from the West to the East. From 25 April to 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, 50 representatives of the anti-Hitler coalition states discussed the creation of a post-war international security organization. The conference defined the goals, principles, structure and authorized representatives of the United Nations, signed the UN Charter.
In March, 1945, the Americans captured Iwo Jima, in June, Okinawa, in July, the Philippines, and the British liberated Burma’s capital, Rangoon, in May. On July 12, the Japanese ambassador to Moscow addressed the USSR with a request for mediation in peace negotiations. 13 July he was told that the answer can not be given in connection with the departure of Stalin and Molotov in Potsdam. On July 26, the United States, the United Kingdom and China are at war with Japan, formally formulated in the Potsdam Declaration the terms of Japan’s surrender, which Japan refused to accept. “It was completely obvious that the Allies could not quickly force Japan to surrender on their own. ... They quite rightly recognized that ... a war without the entry of the Soviet Union into it would last no less than 18 months after the defeat of Germany and would require huge sacrifices. As it is known, the plans of the invasion of Japan developed at that time provided for the landing of the 6 American Army and the Marine Corps on the island of Kyushu in November 1945, and the 8 and 10 armies on the island of Honshu (Hondo) - in March 1946. "(Vasilevsky, A.M. A Case of Life. - M .: Politizdat, 1973. - C. 507).
During the Potsdam Conference, Stalin confirmed that he would declare “Japan a war exactly three months after the surrender of Germany”. 27 July in the Soviet Union was completed working out all the necessary directives, and 28 July they were approved by the Stake. 6 August United States launched a nuclear attack on Hiroshima. 8 August USSR declared the Japanese ambassador to join the Potsdam Declaration and declared war on Japan. At dawn on 9 August, the Soviet Union launched hostilities in Manchuria, and the United States launched a second nuclear strike on Nagasaki. 10 August, Japan officially declared its readiness to accept the Potsdam terms of surrender with the reservation to preserve the structure of imperial power in the country. 11 August, the US rejected the Japanese amendment, insisting on the formula of the Potsdam Declaration. 14 August Japan officially accepted the conditions of unconditional surrender and informed the allies of this.
“Since 19 in August, Japanese forces almost everywhere began to capitulate. ... By the end of August, the disarmament of the Kwantung Army and other enemy forces stationed in Manchuria and North Korea was completely completed. The operations to liberate South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands were successfully completed. The military campaign of the Armed Forces of the USSR in the Far East was crowned with a brilliant victory "(Vasilevsky, AM A Matter of Life. Decree. Op. - S. 525). “The defeat of the Kwantung Army and the loss of the military-economic bases in China and Korea deprived Japan of real strength and ability to continue the war. 2 September 1945 representatives of the Japanese government were forced to sign an act of unconditional surrender before the winners, allies of the anti-Hitler coalition.
The Second World War ended "(Russia and the USSR in the wars of the 20th century. Loss of armed forces. Statistical research / Under the general editorship of Candidate of Military Sciences, Professor of the Academy of Military Sciences, Colonel-General G. F. Krivosheev. - M .: OLMA-Press, 2001 // http://www.rus-sky.com/history/library/w/w06.htm#_Toc536603408). In its course, more than 20 million soldiers and up to 50 million civilians died. The Soviet Union suffered the greatest losses - 26 million of its citizens. Poland lost 6 million, Yugoslavia and Ethiopia lost 1 million. Southeast Asian countries were seriously affected - China, including victims of the civil war, lost 15,5 million, Indonesia 4 million, India 3 million, French Indochina 2 million ., Burma and the Philippines on 1 million
During the war, the British monopolies made huge profits and, nevertheless, noticeably lost their positions in comparison with the American ones, because they grabbed much more and at the same time almost did not suffer any losses. The expenses of England in the Second World War “in constant prices more than 3 times exceeded its expenses in the First World War. Its public debt has grown almost 3 times during the war. ... The British bourgeoisie lost at least half of their capital invested outside the UK. The national wealth of Britain as a whole during the war decreased by approximately 7,5 billion f. Art. Only before 1943 were English securities sold for 875 million f. Art., gold and currency - on 650 million. On the eve of the First World War 50% of all foreign investments of capitalist countries belonged to England and before the Second World War there was still about 30% of these investments in the hands of the British, no more than 20% of all long-term foreign investments.
Greatly weakened were the economic position of England in her empire. The share of England in Canadian imports decreased from 1938 to 1945 from 15 to 9%, in the import of Australia - from 42 to 37%, in the import of New Zealand - from 60 to 37%. In the import of India from 1938 / 39 to 1945 / 46, the share of the USA increased from 7,4 to 28%, in the export of India - from 8,3 to 25,6%. There was a considerable military debt of England to the dominions and colonies. By the end of the war, this debt reached almost 3 billion f. Art., and about 40% of this debt fell on India. Although England did not pay her military debt, but, of course, the economic position of British imperialism in the colonies and dominions was not strengthened as a result of this debt ”(Avarin V.Ya. Fight for the Pacific Ocean // http://flot.com/publications/ books / shelf / avarin / 65.htm).
At the same time, the national wealth of the United States concentrated in the hands of a few rich people during the Second World War not only “did not diminish, but even increased significantly due to the relatively small participation of this country in hostilities, as well as due to the fact that war did not spread to American territories . The US financial oligarchy has profited during the war in the supply of arms, on the plunder of other countries; even more than during World War I, she became a creditor of other nations. England owes much to her. US foreign investment without the old military debt, which, according to the estimates of the US Treasury Department, in 1939, 11,4 billion, increased by 1943, to 13,5 billion, and in 1945, amounted to 17,3 billion. At the same time, direct investment The United States grew to 54% versus 47% in 1939. Only in England alone, direct American investments exceeded half a billion dollars ”(Avarin V.Ya. Ibid.).
“World War II helped the United States cope with the Great Depression and seize economic leadership. At a time when Europe and Asia were ravaged by war, the United States, on the contrary, had economic growth — GDP more than doubled. The number of industrial enterprises built during this period was over 12 600, the share of the United States in the global manufacturing industry increased 4,3 times. For six years, profits of overseas corporations reached 116,8 billion dollars "(Novikov V. The price tag for a nuclear suitcase // http://www.vpk-news.ru/articles/29011). “During the ... war, the US was increasingly intensified at the expense of England. In particular, they almost completely ousted their British competitors from the markets of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The American financial oligarchy could state that, on the whole, the balance of power between British and American imperialism changed dramatically compared with the pre-war in favor of the United States. England, despite some strengthening of its positions by the end of the war, was nevertheless weakened economically, politically, and militarily ”(Avarin V.Ya. Ibid.).
The British lords and capitalists began to master the new role of petitioners in Wall Street reception magnates. Following the loss of leadership, economic England had to humbly acknowledge the loss of political leadership. 5 March 1946, Winston Churchill, in the presence of Truman in Fulton (Missouri, USA), essentially admitted that America categorically disagreed with Britain’s continuation of its prewar status as a dominant superpower after the First World War by the League of Nations and started the struggle for its sole power over the whole world has achieved, as a result of the Second World War, the position of the dominant superpower at the head of the UN. And now Britain, resigned to the loss of its former domination, refuses claims to its past hegemony, agrees with its subordinate, secondary position and becomes the closest satellite of the Americans. That not only did not guarantee her the preservation of her empire, but, on the contrary, only contributed to her gaining dominions and colonies of independence.
In this way, “Roosevelt got his way. In 1945, Germany and Japan lay in ruins. France, defeated by Hitler, lost credibility. Britain became the youngest partner of its former colony. The Soviet Union suffered terrible losses. And the United States alone possessed nuclear weapons, indicatively used against Japan. But the defeat of the Axis countries was not the last round of the struggle for world domination ”(How Roosevelt provoked the Japanese attack // www.wars20century.ru/publ/10-1-0-22). America became the first among equals: the Great British Empire, Europe and the Soviet Union. Before hegemony, full of one-man dominance over the whole world, she was still very far away. To begin with, the Americans needed to destroy their closest geopolitical competitors, under the guise of fighting the USSR, finally crushing Britain and absorbing Europe.