Military Review

“Harriers” in battle: Falklands conflict 1982 (part of 7)

69



On this day, the Argentinean command decided to make maximum efforts in order to turn the tide of the fighting. The point was, of course, not only and not so much in the desire to celebrate Independence Day, but that the British had been unloading for four days, and soon the main forces of the landing along with the supplies would be on the shore, and then trying to inflict unacceptable damage on the British more difficult. But besides this, the Argentines finally groped for the location of the British aircraft carriers and were preparing to strike at them.

The first blow to the transports was to be inflicted by the 4 Skyhawk, which rose into the air around 08.00 in the morning. Two of them (traditionally) for technical reasons returned to the airfield, the remaining two instrument-wise discovered the British ship and launched an attack on it, but ... this turned out to be the hospital ship Uganda. To the credit of the Argentine pilots, in the few seconds remaining with them from the moment of visual detection of the target, they were able to figure out what their target is and refrain from striking. On departure, one Skyhock was shot down by the Sea Dart destroyer Coventry - the British opened an account.

Four Daggers appeared over the islands two hours after the events described above - Falkland shrouded in thick fog, so the Argentines could not find the ships of the British, but the British did not risk lifting their aircraft into the air. The Daggers returned, and after another hour and a half, the four Skyhocks arrived - they were able to find the enemy by attacking the amphibious ship dock, the Fireless, and the frigate The Evenger, which was covering it. The British shot down the Skyhawk, which aimed at the Fairless, but it’s not clear how: either the calculation of the C Cat missile system from the Yarmouth frigate (according to British data), or the Rapier missile system from the ground worked well (in Argentine). The three remaining Skyhawks attacked the Evenger, luckily for the British, unsuccessfully. But the ubiquitous “Coventry” re-used its “Sea Dart” as intended, knocking down the Skyhawk of the group commander when he gained altitude after the attack. Another Skyhawk was badly damaged, but still the surviving pair of aircraft was able to return to the continent.

The Coventry / Broadsword pair annoyed the Argentines very much the day before - their aviation suffered a lot from the Sea Harriers, which were directed by Coventry, and now the long-range Sea Dart has come into play. Therefore, it is not surprising that they were specifically designated as the target for the subsequent strike: perhaps the Argentines hoped that by destroying the British RLD patrol, it would become easier for their strike groups to attack transports? Be that as it may, Coventry eavesdropped on the conversations of Argentine pilots (there was a man who spoke Spanish among the crew) and knew about the impending strike. Even the composition of the strike group allocated for the destruction of Coventry was not a secret for the British - 6 Skyhawks. But from the six that rose into the air, two Skyhawks returned for technical reasons, so that only four aircraft struck.

However, this time the Argentines resorted to an interesting innovation - realizing that the tactics “jumped out of the mountains and tried to drown someone” did not work too well, they decided to use external target designation for targeting the Skyhawks group attacking Coventry. The Argentines used as a reconnaissance and control aircraft ... a mobilized passenger airliner, the Liar Jet 35A-L. Given the fact that the aircraft of this type did not have any military equipment, having only "native" civilian avionics equipment, their use did not look too sophisticated form of suicide crews. But in speed, these airliners were superior to the British "Harriers", so if necessary, Liar Jets could avoid interception. Of course, they were threatened with Sea Darts, but there was a hope of finding the British first and not putting themselves in jeopardy of the only long-range British air defense system. Of course, the use of a civilian airliner as an Airborne Aeronautical Plane could only be done in a desperate situation, but this was what the Argentines had. And, as it is not surprising, an airliner as a control point for aviation turned out to be preferable to a modern destroyer, stuffed with powerful radars and other combat electronics.



All four Skyhawks pointedly walked at a medium height, so the British found them about 100 miles from San Carlos. Naturally, Sea Harriers received target designation and rushed to intercept, but as soon as Liar Jet 35A-L considered that the British were close enough, Skyhawks abruptly went down. Thus, the strike group disappeared from the screens of the radars of British ships, and they could no longer direct the Sea Harriers, and the British pilots had not yet managed to detect the Argentines, and now they had little chance of finding Skyhawks. At the same time, the position of the British ships, although it allowed to successfully perform the functions of aircraft operators, was not optimal from the point of view of its own air defense - they could be approached imperceptibly from the islands. That is what the Argentine pilots did, "Liar Jet 35A-L" gave them the most important thing - the location of the British, and only to lay a suitable route was a matter of technology.

The first couple of Skyhawks were spotted by the British in the Coventry destroyer zone and immediately called off Sea Harriers, fearing “friendly fire”. This turned out to be a mistake: the radar station, which was responsible for targeting the Sea Dart anti-aircraft missiles, once again failed to capture low-flying targets, and the “Sea Wolf” of the frigate “Broadsward”, unexpectedly for its operators, portrayed Buridan's ass. The OMS of the complex captured both targets, but the software could not decide which of them was a priority. Of course, from the point of view of “artificial intelligence”, it could not have been a question of letting this responsible choice be made to despicable people ... As a result, the attack of the first pair of Skyhocks reflected only artillery and several sailors who were shooting at weapons. This did not stop the Argentines.

Of the four bombs, three missed the target, but the fourth still landed in the stern of the Broadsworth. And, of course, did not explode. Nevertheless, the flight deck (helicopter) was badly damaged, a fire started and water began to enter the ship - the bomb broke the board just a meter above the waterline. But the emergency party worked perfectly and the frigate did not lose its combat capability.

"Coventry" turned to go to the rescue of "Broadsward", but then the second deuce of "Skyhawks" appeared, and due to the turnaround of the destroyer, they came from the stern, from the sector where the Sea Dart air defense system could not reach them. And here the commander of "Coventry" made quite understandable, but became a fatal mistake for his ship. In an effort to attack the Argentines with his air defense missile system, he turned around again, not taking into account that as a result of this maneuver, his destroyer closes the line of fire for the anti-aircraft gunners at Broadsworth. But by this time, the ZRK’s calculations had already sorted out on a software error, took Skyhawks to escort and were ready to transmit to the Argentine pilots the exact coordinates of the wintering sites of the crayfish ... The Sea Dart destroyer did launch the missiles, both of them did not hit, after which the complex (and I want to write: “from grief”) failed. The Coventry was hit by three bombs of the leading Skyhawk of First Lieutenant M. Velasco, the second plane refused the mechanism of the bombers and its pilot could not attack the British. But Velasco's “gifts” were enough for the British ship, all three bombs exploded and after just 20 minutes after the Coventry attack sank.

“Harriers” in battle: Falklands conflict 1982 (part of 7)


The radar patrol of the British turned out to be broken. Surprisingly, but two British ships with experienced crews and the newest air defense systems, supported by at least two Sea Harriers, were completely defeated by four Skyhawks operated from a passenger liner. All Argentine aircraft returned home.

This fiasco was a heavy blow to Rear Admiral Woodworth. Here is how he describes this episode:

Even after a few years, looking back, I imagine what a terrible moment it was for me. One of those moments when the commander has no one to turn to because of the fear of betraying his insecurity or shaken willpower. But to myself, I thought: “Lord! Where are we? Are we actually losing? ”

This was, without a doubt, the most difficult moment for me in the whole operation. I returned to my cabin in order to spend some time alone with myself. He opened the notebook and made a few comments.

1. 42 / 22 combination does not work.
2. "Sea Dart" is practically useless against low-flying targets.
3. "Sea Wolfe" is unreliable.
4. Surface ships, in order to survive on the high seas, must have long-range air detection and air cover in a threatened direction.
5. We must conduct more rigorous and comprehensive tests of air defense systems.
6. Strive to act at night or in bad weather.
7. Now they must try to strike at the aircraft carriers!


Premonition did not deceive the British commander. At that moment, when he wrote these lines, a pair of “Super Etandars” flew to him with two of the three remaining air-based RCCs from the Argentines.

Interestingly, the location of the British aircraft carriers, which were approximately 80 miles from Stanley, revealed ground-based radar. Of course, the curvature of the globe did not allow the Argentines to detect a British compound, but they had the opportunity to observe the flights of “Sea Harriers”, taking off from the deck and returning from combat duty. Having determined the place where British aircraft go down when returning and gain altitude during take-off, the Argentines thereby calculated the position of Invincible and Hermes. Guided by these data, the Super Endandar pair went on a raid, and the position of the British aircraft carrier group was determined with quite acceptable accuracy - the deviation of the actual position of the ships from the calculated one was approximately 80 km. Super Etandara discovered English ships led by the aircraft carrier Hermes about 18.30 from a distance of about 40 miles. True, some sources indicate that the C-130 “Hercules” performed targeting to the target, but the author does not have accurate data on this score.

Be that as it may, the British did not know about the attack at the last moment. The radio intelligence service of the Exeter destroyer did not let down, and the radiation of the Agave - Super Etandard radar was detected and identified. Soon, the Argentine aircraft "saw" the radar of the frigate "Embuxade" and almost immediately - the radar of the frigate "Brilliant". "Super Etandara" launched both "Execetes" from a distance of 48 km. The British claim that the launch was made on the ship closest to the Argentines, which became the frigate "Embuksade", the Argentines - that on the largest "flare" on the screen of the Agave, i.e. most likely on the aircraft carrier "Hermes", but more on that later.

Very little time passed between the discovery of the Argentines and the launch of their missiles, but here there is a lot of confusion in the sources - who writes about 4's, who about 6 minutes, Rear Admiral Woodworth points out that from the moment the Agave was turned on British ships radar took just over a minute, but indicates that the “Super Etandars” made a slide in 18.30, and launched missiles in 18.38, which clearly contradicts his own statement. Apparently, the truth is that the people at that moment did not have time to look at the clock, everything was decided by seconds, so no one kept accurate timing. Nevertheless, the British had at least a couple of minutes - although the “Sea Harriers” again did not have enough time to intercept the Argentine attack aircraft, but the British managed to lift into the sky helicopters (!) Equipped with jamming systems.

It is noteworthy that the interference is, it seems, the only thing that the British managed to meet the attack of the Argentines. Sources do not mention that someone had time to fire attacking planes or "Exosets" with anti-aircraft missiles, or at least with artillery. But in the order was "Brilliant", equipped with the latest air defense systems "Sea Wolf". The following is well known: the “Exocets” “went astray” and could not hit the warships of the British, but turned on the “Atlantic Conveyor” not equipped with jamming systems. He caught fire, and eventually sank, carrying to the bottom of the Atlantic a bunch of payloads - the ground runway for the Harrier, a lot of aviation ammunition and either 10 or 9 helicopters. However, Rear Admiral Woodworth points out in his memoirs that eight Atlantic Conveyor helicopters died, because two out of ten helicopters that were on board managed to fly overland before the attack. However, the 10 figure is considered canonical - six Wessex, three Chinook and one Lynx. The loss of helicopters was a very hard blow for the British - in the clinical off-road conditions of the Falkland Islands, it was the helicopters that were to become the main transport of the British marines, giving them the much-needed mobility in modern combat.

An interesting point is that when you read most of the review articles, you come to the conclusion that a group of British warships, having placed obstacles, completely avoided danger, both the Exoceta went "into milk", and there, by an unfortunate coincidence, the Atlantic Conveyor appeared. But Rear Admiral Woodworth writes about this:

“He (“ Atlantic Conveyor ”- author's note) was on the line between Hermes and Embuscade.” If the "Conveyor" had the installation for setting the LOC and took away the missiles from themselves, then they could go straight to the aircraft carrier. It is unknown if we could deceive them again then ... ”


Those. it turns out that "Atlantic" actually covered "Hermes"! And now let's remember something else - the Argentines reported that they attacked the largest ship of the British. And here it becomes quite interesting, because this largest ship could be either the Atlantic Conveyor or the Hermes, and the Hermes was directly behind the Atlantic. Of course, if the goal of the Argentines was the Embuxade, then it would have been possible to talk about the success of the interference delivered by the British ships. But if we assume that the Argentines shot at the "Atlantic" or "Hermes", then it turns out that the British interference was virtually useless! This, of course, is nothing more than a hypothesis, but it perfectly explains why the British, refusing the Argentines in common sense, insist that the target of the attack was precisely the frigate.

In general, the results of Argentina's Independence Day leave a double impression. Despite the fact that the Argentinean command tried to deliver the strongest air strike, the result achieved is not at all impressive - there are only 20 strike sorties. But the innovations in tactics (an airliner as AWACS) and the fact that the Argentines were finally able to establish the location of the British carrier group led them to great tactical success. On Independence Day of Argentina, the British lost a type 42 destroyer and a container ship with a mass of military cargo. Nevertheless, May 25 is the day when the Argentine aviation acknowledged their loss, because the British did not consider the damage they received as excessive, but the Argentines no longer expected to “convince” the British to interrupt the operation, causing unacceptable damage to them naval grouping. From now on, the Argentine command preferred to concentrate the forces of their aircraft on land targets, which, however, does not mean that they completely abandoned attacks on the ships of the KVMF.

A detailed analysis of subsequent fights will not add anything to the above. At the final stage of the conflict, the following tasks could be expected from British aviation:

1. Provision of air defense of ground forces and ships of KVMF.
2. The destruction of Argentine aviation, based on the Falkland Islands and the air bases on which it is based.
3. Interruption of the "air bridge" - supply of Argentine troops by air from the continent.
4. Supporting the actions of the ground forces by attacking the positions of the Argentine forces



In total, from May 26 until the very end of the war, Argentina’s strike aircraft carried out 100 airplanes, while the ground positions and British ships were attacked 17 once, once again by “Pucara” attacked the air target (the British Scout helicopter was shot down). The Sea Harriers were able to thwart one attack of the Argentines, failing to shoot down a single enemy plane, in another case, the British VTOL aircraft arrived at the moment when 4 Skyhawk attacked the landing craft LCU F4. As a result, the boat was sunk along with a load of equipment for the 5-th infantry brigade, 6 people were killed, but three Skyhawks were shot down by VTOL aircraft. Thus, in the part of air defense support, the British carrier-based aircraft achieved impressive “success” - 2 interception for 18 attacks (11,1%), with only one attack from 18 repelled (5,55%).

Of course, the destruction of the Argentine airspace control system would have played an important role in providing British air defenses - in this case, the airplanes from the continental air bases lost target designation from the ground, but the Argentine radars were not too tough. As a result, the task of their destruction had to be entrusted to the "Volcanoes" of the Royal Air Force, as they were able to use Shrike anti-radar missiles. On June 1, the BlackBank 5 suffered a setback, but the 3 of June, during the BlackBack 6, the main radar of the Argentine air defense system was disabled.

The British aircraft did not succeed in destroying the light attack aircraft of the “Pukar” and the training “Ayrmachi”, because the bad weather and ground defense forces did it for them. For example, on the day when the British Scout was shot down from two Pukar, only one returned to the airfield, the second attack aircraft crashed, landing in a zone of low clouds. In the last operation of the light air forces of the Falkland Islands, undertaken by two Airmachi and two Pukar, one Airmachi was shot down from Bloupe Man-portable air defense systems, one attack aircraft was destroyed by anti-aircraft artillery fire, and the second received such damage that although he managed to return to the airfield, he could no longer fight.

The main runway of the Malvinas Islands (Port Stanley airfield) functioned until the end of the war; neither British deck aircraft, nor Volcanoes could do anything about this concrete road. The last time it was bombed on the night of June 12 (“Black Buck-7”), and in the evening of the same day, the last cargo Hercules arrived in Stanley. Surprisingly, the Argentine “air bridge” also functioned almost to the very end. The only C-130 that managed to destroy C Sea Harriers during the entire war (this happened on June 1) attempted to conduct intelligence activities.

And finally, ground operations. In essence, only one thing can be said about “Harriers”: “They were there”. Here, for example, what A. Zabolotny writes in the article “Harrier” is the Falklands bird of prey ”:

"In general, the campaign only" Sea Harriers "800-th AE dropped forty-two 1000-pound bombs and 21 cassette BL.755, and" Harriers "1-th squadron - 150 bombs, of which 4 managed.


800-I squadron participated in the Falkland conflict from the very beginning, it dropped 63 bombs and tapes. Is it a lot or a little? For example, on May 29, during one, but massive, raid, British carrier-based aircraft dropped 27 time bombs on the Stanley airfield, which then exploded for four hours. The next day, the British “Harriers” four times (on 09.30; 10.30; 12.25 and 14.40) bombed the unfortunate airfield, and during these attacks dropped more 27 bombs - again, without much effect. Thus, from 1 on May to 14 in June, when the Argentine garrison capitulated 800-i AE dropped all on 9 bombs more than it was dumped on the Stanley airfield in two days of not too intensive work (29 in May - just one hit) . It is difficult to call it a great achievement.

It is also worth remembering that in total in the conflict zone there were aircraft of five air squadrons - 800-I, 801-I, 809-I, 899-I squadron of the Navy and 1-I squadron of the Air Force, the latter being equipped with “GR.3 Harriers”, which were not were able to conduct air combat and were used exclusively for ground attack. What, apparently, explains the relatively high consumption of aerial bombs - 150 pieces. Airplanes of the remaining squadrons are unlikely to have “thrown” bombs more than 800-AE. And it must be borne in mind that a significant part of the bombing was “pulled” by the airfields of Gus Green (Condor base) and Port Stanley (Malvinas Islands), which the British attacked as regularly as they were unsuccessful.

Of course, something fell to the land forces of Argentina, and this “something”, of course, added anxiety to the Argentines, but on the whole the “Harriers” did not play any significant role in ground battles. The most important factors determining the success of the British landing were:

1. Powerful and long-range artillery of the British ground forces, surpassing that of the Argentines.
2. Extensive use of the Milan “ATGM” to suppress Argentine gun emplacements.
3. Night vision devices, which gave the British an invaluable advantage in night battles, against Argentines not equipped with such means.
4. Artillery support ships.
5. Fortitude British infantry.

According to paragraph 5, I would like to note that during the battles for Gus Green, Darwin and Port Stanley, the British repeatedly engaged in hand-to-hand combat, and the number of Argentines killed or wounded with a bayonet is a noticeable magnitude. For example, as a result of the fighting for the height of Longdon (according to D. Tatarkov, “The conflict in the South Atlantic: The Falklands war of 1982”):

"The Argentines only lost 31 people killed, and many of them died from their bayonet wounds."


Perhaps the only notable achievement of the British VTOL for the support of the troops was the destruction of the Argentinean 28 air defense battery in May, which was located at the forefront of the Argentinean forces defending Goose Green. The guns were located just 180 meters from the British infantry, but three “Harriers” from “Hermes” were able to deliver a jewelry punch without hitting their own. By this time, the battle was already 36 hours and the parties were in a state of unstable equilibrium, and the destroyed battery was the basis of the firepower of the Argentines defending here. Its destruction tipped the scales on the side of the British, soon the Argentine commanders sent their parliamentarians to discuss the terms of the cease-fire. After the negotiations, which lasted all night, the Argentine troops, who defended Gus Green, capitulated.

In general, during this period, the combat activities of carrier-based aviation by the British are not impressive. However, during the period of May 26 - June 14, 5 Xi Harriers and GR.3 Harriers were lost.



27 in May, two “Harrier GR.3” from the aircraft carrier “Hermes” attacked the position of the 105-mm battery of the Argentines, covering Gus Green. Despite the target designation of the ground gunner (or maybe, on the contrary, “thanks” to him?), The target failed to hit either the first or the second approach. Well, on the third run, "Harrier" by Lieutenant Iyveson was so damaged by shells of 35-mm rigs that the pilot was forced to eject.

"Sea Harrier" died on the day of the already-mentioned bombing of the Stanley airfield on May 29. The Argentines claim that the plane was shot down by the Roland air defense system, while the British insist that the Harrier with the tail number ZA-174 fell from the flight deck of Invincible at the time of the turn and the accompanying roll.

30 in May “Harrier GR.3” in the height area Wall got hit by an 35-mm projectile, as a result of which it began to quickly lose fuel. Pilot D.Puk tried to bring the plane to the aircraft carrier, but he did not succeed - the plane fell into the sea in 30 miles from the escape deck.

1 June two “Sea Harrier” were caught in an Argentine ambush: anti-aircraft artillery fired at them near the coast, which forced the pilots to gain altitude and was immediately hit by Lt. Mortimer’s machine and was hit by a Roland missile system. The pilot spent several hours on a rescue raft a few kilometers from the coastline, but was rescued.

June 8 “Harrier GR.3” for technical reasons (officially: “loss of thrust from landing approach) fell near the airfield of San Carlos. Damage was such that the aircraft could not be restored.

Thus, it can be stated that in spite of a certain, and, in general, non-zero utility of VTOL aircraft, they could not cope with any task that the British aircraft faced in the Falkland conflict. On this one could finish the description of the battles and proceed to the conclusions, but still the story of the 1982 conflict of the year will be incomplete without mentioning the two attacks of Argentine aviation on British ships.

The destruction of the Atlantic Conveyor and the death of ten (or still eight?) Transport helicopters led to very far-reaching consequences — the British simply could not transfer enough forces to storming Port Stanley by air. Nobody wanted to send troops on foot march - in the absence of roads there would be a lot of problems. Therefore, the British conceived another landing operation, namely the transfer of the 5 brigade to the Port Fitzroy and Bluffkov area.

Of course, first it was necessary to make sure that there are no large forces of Argentines in the area of ​​the future landing. This was done with a truly English humor - a helicopter threw the British reconnaissance group onto the lonely Swan Inlet House farm, not far from Port Fitzroy, after which the commander of a dozen diseased paratroopers ... called one of the residents of Port Fitzroy and asked him about the presence of Argentine troops.

Landings from the sea began on the night of 5 on June 6 and lasted for several days, but the Argentines discovered British ships in Port Fitzroy only on June 8. It must be said that in the absence of any serious opposition from the Argentines, the British unacceptably relaxed - in fact, their two amphibious vehicles were unloaded in the bay without direct protection of warships, having only C-Sea patrols deployed on the banks of the Rapier air defense system.

First of all, the Argentines sent 2 "Mirage" so that they distract the British air patrol. At this time, the 8 Skyhawks and the 6 Daggers should have been destroyed by British transports. But it turned out as always - the Mirages did not find anyone and flew off with nothing, and the six Daggers on the way to Port Fitzroy accidentally stumbled upon the Plymouth frigate. The commander of the Daggerov group decided that since the suddenness was lost, he would have no chance to break through to the landing craft and attacked the Plymouth, which received direct hits from four bombs. As usual, none of them exploded, but this was enough for a small frigate - Plymouth did not take part in the battles anymore. And besides, the Daggers performed the work of the Mirage, a pair of Sea Harriers patrolling over the landing site, rushed after them in pursuit. And at that time, five Skyhawks (out of eight, three returned for technical reasons) attacked Sir Tristram and Sir Galahad. "Sir Tristram" received two bombs, one exploded, the ship lost two people, but was completely incapacitated and no longer participated in combat operations, like the Plymouth. But "Sir Hallahed" got 3 bombs, all three exploded, and one - in the landing room, filled with Welsh Guardsmen, and then detonated on board the prepared ammunition. The ship was completely burned out, but somehow miraculously kept afloat, its body was subsequently submerged in close proximity to the coast. The British recognize the loss of 50 people and 57 more seriously injured.



The Argentines raised six more Skyhocks, two of which returned to the airfield, and four flew to Port Fitzroy, but then they were met by the “awakened” air defense bridgehead. Understanding that they would not pass, Skyhawks lay down the opposite course, accidentally found the amphibious assault boat LCU F4 in the Gulf of Choiseul, attacked him and sank, but at the time of the attack they themselves were covered by C Harriers, who shot down three Skyhawks from four.

The latest attack on the British carrier carrier, undertaken by 2 Super EHTANDAR and 4 SkyHawk, has been described in many sources, but its effectiveness remains a mystery to this day. This time, the “Agavam” “Superov” managed to detect a large ship on the 25 miles, after which the last “Exochet” was immediately launched, and the 4 “Skyhawk” followed her at an altitude of just 12 meters. The British did not sleep, there were three ships between the attacking aircraft and the Invincible aircraft carrier - the destroyers 42 Exeter and Cardiff and the frigate 21 Eweger. They spotted the Argentinean aircraft before the launch of the "Exochet" and knew what they would encounter. It is reliably known that two Skyhawks were shot down by the Sea Dart air defense system of the latest modification installed on the Exeter, while the other two were able to attack the British. For the rest - continuous discrepancies.

Argentines claim that they saw "Invincible" shrouded in smoke (from the RCC hit it), and the two Skyhocks achieved three hits of 250 kg by bombs. The British claim that the rocket did not hit anywhere, and the Skyhawks attacked the frigate Avenger, shrouded in smoke from firing its gun mounts. Who is right?

On the one hand, the British should know better about their losses. But there are some very strange facts that are difficult to ignore: according to the Argentine radio-electronic intelligence, immediately after the attack on Invincible, the British helicopters had an excessive activity. At the same time, a group of Sea Harriers at high altitude carried out a flight to a temporary airfield in San Carlos. On the same day, the command post of General Moore was transferred from Invincible to San Carlos, and an analysis of British flight activity after the 30 in May revealed a significant decrease in the next few days. But the most important thing is the discrepancies in the reports of the British themselves. 1 June, the British Defense Ministry announced that 30 was attacked not by Invincible, but ... the still-sinking Atlantic Conveyor. But 3 June version has changed: the British declared an unsuccessful attack of "Evenger".

What really happened? Alas, most likely, we will never know.

The ending should ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
"Harriers" in battle: Falkland conflict 1982 g (part of 1)
"Harriers" in battle: Falkland conflict 1982 g (part of 2)
"Harriers" in battle: Falkland conflict 1982 g (part of 3)
"Harriers" in battle: Falkland conflict 1982 g (part of 4)
"Harriers" in battle: Falkland conflict 1982 g (part of 5)
“Harriers” in battle: Falklands conflict 1982 (part of 6)
69 comments
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  1. 25ru
    25ru 7 June 2016 07: 07
    +8
    Andrew, thank you for the pre-cycle hi You did not plan to reduce all parts into a single downloadable version? Would I be honored at work, and myself, and my pioneers are children? Not ? Direct link will not be?
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      7 June 2016 17: 26
      +1
      Thank!. And in a single downloadable version ... honestly, I did not think about it, but there will be no problems - this can be done. Another question is where to upload it so that it can be downloaded? I admit, I never did this, do not tell me?
  2. nazar_0753
    nazar_0753 7 June 2016 09: 40
    +4
    As always, excellent work on the article, read well, very nice. I think that the author has talent. More often he would please us hi
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      7 June 2016 17: 28
      +5
      Thanks for the tip :))) I would love to write more often, but the work gets in the way :)))) In fact, I can only upload something large-scale when I'm on vacation or in search of work
  3. Pacifist
    Pacifist 7 June 2016 09: 49
    +8
    Great stuff. Many thanks to the author. good I have not read such quality reviews for a long time.
    And I join 25ru. hi Can you put everything in one document for download?
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      7 June 2016 17: 29
      0
      Quote: Pacifist
      Many thanks to the author.

      You're welcome, but as for a single material - if you tell me where to upload it, then why not? :)
  4. iouris
    iouris 7 June 2016 10: 15
    +5
    I think that the details of this forgotten war are also interesting in that they make it possible to understand how the relative successes of the obviously weaker adversary influenced political decision-making in London. Where is the line that separated London from the failure in that conflict? If Thatcher had not won the Falklands, the wheel of history would have gone wrong.
  5. Operator
    Operator 7 June 2016 10: 20
    +3
    Learjet 35A-L is not a passenger airliner, but a small business jet with a take-off weight of 6 tons and a maximum speed of 880 km / h, which is much less than the maximum speed of the Harrier at 1102 km / h.

    Therefore, the only defense of Lirget (in the role of a radar detection aircraft) from the Harriers was the distance that the Harrier pilots did not dare to reduce, remembering about their ultra-short flight range.
    1. Arktidianets
      Arktidianets 7 June 2016 11: 46
      +1
      With a flight range of 4500 km, and this is a very excellent indicator for patrolling, that's just visual observation.
      1. Operator
        Operator 7 June 2016 13: 06
        +1
        The Learjet 35A-L airborne radar made it possible to detect ships with EPRs of several thousand square meters.
    2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      7 June 2016 17: 31
      +5
      Quote: Operator
      small business jet with a take-off weight of 6 tons and a maximum speed of 880 km / h

      It seems that you are absolutely right. Thank! I took this question on faith from sources, did not check, but in vain.
  6. Operator
    Operator 7 June 2016 11: 33
    -1
    The article does not cover the topic of the Harriers' strike at the Sheetbill field deployed on June 4, 1982 in the San Carlos area of ​​East Falkland Island - see the article "Falklands War" on wiki.wargaming.net.
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      7 June 2016 17: 33
      0
      Quote: Operator
      The article does not cover the topic of basing shock Harriers at the Sheetbill airfield

      Yes, there was simply not enough space for her. He left this question for mention later, because in the end the airfield did not affect anything
  7. 25ru
    25ru 7 June 2016 11: 51
    +1
    Quote: Operator
    The article does not cover the topic of the Harriers' strike at the Sheetbill field deployed on June 4, 1982 in the San Carlos area of ​​East Falkland Island - see the article "Falklands War" on wiki.wargaming.net.

    Add, no one bothers you smile I can’t, at work. Although there is some material.
    1. Operator
      Operator 7 June 2016 13: 38
      -1
      This is for Lopatov - at least he has a photo of Sheetbill airfield.
      1. Simpsonian
        Simpsonian 7 June 2016 18: 52
        +1
        And with everything else to him? The main forces of the landing were on the shore even before the start of the raids on May 21, there was no one in the dock ships that day. Their escort at night to this bridgehead was provided by at least 5 air patrols (> 12 aircraft out of 20) because this was a critical moment of the entire conflict. The RLK patrol ships were located in the open sea. These Coventry and Broadsward were floating air defense batteries in the strait at the bridgehead. "There was no support, but whatever it was, with the support was defeated" ... Hermes usually stood far from the islands and used the Invincible, which stood next to them as a jump airfield.
        The British knocked out Argentinean army aircraft before landing, as did the BO. Recent Pukars have been replenishing from the mainland. In total, subsonic British aviation, while providing air defense, intercepted and shot down more than 20 jet aircraft, most of them supersonic, and an even greater number of Argentinean helicopters. In just two interceptions, this is unrealistic.
        The Argentines deceived the British by setting up a false funnel on the Stanley runway after the Vulcan bombing, and continued to use this strip. The airfield on which so many raids were made, which was covered by air defense and those very radars that were "too tough." It's just that the Volcanoes and their crowd of tankers had something to do. That was of little use because it was from them. Powerful, accurate (with radar guidance) and long-range artillery in comparison with the Argentine was the English automatic ship with shells with radio fuses. The Argentines also had ATGMs, the same. American-made Argentine NVGs were one generation better. The British pikhote were almost all the commandos who, having removed the sentry for fun, cut out more of a platoon of sleeping in sleeping bags and Argeninians who were already awake and trying to surrender to them, which is recognized as a war crime.
        GR.3 could conduct air combat and their external pylons were converted to AIM-9
        For two days, the FITSROIA area took a SAS helicopter landing and called for support, which sailed by the morning of the 8th, the Welsh National Guard guards refused to unload until the fog cleared and played football in this room in which they were smeared. The air defense systems on the shore were also not deployed. During the time that has passed since the Argentine coastal patrol discovered the transport vessels, there was no way to plan a raid with the distraction of the English air patrol - it simply left when the fuel ran out. All commandos walked on foot, only these reservists went to play football in the hold.
        "Thus, it can be stated that despite the certain, and, in general, nonzero usefulness of VTOL aircraft, they did not cope with any task,"
        and someone Woodward writes differently - that without them England would not have got back the Falklands.
        Who is right? Why it is told about LCU F4 two times.
        Uganda and others such white-painted ships of both countries stood in a pre-negotiated square, all their exits from it were mutually agreed upon and inspected. More Argentine wounded than English passed through it.
        1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          7 June 2016 20: 12
          +1
          Quote: Simpsonian
          And with everything else to it? The main forces of the landing were on the coast before the raids on May 21

          wassat starting the landing on the night of May 20 to May 21?
          Quote: Simpsonian
          Their escort at night to this bridgehead was provided by at least 5 air patrols (> 12 aircraft out of 20) because this was a critical moment of the entire conflict

          At night (surprise surprise) the Argentines did not fly. Accordingly, the Harriers did not fly either. By the way, there were 21 Harriers by May 31, not 20, of which 25 were "Sea Harriers"
          And about it - in the conclusions :)
          Quote: Simpsonian
          In total, subsonic British aviation, while providing air defense, intercepted and shot down more than 20 jet aircraft, most of them supersonic, and an even greater number of Argentinean helicopters. In just two interceptions, this is unrealistic.

          What did this article say about the events after May 25, didn’t it? there are links to other articles of the cycle below - read, everything is there.
          Quote: Simpsonian
          The British infantry were almost all commandos

          Why, commando. Transformers in person.
          Quote: Simpsonian
          GR.3 could conduct air combat and their external pylons were converted to AIM-9

          They could conduct an air battle - artillery. Their pylons were converted to Sidewinders, but they did not manage to lay wiring to them, so they could not use rockets. Posing for photographers is as much as you like.
          Quote: Simpsonian
          For two days, the Fitzroy area took SAS helicopter landing

          Well, yes - given the fact that no one defended Fitzroy for two days for the British special forces - just right :)
          Quote: Simpsonian
          "Thus, it can be stated that despite the certain, and, in general, nonzero usefulness of VTOL aircraft, they did not cope with any task,"

          About this - the next article.
          Quote: Simpsonian
          Uganda and others such white-painted ships of both countries stood in a pre-negotiated square

          So what? Do you think that the Argentines knew their location and the position of Uganda with absolute accuracy? They have 90 miles tankers overshot the rendezvous point.
          1. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 7 June 2016 21: 33
            +1
            Fortunately, the nights are long in the fall. Or should the landing ships early in the morning in the strait instantly move from the area east of Falkland? The British flew around the clock.
            Argentines flew at night, but less than during the day. The same canberra for bombing and reconnaissance. All-weather aircraft were on both sides.

            What was the extra 5 Sea Harriers based on?
            It is necessary to write accurately and at least in small print.
            Only the Welsh reservists were not commandos.
            Postings there and so led. Even the PTB are reset on command.
            You can wait longer. This SAS overslept the Argenin patrol noticed in the fog over the hills the tops of the masts.
            All seven in general are only Eob this. "And Woodwart's - the opposite.
            Of course they should. Uganda, by agreement, went to the shore, to Middle Bay, it is clear that he and his position along with the position of the islands on the map do not change.
          2. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 7 June 2016 21: 33
            0
            Fortunately, the nights are long in the fall. Or should the landing ships early in the morning in the strait instantly move from the area east of Falkland? The British flew around the clock.
            Argentines flew at night, but less than during the day. The same canberra for bombing and reconnaissance. All-weather aircraft were on both sides.

            What was the extra 5 Sea Harriers based on?
            It is necessary to write accurately and at least in small print.
            Only the Welsh reservists were not commandos.
            Postings there and so led. Even the PTB are reset on command.
            You can wait longer. This SAS overslept the Argenin patrol noticed in the fog over the hills the tops of the masts.
            All seven in general are only Eob this. "And Woodwart's - the opposite.
            Of course they should. Uganda, by agreement, went to the shore, to Middle Bay, it is clear that he and his position along with the position of the islands on the map do not change.
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              8 June 2016 21: 06
              0
              Quote: Simpsonian
              The British flew around the clock.

              In erotic fantasies, no doubt.
              Quote: Simpsonian
              Argentines flew at night, but less than during the day

              Argentines did NOT fly at night until May 26
              Quote: Simpsonian
              What was the extra 5 Sea Harriers based on?

              They are superfluous for you, but for the British they are not superfluous. Read Woodworth. Or do you have "I remember here, I don't remember here"?
              The rest of the nonsense does not need comments. You contradict your beloved Woodworth.
              1. Simpsonian
                Simpsonian 8 June 2016 23: 08
                -2
                If you turn to non-erotic sites, then about the night flights of the Harriers is easy. Most aircraft and helicopter accidents occurred at night and in bad weather.
                Was there a polar day until May 26?
                If they have nothing to base on yet, then they are superfluous. Some of the harriers have already been lost by this time, but less than 5.
                It was possible not to lamb on it either, of course you are more competent with yours than he ...
                1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                  8 June 2016 23: 54
                  0
                  Quote: Simpsonian
                  If you turn to non-erotic sites, then about the night flights of the Harriers is easy

                  Well, open our eyes to the Harriers' night flights over the Falklands :)))
                  They WAS NOT.
                  For one simple reason, the Argentines did not fly at night. So why do the British do it?
                  Congratulations to you (once again)
                  1. Simpsonian
                    Simpsonian 9 June 2016 00: 50
                    +1
                    Did they know the Argentines "won't do this at night"?

                    Even the S-130 flew to the islands every night.
          3. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 8 June 2016 17: 05
            0
            http://www.naval-history.net/F43-San_Carlos_landings.htm

            List of English airborne units landed in
            the night of May 20-21, only about 4,000 people:

            40 Cdo RM, Lt Col MPJ Hunt (OBE) RM
            42 Cdo RM, Lt Col NF Vaux (DSO) RM
            45 Cdo RM, Lt Col AF Whitehead (DSO) RM
            29 Cdo Regt RA, Lt Col MJ ​​Holroyd-Smith (OBE) RA
            59 Ind Cdo Sqdn RE, Maj R MacDonald (MID) RE
            Cdo Logistics Regt, Lt Col IJ Hellberg (OBE) RCT
            Bde HQ & Signals Sqdn, Maj RC Dixon RM
            Mountain and Arctic Warfare Cadre, Capt RJ Boswell RM
            SBS, Maj JJ Thomson (OBE) RM
            3 Cdo Bde Air Sqdn, Maj CP Cameron (MC) RM with 9 Gazelles and 9 Scouts (3 from No.656 AAC)
            2 Para, Lt Col H Jones (VC) OBE
            3 Para, Lt Col HWR Pike (DSO) MBE
            22 SAS Regt, Lt Col HM Rose OBE (MID)

            Cdo means commando.
            All commandos or paratroopers - The Simpsonian is absolutely right. And the amphibious landing was BEFORE the raids that began on the afternoon of May 21.
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              8 June 2016 21: 02
              0
              Quote: voyaka uh
              List of English airborne units landed in
              the night of May 20-21, only about 4,000 people:

              And that only the British unloaded the remaining 5 days - from May 21 to May 25? :)))
              Quote: voyaka uh
              Cdo means commando.

              Let's say 4000 people were landed on the first night ... let's say :)))
              We read the list of parts planted by the UK on the Falklands
              3rd Marine Corps
              40th, 42nd, 45th Marine Corps Battalions Support Helicopter Squadron
              2nd, 3rd parachute airborne battalions
              29th Marine Corps Artillery Regiment
              Marine Corps Logistics Support Regiment
              Special Forces SBS, SAS
              Air Defense Battalion
              Communications battalion
              4th artillery regiment battery
              59th Separate Engineering Battalion
              9th Engineering Battalion Parachute Regiment
              5th Infantry Brigade
              2nd Battalion of the Scottish Guards
              1st Welsh Guard Battalion
              1st battalion of the 7th regiment of Gursk shooters
              656th Army Aviation Squadron
              12th Air Defense Regiment (without one battery)
              4th artillery regiment (without one battery)
              19th Field Hospital
              Communications battalion
              Units of the 33rd, 36th, 38th Engineering Regiments
              Units of the 49th Artillery Regiment
              Units of the 14th, 30th Communication Regiments
              Units of the 32nd Air Defense Regiment
              Engineering Repair Units

              After that, turn on the gray matter, and we understand that
              Quote: voyaka uh
              Cdo means commando.

              says that Either on May 21 they were landed FOR MOST PART of the special forces (but not part of the brigades), or your source is a little inadequate.
              Quote: voyaka uh
              And the amphibious landing was BEFORE the raids that began on the afternoon of May 21.

              What did the British cover during the battles on the "bomb alley"? :)))
              Come on, dear :))) open our eyes :)))
              1. Simpsonian
                Simpsonian 8 June 2016 22: 59
                +1
                Equipment and equipment. Replenishment later came on other days, including adequate Welsh reservists. The troops at stake 4000 on the 21st were landed right away and in only two waves, after which he then breathed a sigh of relief the inadequate Woodworth himself writes.

                The commandos were not gunners, signalmen and part of the sappers, all of them had a small number of personnel. Reservists from Scotland and Wales - Not Commandos
                The Marines, paratroopers, and gurks were all commandos.

                First of all, they covered the infantry, which was already on the bridgehead, to which the Argeninians were also not allowed to approach the ships that entered the strait with their artillery fire.
                1. Simpsonian
                  Simpsonian 9 June 2016 08: 45
                  0
                  Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                  Let's say 4000 people were landed on the first night ... let's say :)))

                  Suppose each dock ship had so many landing craft (one small barge did not fit into the frame) and helicopters,
                  in large dock self-propelled LCU-barges, one of which later came kirdyk, they intermedled 80-120 soldiers or a tank, in small dowel-gang-bombs for a couple of cars or about 35 soldiers.
                  Other transports also had their own boarding facilities.
                  For two flights to the coast, only they (those in the picture, multiplied by two) took 2480 soldiers, the capacity and number of helicopters are also known, those that are not busy flying around the perimeter, along with the harriers, carried troops, and scurried between the ship and the coast or adjacent dominant heights they are faster.

                  These two dock-ships, when they blossomed, were already empty, so the Argentine pilots did not particularly try to bomb them, and not in order to "avoid" large losses after Belgrano. On one dock there was a headquarters with communication equipment, but almost all of it also washed ashore.

                  From other transports, infantry and essential weapons also landed by helicopters, on rafts or small landing facilities.

                  In this situation, when the infantry was already ashore, destroying empty boxes makes little sense. Those cargoes that will not be burned out of them due to the shallow water and the proximity of the coast are then also relatively easily accessible. Frigates and destroyers were most annoyed by their shelling, which prevented the Argentine forces from approaching the bridgehead on which there was so far only one light infantry infantry, these ships were bombed in the first place. The concentration of bombing attacks on the paratroopers scattered on the shore would lead to smaller losses among the British and to larger ones in their aircraft, because the number of air defense systems along with the ships did not decrease. The latter consisted of snarling cans with a rather large team inside.
                  It would be more correct to cover the bridgehead with cluster or vacuum bombs or napalm, but perhaps the Argentines did not have it on these continental bases (on the islands, the warehouse with him for Puqkar was destroyed, like almost all of them themselves).

                  The photo is not clickable, but it’s visible soldiers who are standing in barges
                  those that were large were converted into ocean-class ships with a range of thousands of miles, for the crew of a cabin, latrine, berths and all amenities (not in the yard lol )

                  So skepticism about landing capabilities is not entirely appropriate.
              2. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 8 June 2016 23: 53
                +1
                And how many infantry did the British fight? On the strength of 7 thousand people.
                Well, and more artillery, communications, and around ... another 2 thousand.
                The rest are sailors on ships.

                And more than 20 subsonic fighters covered it all
                (and shot down, not knowing that they themselves are so miserable, smile 20 aircraft, half supersonic)
                and they, miserable, not one was shot down in an air battle laughing
                1. Simpsonian
                  Simpsonian 9 June 2016 00: 20
                  0
                  ... which they did not maneuver request , this is when the Argentine pilot, spinning his bulldozer in popcorn, suddenly noticed a Briton flying parallel to him (and how from such a position can you launch Sidewinder in the forehead?), whom he himself just tried to attack with a tail, which then "unexpectedly disappeared "from sight and then an explosion was heard under his plane
                2. Simpsonian
                  Simpsonian 9 June 2016 00: 39
                  0
                  whistling Ardiles, like Garcia-Cuerva, received an "all-round" AIM-9 in similar circumstances to his Dagger in the tail

                  but the rest was simply not written ...
                3. yehat
                  yehat 9 June 2016 15: 40
                  +1
                  harriers had better missile weapons than Argentinean aircraft.
                  their success in air defense is largely ensured by this + help in guidance from ships. I suspect that WWII-era piston deck aircraft with the same missiles would have shot down not much less, or maybe more.
                  1. Simpsonian
                    Simpsonian 9 June 2016 15: 49
                    0
                    The pistons are Pukars, they were shot down by worthless harriers and not vice versa.
                    The British had no semi-active radar missiles on the harriers. The Argentines had them, as well as guidance from land-based island radars and AWACS aircraft.
                    The thermal imaging detector in the IR seeker like the Soviet Igla MANPADS arr 1981 was of course a plus - the Argentinean IR traps almost did not act on it, but the overload and the target of the seeker captured and held as badly as the previous one.
                4. Simpsonian
                  Simpsonian 10 June 2016 01: 42
                  +1
                  In general, according to the most reliable data, at least 28 Sea Harriers and about 14 GR participated in the conflict (passed through it + was lost). England in Europe has a GR-ok. At the time of landing, taking into account losses and replenishment of the Sea Harriers, there were about 20, and GR no more than 4 pieces.
                  The infantry came from meeropolis on cruise liners (then in the open sea they moved to docks) in two waves
                  ~ 4 thousand when landing in San Carlos May 21 +
                  > 5 thousand replenishment in the future. Those few that are not commandos in the war generally did not take an active part while remaining in rear service in the occupied territory. Even from the commandos, the Gurkas did not have time to fight, they just played with their knives before the battle.

                  And the pilots did 4-6 sorties, and the technicians also worked. One Harrier pilot who had hardly sat down at night was searched for on the deck, despite the searchlight for 10 minutes, while he was looking for them or the entrance to the cabin. Visibility was less than a meter, he just sat in the center of a faint light spot.
                  From fatigue - two Sea Harrier collisions over an aircraft carrier at night with each other, and one exit from the deck in a storm.
                  Another Harrier plopped into the water during the wrong take-off of the pilot he had on this day, the 5th or 6th.

                  The Argentines, who sat warm on the English stove in Port Stanley for 2,5 months, surrendered with a "beautiful gesture" so that this village would not be destroyed, instead of the whole such division going on the attack with the support of armored vehicles and fighting for the lost hills east of it. To unblock the airport and stop the artillery shelling of their positions, corrected from them by the British commandos. And it was not far to go or to go ... The real war had just begun for them, the holidays were over.

                  Despite the established blockade, there were no problems with the evacuation of the wounded - they were taken by ambulance helicopters to hospital ships located near the islands, and Stanley also had its own equipped medical unit. There was no desire to start fighting at the main, before participating in the battles mass of troops ... Singing patriotic songs around the campfire with a guitar, and playing soccer is not interesting under the bombs.
                  1. Simpsonian
                    Simpsonian 10 June 2016 02: 24
                    0
                    ... England had a larger number of GR-oks in Europe than C-Harriers, they were its main modification, just for an all-weather air war over the sea, C-Harriers were more needed, especially with limited capabilities for basing capacity on AB at the beginning of the conflict, before disembarkation and approach of container ships with replenishment. Even on the Atlantic Conveyor there were more Sea Harriers than armored attack aircraft without a surveillance radar.
  8. Follow us
    Follow us 7 June 2016 12: 40
    +1
    Interestingly, after the war, did the Argentines have someone responsible for the quality of the unexploded ordnance?
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      7 June 2016 17: 56
      +2
      As far as I know, no. As, however, and the British for the work of their air defense systems
  9. Alex_59
    Alex_59 7 June 2016 13: 10
    +8
    We are waiting for the end. The series of articles is excellent.

    Such a detailed description allows you to understand how tabular performance characteristics of techniques are far from reality. This is about the traditional disputes on the site about the possibilities of technology. According to a piece of paper, air defense systems must shoot down targets on the border of the affected area, bombs must explode, programs must not blunt, targets with an EPR above the detection threshold must be detected. But in reality, air defense systems with a range of tens of kilometers cannot work on targets under the nose, bombs do not explode, programs freeze, targets flicker and are not detected. Here it is - a practical experience that turns the "paper" calculations of theorists 180 degrees.
    1. ben gun
      ben gun 7 June 2016 14: 41
      0
      For the minus, I apologize, I disappeared by the button, but I wanted to plus, on the contrary
    2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      7 June 2016 18: 01
      0
      Quote: Alex_59
      Such a detailed description allows us to understand how tabular TTX techniques are far from reality. This is a question about traditional disputes on the site about the possibilities of technology.

      Golden words! :) One of the goals that I pursued when writing this series was to show how far the calculations based on passport TTX are far from reality.
      1. Operator
        Operator 7 June 2016 22: 01
        -3
        On the contrary, the flight characteristics of vertical take-off / landing aircraft (Harrier) and horizontal take-off / landing aircraft (Mirage, Dagger, Skyhawk) even before the start of air battles clearly showed who was the master in the sky.

        Most likely, the British launched the Falkland War, because they knew for sure that the Argentine bombs would not explode. Her Majesty's secret intelligence service worked perfectly.
        1. Simpsonian
          Simpsonian 7 June 2016 23: 34
          +2
          Statistics? Examples?
          Quite the opposite, most likely the Argentine military also could not distinguish vertical takeoff from takeoff from a springboard. Before comparing, after this LTH and even the one who was the master in the sky. And 10 years before that, they disdained just to approach the "freak", although:
          "Interestingly, in the early 70s. Argentines could get acquainted with" Harrier ", which the British showed in their country during an international advertising tour. However, this meeting did not leave a noticeable mark in the calculations of local tacticians."

          http://profilib.com/chtenie/133144/zhurnal-aviatsiya-i-vremya-2001-01-lib-22.php

          Not only that, come up and buy, like bombs, MANPADS, destroyers, much more, and even the worn English aircraft carrier from the Dutch before.
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 8 June 2016 17: 36
        0
        "One of the goals that I pursued when writing this cycle -
        this is to show how far the calculations based on the passport performance characteristics are far from reality "////

        You even went too far with your goals. The reader gets the impression of a chaotic endless series of errors and overlays on both sides.

        In fact, the British in difficult conditions (like the weather, like logistics away from their shores) spent - with very little force! - a beautiful offensive operation that ended in full
        surrender of the enemy garrison and a convincing victory in the war as a whole.
        1. Operator
          Operator 8 June 2016 18: 34
          0
          At the first stage of the war, the Argentines had an advantage - ground-based aviation was supposed to break the expeditionary flotilla into pieces of the British flag. But SIS didn’t let us down and the overwhelming number of bomb detonators did not work.

          At the second stage of the war, after landing over 4 of thousands of British commandos (with the support of naval artillery and attack helicopters) against 12 of thousands of hungry Argentine conscripts (from among pasta and Indians), the British had an advantage.

          Technical innovations in the land part of the war:
          - British attacks were carried out in the dark using NVD, while the Argentines were blind like moles;
          - almost all Argentinean firing points and places of heating of personnel on the front line were destroyed by the Milan ATGM, which were not spared - there were cases of missile launch from dominant heights at the light of a cigarette.

          PS So then believe in the insignificance of the performance characteristics of weapons and equipment laughing
          1. Simpsonian
            Simpsonian 8 June 2016 22: 51
            0
            The analytics of the Argentine Air Force with appearance and performance characteristics of Harrier were pumped up 10 years earlier.
            Fuses are not SIS. There were leaders and agents of influence on those who incorrectly set them up for operation.

            You forgot about VTOL drums. Helicopters were basically transport and reconnaissance. The Argentines, NVDs were one generation better, exactly the same ATGMs at the beginning were no less.
            In total, there were at least 11 thousand Englishmen and 25 thousand Argentines on the islands, the bulk of which did not starve or freeze.
            Macaroni is Italian and not Spanish.
            1. Operator
              Operator 9 June 2016 12: 06
              -3
              "Own leaders and agents of influence": this is the recruited SIS agents, ideological or supported by the British - no difference.

              The main thing is not that the Argentines had single NVDs and ATGMs, but that the British had many more of these devices and missiles.

              According to the British, they captured about 11 thousands of Argentine troops on their liberated territory (Falklands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands). Given the loss of life, the total number of Argentine occupation forces can be estimated at 12 thousand people.

              In the composition of the population of Argentina (unlike the rest of Latin America), the main share are immigrants from Italy.

              The military junta of Argentina once again got involved in organizing the supply of its occupying forces in the Falklands - it simply delivered a little food before the sea and air blockade of the islands began. Therefore, 12 of thousands of Argentines in the final stages of the conflict fought on reduced rations.

              Half-starved and freezing (British ATGMs were fired for each heat source), Argentine conscripts, under the conditions of overwhelming fire superiority of the enemy (by direct historical analogy with the defeat of the 200-thousandth occupying army of pasta near Stalingrad in the 1943 year), were happily surrendered.
              1. Simpsonian
                Simpsonian 9 June 2016 12: 55
                +1
                Why is SIS necessary? American sphere of influence, instructor from Bl.Vostok
                Garrisons on about. West Falkland was not captured.

                Then the language would be Italian.

                There was brought in an immeasurable total. The last S-130 landed and flew to Port Stanley the day before surrender.
                Then, on the night before the delivery, the British commandos squeezed out the Argentines from the last ridge of hills west of Stanley and settled there with MANPADS, blocking the approach, after which it was only installed, but it still remained possible to drop loads by parachute.
                The Commander-in-Chief tried to lead the troops in a counterattack to repel these next dominant heights, but then disobedience began.

                Digging or finding a pit for a fire in a crease in the area and there is no "heat source". Those who fought for the heights surrendered without any desire if the situation was hopeless, those who sat in the rear when the war rolled up to them, heard enough news, saw enough of the retreating and did not go to fight.
                The British Argentines were deceived and dropped during the course of surrender three times in a row, starting with their commander in chief. In the beginning, it should not have been surrender, then honorable, etc.

                The besieged Argentines left artillery and its arsenals were nearby. Numerical superiority remained, but not the same as in the beginning because the British replenished twice. The losses of Argentinean aviation were made up for by deliveries from the Air Force of Latin American countries. Pilots of half of them were already ready to take part in the war in their cars, at least one country flew to the islands.

                There were no Argentines in 1943 near Stalingrad.
                1. Operator
                  Operator 9 June 2016 16: 42
                  -1
                  It is possible that the CIA and transferred to SIS some of its agents in the Argentine Air Force, but among the Argentinean leadership the Anglophile moods were always quite strong. Suffice it to say that when Argentina sued Chile in 1977-78 years in international arbitration in The Hague regarding the ownership of the islands in the Beagle Channel, then, at the request of Argentina, the decision of the international arbitration was additionally approved by the Queen of Great Britain Elizabeth II.

                  Despite a large proportion of immigrants from Italy, the official language of Argentina is Spanish, since the country was originally a colony of Spain, and Italians arrived after independence.

                  One-time flights of cargo C-130 could not correct the plight of the food situation of the Argentine occupation forces, since adventurers from the military junta initially counted on a quick victorious war.

                  Look at the photo of the commander of the Argentine occupation forces in the Falklands - an old senile, whom can he raise to attack?

                  The terrain on the islands is entirely hilly, it is enough to capture the dominant heights (as the British special forces did) and all the indentations for bonfires at a glance.

                  All working Argentine artillery (as well as machine-gun nests) were immediately destroyed by ATGMs - at night, the British with the help of NVD perfectly distinguished barrels warmed up from firing.

                  So it was planned by the British - first the naval blockade of the islands by small forces, then their buildup and landing, in the final extermination of the invaders with an additional buildup of forces. And what did the Argentines expect - giveaway games?

                  Nobody of the Argentines in the process of finishing the occupation forces did not let them down - their senile commander was offered several times to surrender, but each time he turned to the military junta in Buenos Aires for a decision, and she flatly refused. Naturally, each time the British conditions of surrender were tightened until the spontaneous surrender of pasta and Indians began.

                  As for replenishing Argentine losses, I already mentioned the 10 planes from Peru at the end of the conflict, when it was neither cold nor hot. All other pro-American Latin American regimes sat like a mouse under a broom, with the exception of Chile, which was not averse to punishing Argentina for attempting military annexation of the islands in 1978-79 years (Operation Soberania).
                  1. Simpsonian
                    Simpsonian 9 June 2016 19: 06
                    +1
                    Las Malvinas son Argentinas? The president there now seems to be neither English nor Italian. When immigrating to ready-made Argentina, Italians over the Spaniards prevailed slightly and did not constitute the majority.

                    Someone was raised by the commander-in-chief before ... but this time opinions were divided. The rear "judged" that since the more experienced and courageous platoons and companies were unlucky, their entire divisions, supported by tanks, would be unlucky.

                    The hilly terrain is not everywhere and at Stanley the last hills were captured less than a day before the surrender and there it was possible to bask in the houses.

                    Argentines also had NVD and ATGM, and NVD is even better. Machine guns were nomadic. ATGM can be seen flying, you can move away from the nest in the course of the message. Harriers were called to the cannons and particularly stubborn machine gunners.

                    They expected that the British could not land, they hung out near the islands for almost a month. Then they thought their own aviation would help them a lot.

                    There was no spontaneous surrender, and you didn’t know the abuses of dirty gringos.

                    Mentioned about Peruvian planes like I told you. They made up for the losses incurred in this class. All other countries were also in solidarity. Peruvian pilots were still not the most zealous, Chileans Bolivia because of the occupation of a significant part of their country and the denial of access to the Pacific Ocean does not like most.
                    1. Operator
                      Operator 9 June 2016 21: 05
                      0
                      Immigrants from Italy make up one third of the population of Argentina, immigrants from Spain (greetings to the Blue Division, destroyed in 1943 near Stalingrad) - about half, the rest - Germans, French, Poles, Irish, Russians and other Europeans. Indians make up 1,5 percent of the population.

                      Bolivian and Peruvian pilots, as well as any other Latin Americans, did not participate in the Falkland War - the hegemon (USA) did not order.

                      Gringo (rodent) is the nickname of North Americans, not Europeans.

                      The Argentine machine gunners did not have time not only to migrate, but even to shoot off the tape of cartridges, when a gift in the form of an ATGM "Milan" flew to them.

                      There was not and could not be any Latin American solidarity at the level of government agencies - in the vast majority of countries, military regimes were at the helm, which were completely controlled by Britain’s ally - the USA. When Argentina hinted that there was a Rio de Janeiro pact from the 1947 of the year on mutual military assistance between the countries of the Western Hemisphere, they poked her nose at the point of the pact, which refers to the denial of support to the country - the military aggressor.

                      And yet - the Soviet Union officially supported the actions of Great Britain against aggression and occupation by Argentina, having voted in the UN Security Council for the relevant resolution.

                      Legally, Britain had carte blanche not only to throw invaders into the sea, but to sink to the bottom the Argentine fleet in harbors and burn aircraft at airfields on the continental part of the country (in the sense of eliminating the material base of aggression), and also demand military indemnity from Argentina. The only thing that did not allow this was the position of the United States, which did not want to change the military junta by the left regime.

                      From this, by the way, the correct choice by the Soviet Union of the party that he supported in the conflict - Great Britain - follows.
                      1. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 10 June 2016 00: 26
                        0
                        Give the poor Cubans greetings with Stalingrad ... Emigration from Italy outweighed the Spanish by 8%, which is not surprising considering who Argentina fought for its independence.

                        They spit like the Argentinean on the hegemon ... Any ships that have now entered the Falklands then cannot enter the Latin American ports.
                        This nickname descended from the British in general, the American Nndians and tanned Latinos are not called that.

                        Milan is not an RPG-7.

                        The United States still pokes its face into the Monroe Doctrine at the level of state structures, the whole league of Latin American states, as well as the fact that the NATO doctrine below 40 degrees north does not extend, so Argentina could calmly attack Gibraltar from its 36 degrees S.Sh. and even the Bahamas with their 25th city S.Sh. in the USA under the nose.
                        Well, just after that war, all of Latin America became even stronger in what it was (where that wonderful word came from).

                        The Soviet Union may not have vetoed something at the UN and took a neutral stand in favor of resolving the conflict through negotiations, on Soviet maps these islands were marked as a disputed territory, in the same white color as Antarctica, with the corresponding signature.

                        Probably for this support, he sent to the South Atlantic as part of an international coalition that supported a large fleet, which constantly screened English ships for nuclear weapons, this technology was then demonstrated to the Americans in 1985 in Iceland. And also launched several reconnaissance satellites in support of it into polar orbits - in order to compete with the United States in providing. British intelligence and "services" of communication (MTS, Beeline, Megafon ...). Well, I drove reconnaissance aircraft from Angola to the islands to monitor the course of this conflict from a safe distance.

                        While trying to officially expand the already illegitimate boundaries of this very "safe" so that the Tu-95 would not buzz over Hermes's ear, he also Officially sent Her Majesty's country directly to the South Pole ... which is why she blurted out about expansion in the hearts of the Argeninians (but only for them) to its 12-mile waters, which is already the official act of the state of undeclared full-scale war.
                      2. Operator
                        Operator 10 June 2016 10: 38
                        -1
                        Emigration from Italy took place after the end of the war for the independence of Argentina.

                        The Falkland War began in the fall (the month of April) and ended in the winter (the month of June), while it went under the conditions of the so-called. Antarctic Desert - a treeless area covered with grass and moss. What was clearly not familiar to people from the Apennine and Iberian peninsulas.

                        The British did not use RPGs (unguided weapons), but ATGMs (guided weapons), which allowed them to knock out firing points and places of heating the enemy at a time. This is the experience of the land part of the Falkland War. For example, you can watch a video of the use of anti-tank systems in Syria.

                        The USSR is precisely what voted (and did not refrain from vetoing) in the UN Security Council for a resolution condemning Argentina’s aggression and demanding the withdrawal of occupation forces from Great Britain. The NATO country and a country with a pro-American regime (and even a fascist one like Mussolini, which destroyed from 30 to 40 thousands of communists and socialists) participated in the Falkland War. Why on earth would the Soviet Union take the side of one of the participants? Kindle the conflict, push Britain to full-scale hostilities, weaken the position of an ally of Britain (USA) in Latin America - this is the purpose of Soviet action. The only thing that could not be promoted was the British intervention in the continental part of Argentina - the United States understood the consequences and slowed down its ally.

                        But judging by today's political forces that have come to power in all Latin American countries (with the exception of Colombia), the long game of our country has been a success.

                        Declared or not declared war - the tenth matter. Ignoring either side of the war zone outside the territorial waters is not a war (in the zone there are no guarantees against accidental damage or sinking of the watercrafts of third countries). But the sea blockade of someone’s territory is the conduct of war (examples are the Caribbean crisis, the Falkland war, the war in Iraq)
                      3. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 10 June 2016 11: 17
                        0
                        Why would the Spanish crown let the Italians? Even to cold Patagonia, which is no use to anyone? The climate there is more severe than the island-sea. Or are you not used to for 150 years? The Spaniards treated the Italians and in Europe is always scornful. Like, where did they come from?
                        The Italians of Argentina then settled in Patagonia so that the Chileans did not get the territory.

                        ATGM flies slower, she can not knock out a heating point on the reverse slope or a normal dugout.
                        The "experience" consisted of enfilade and counter-defiled shooting, which was actually obtained by the British much earlier.

                        The USSR did not consider the Falklands as the territory of England, and the Russian Federation does not now consider it. This territory is considered disputed by most countries of the world. In general, all but England and may be the United States.
                        The USSR didn’t take sides, contradict yourself.
                        Nobody in the USSR wanted to foment this conflict; most of all, Thatcher himself needed the government, which had already come from the protests of miners and dockers ...

                        In the continental part, small-shavens would not have succeeded with conventional weapons, except for the state of war with all of South America, which she immediately warned of.

                        The introduction of a 12-mile blockade of the continental part of Argentina is definitely a war, and not a limited conflict around the disputed islands.
                        In the area around the islands there were guarantees that everything that was not Anglican was considered enemy, it contradicted the law of the sea itself.
                      4. Operator
                        Operator 10 June 2016 11: 46
                        -1
                        Spain and the emigration of Italians to independent Argentina are not related to each other in any way. By the way, Italians settled mainly with the capital, and not in Patagonia.

                        ATGMs knocked out firing points and heating points on open rather than closed positions on the return slopes of heights. Against the latter, the British used ATGMs from attack helicopters. But the main thing is that after occupying the dominant heights, especially on the approaches to Port Stanley, the British were in full view of the entire defense of the Argentines, located on the plain.

                        And here the ATGM flight speed - once again watch the video from Syria: the attackers hear and see ATGMs (against the background of outbreaks of shots and the noise of battle) at the very last moment 1-2 seconds before the explosion.

                        Why talk about what they now think about the territory of the Falklands, when in a particular 1982 year a UN Security Council resolution was adopted that clearly painted who the aggressor is and who the victim of aggression is. Britain had every right to powder Argentina, and Chile and Brazil (Chile's military ally) would love to support her. In general, Britain, Chile, Brazil (and, possibly, Paraguay and Uruguay, who would not refuse to grow their territories for free) had the strength to defeat Argentina with conventional weapons. And they wanted to spit on the rest of the Latin American trifle. I repeat once again - the USA did not allow such a development of events.

                        War is war; it is a limited conflict exactly until the moment when it is beneficial to both sides. If not for the United States, nothing prevented Britain, after the end of the showdown with the Falklands, South Georgia and the South Sandwiches, to take and expand the "limited conflict", using the Falklands as its unsinkable aircraft carrier for tactical aviation.
                      5. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 10 June 2016 12: 39
                        0
                        I had about the disinterest in this Spaniards about the same ...
                        Those who were richer or rare specialties could have been in the capital, only almost the poor traveled and normal lands were already occupied. Others climbed to the ranch where they were settled only then had a chance to move to the cities richer and warmer.

                        Helicopters were knocked out by MANPADS and other weapons. So you can light a half-closed bonfire and wait until they fly like mosquitoes - to fly to be knocked out in closed positions on the reverse slopes of the heights, they would have been borrowed in the depths of the Argentine defense and therefore would have been easily knocked out by themselves.
                        She was in their palm so only one day.
                        3 seconds is usually enough to fall down for cover, the battles were nightly, ATGMs were visible normally from afar.

                        Do not confuse with Korea or with Iraq. Nobody went to save this "victim of aggression" and in their overwhelming mass these UN member states did not consider this territory British and do not consider it. The UN has told the parties to the conflict to withdraw their troops and tackle the issue of ownership at the negotiating table. Naturally, this concerned Argentina to a greater extent because there were no British troops on the islands yet, and then England itself scored on this resolution, according to which it was ordered NOT to climb on the islands! For the time being, Argentina considered this resolution even her victory because of this.
                        Nobody would help except Chile, and all would get Chile too ... You all have the other way around: everyone except Chile gathered and began to help Argentina!
                        The United States made its satellite intelligence so that the British would not have to use nuclear.

                        Which aviation, and why didn’t they expand? Dreams, dreams ... Harrier will not fly from there and with the Phantoms F-4K and Tornadoes, Mirages and Daggers would do the same thing that Harriers had done with them over the islands.
                        The British with American and other help (the French and the Germans gave the codes for the weapons supplied to Argentina) Falklands barely mastered, and that is because at the end of Stanley the whole "your division" with armored vehicles did not want to start fighting against the British, after the British took the hills that everyone defended everything from a platoon to a company of light infantry.
                      6. Operator
                        Operator 10 June 2016 14: 17
                        -1
                        At the time of the outbreak of the war, the Falklands had already changed the status of the colony for the status of dependent territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for a year with the provision of British citizenship to the inhabitants of the islands (descendants of Scottish immigrants).

                        After the war, Britain held a referendum among the inhabitants of the Falklands and, as a result, changed the status of islands from dependent to overseas territory. Therefore, Britain wanted to sneeze on Wishlist Argentina and others like her.

                        Of course, you can shoot down an attack helicopter from MANPADS, but after you have knocked out all the firing points on the front line using ATGMs, you are forced to retreat from the front line, i.e. in the conditions of the Falklands on the reverse hillside. After that, British commandos with portable ATGMs will rise to the top of the hill and knock you off the back of the hill. You are forced to retreat to the next hill, etc., until you find yourself on the plain in front of Port Stanley, where your defense will be sweeping through the depths of ATGMs at the heights of dominant heights.

                        As for the opponents of Argentina in the planned military operation Soberania 1978-79 years, taste the corresponding card. The contradictions between them by the 1982 year have not disappeared.

                        At the disposal of Britain were all types of tactical aircraft of NATO countries. What was not in service at the start of the war, Britain could buy after the liberation of the islands and the transfer of hostilities to the continental territory of Argentina.
                      7. Simpsonian
                        Simpsonian 10 June 2016 15: 09
                        0
                        All other Latin American countries, including Argentina, wanted to sneeze on these statuses and referenda like Spain on the Gibraltarian. When multiculturalism reaches there, they can at least be called a caliphate emirate or all become gay (who did not have time). As if it were not clear what results he showed (there was really a way to give each islander one million lire).
                        And why was it about this at all?

                        There were no attack helicopters, only general purpose. The same ATGMs and MANPADS were used by infantry from both sides. On the return slope, they will no longer help, there will begin a close fight. The machine-gun nest is also removed from the grenade launcher or without recoil, in the latter case, the calculation will definitely not have time. Milan beat just 2 km. Before the defense, he didn’t reach Stanley from the heights.

                        Chile, becoming a strange ally of England against all of Latin America, would have tasted of it to the fullest
                        By the way, look not there for the Stalingrad foshizdov, not there at all.
                        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATB2buqd6Yo#t=100.138667
                        were nearby but Pinochet, strange would be among the British allied ...

                        Could something if only they bought the same Mirages from France together with pilots trained to fly them, but if Brazil intervened from which the French Navy in the "Lobster War" was almost ripped off, and nothing would be able to at all. Not a fact else that about. St. Helena, Ascension, Tristan, and maybe Gibraltar remained behind them, and Spain and Portugal would have left NATO as they entered it.
                      8. Operator
                        Operator 10 June 2016 15: 42
                        0
                        Howe, and all the best to you.
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  • Taoist
    Taoist 7 June 2016 15: 14
    +6
    Well, by the way, I’m quite getting myself illustrative material about how excellent performance characteristics on paper turn out to be completely inconsistent with the conditions of a real battle and the technical (and numerical) advantage is almost leveled by horseradish management ... At the same time, all the while, someone commits exploits to compensate for someone’s gouging .
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      7 June 2016 18: 03
      -1
      Greetings, dear Taoist! hi
      Truly so.
  • fsb_buzuk
    fsb_buzuk 7 June 2016 15: 26
    +2
    Andrey, I look forward to every article, thanks!
  • Alexez
    Alexez 7 June 2016 16: 20
    +3
    Andrey, do not dwell on the "Falklands" - I look forward to new articles from you!
  • Pionegr_02
    Pionegr_02 7 June 2016 19: 30
    +2
    Superb cycle! Thanks to the author!
  • Verdun
    Verdun 8 June 2016 10: 34
    +1
    The radar, which was responsible for guiding the Sea Dart air defense missiles, was once again unable to capture low-flying targets, and Sea Wolf frigate Broadsword frigate, unexpectedly for its operators, portrayed Buridanov’s donkey
    At one time, I had the opportunity in Kapyar to ensure the posting of targets for training air defense firing. Complex S-125 from which firing was carried out, was nearby. Shot the calculations of different countries of the Warsaw Pact. We, tablet players, received information from guidance radars and saw everything that happened in the air. All misses on the target and other incidents were associated with calculation errors. The S-125 complex itself works like a clock. At all domestic complexes that I had to meet, there was always the possibility of working in manual mode.
    Thanks to the author for the article, I read all the parts with interest.
    1. Maegrom
      Maegrom 8 June 2016 15: 38
      0
      Testing is one thing, a real enemy is another. I myself tested the developed intrusion detection tools (detectors). There are many nuances when organizing tests, developing methods for conducting, but there is always such a term as "skilled bypass" and "protection from skilled bypass". Ultimately, this is a certain rivalry.
      Not to mention the fact that there are routine works, without which the probability of detecting a normalized impact tends to theoretical 1/2.
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 8 June 2016 16: 14
        0
        Quote: Maegrom
        One thing to test, another real adversary

        One acquaintance shared his impressions of how the training was prepared by the anti-aircraft radar operator in the training. During the posting of the target all the time it was necessary to turn the tracking synchronization knob, so that in case the automatics were turned off, the target remained in captivity. At times, the image on the screen was turned off and the operator ruined the pen for a minute in the blind. When the image was reconnected, the angle difference should not exceed one degree. At the same time, the notch on the screen was the size of a pinhead. What was the surprise of the fighter when he first accompanied the real target - the MiG-31. A notch the size of a thumbnail crawled across the screen! This is to say that in a normal army the tasks accomplished in exercises are sometimes much more complicated than combat tasks.
  • kig
    kig 9 June 2016 16: 13
    0
    What really happened? Alas, most likely, we will never know.
    Well, why? If the aircraft carrier was damaged, it had to be repaired somewhere. We need to visit a pub where workers gather from the shipyard and talk to some senior citizen.
    1. Simpsonian
      Simpsonian 10 June 2016 00: 51
      +2
      From the battle zone came in the same form but tinted, there was no shipyard on the way.
  • behemot
    behemot 16 November 2016 18: 06
    0
    I didn’t see, maybe I didn’t read well, but did they take the manufacturer / supplier of bomb detonators for the gills? It was really necessary to interrogate with a soldering iron, what the hell was going on?
  • Usher
    Usher 1 January 2021 02: 35
    -2
    Here you read and feel the complete delirium of the situation !!! Civilized people who normally play football kill each other in a bayonet attack. And so I was rooting for Argentina. And the British barely defeated a second world country. Barely barely.