Military Review

Submarines of the Pike type

The development of a draft design of a submarine of a series III of medium displacement with torpedo-artillery armament, called the Pike, was carried out at NTMK with the participation of submarine-shipbuilding specialists BM Malinin and K. I. Ruberovsky. By the end of the work, SA Bazilevsky joined it.

The main tactical and technical elements of the Shchuka submarine were approved at a meeting held under the leadership of the Navy chief R.A. Muklevich, November 1 1928. The design of the Technical Bureau’s project No. 4 was completed by the end of 1929.
Polutorakorpusnaya (with boules) Submarine riveted design intended for mass construction. Therefore, when developing a project, much attention was paid to its all-round price reduction. It was supposed to replace the block assembly of submarines in the workshop, in the most favorable conditions to increase productivity and reduce costs.

In the first version of the design task it was planned to divide the robust submarine hull of the Pike into the 5 compartments. The strength of all the light flat bulkheads was calculated only for 2 atm. Submarine in the case of flooding any compartment would remain afloat, because its buoyancy margin (22%) exceeded the largest of them, the nasal one. At the same time, calculations have shown that when the nasal compartment is flooded, if the tank of the main ballast adjacent to it is filled, a trim will be formed above 80 degrees. Therefore, the nose compartment was divided into two additional bulkheads installed between the torpedo tubes and spare torpedoes. The calculated trim was then reduced by approximately 10 degrees, which was considered satisfactory.
A simplified form of a light body was adopted. In contrast to the submarine type "Leninets", it covered only two-thirds of the length of the solid hull. In the bulls passing along the sides (hemispherical fittings) tanks of the main ballast were located, and in the extremities of the light hull - bow and stern tanks. Only the average, leveling, and rapid immersion tank were inside the robust hull. This provided a simpler technology, a greater width of the main ballast tanks, facilitated their assembly and riveting.

Submarines of the Pike type

However, the boolean form of the light housing of the middle submarine had both advantages over two-and-a-half-body submarines of the Dekabrist and Leninets types, as well as disadvantages (impaired running performance). Tests of the head submarine Series III showed that at full speed it formed two systems of transverse waves: one created by the main hull and extremities, the other - with bullets. Consequently, their interference should have increased resistance to movement. Therefore, the shape of the boules for submarines of this type of the subsequent series was improved. Their nasal tip was pointed and raised up to the level of the waterline. By this, the whole system of transverse waves formed by the boules shifted somewhat into the nose, further from the resonance with the waves from the main body.
For a series III submarine, a straight bow was adopted. In the subsequent series of submarines of this type, it was replaced by an inclined, curved patterned submarine of the type "Decembrist".

In the final version, the durable U-type submarine casing of the III series was divided by flat bulkheads into 6 compartments.
The first (nasal) compartment is a torpedo. It housed 4 torpedo tubes (two vertically and horizontally) and 4 spare torpedoes on racks.
The second compartment is a battery. In the pits, closed removable flooring of wooden shields, were located 2 group AB (for 56 elements such as "KSM"). In the upper part of the compartment were living quarters, under the battery pits - fuel tanks.
The third compartment is the central post, above it was installed a solid wheelhouse, closed by a fence with a bridge.
In the fourth compartment were placed 2 four-stroke uncompressed diesel in 600 HP. with its mechanisms, systems, vapor valves and devices.
The fifth compartment was occupied by the 2 main rowing motor according to the 400 HP. and 2 electric motor for economic progress on 20 hp, which were connected to two propeller shafts with a belt elastic transmission, which contributed to the reduction of noise.
In the sixth (aft) compartment were 2 torpedo tubes (arranged horizontally).
In addition to the torpedoes, the submarine had an anti-aircraft 37-mm semi-automatic weapon and 2 machine guns of the 7,62 caliber mm.

During the construction of the first submarines of the "Sh" type, sufficient attention was not paid to the phenomenon of compression of the hull by external pressure of water. Insignificant on the submarine type "Bars" with their smaller depth of immersion and large reserves of rigidity, it caused serious trouble on submarines under construction. For example, during the first deep-sea submersion of a submarine of type “O”, the fillet of the stern torpedo-loading hatch was deformed. The resulting leak was a continuous veil of water, beating under great pressure because of obdelnochnogo square, connecting the skin fillet with a sturdy body. True. The thickness of the water veil was no more than 0,2 mm, but the length exceeded 1 m. Of course, such a leak did not create a threat of flooding the 6 compartment, but the fact of its appearance indicated insufficient rigidity of the structure, which compensated for a rather large elliptical cutout in a strong body of a rather large length (cut several frames). In addition, the appearance of a leak had a negative psychological effect on personnel. In this regard, it is appropriate to cite the words of one of the most experienced Soviet submariners: "Apparently, even a person far from the underwater service, it is not difficult to imagine what a powerful jet of water means, bursting under enormous pressure inside the submarine, located at a depth. There is nowhere to go
Either stop it at any cost, or die. Of course, submariners always choose the first, no matter what it costs each of them. "

The design in the area of ​​the fillet with a solid body was reinforced with additional removable beams.
Even in the process of testing the submarine "Dekabrist" attention was drawn to the strong burrowing of the nose of the submarine into the oncoming wave at full surface speed. Deck tanks on the submarine type "Sh", as well as on the submarine type "L", was not, and this further increased their desire to bury. Only later did it become obvious that such a phenomenon is inevitable for all submarines in the surface position and is caused by their low buoyancy margin. But when creating the first series of submarines, they tried to fight this by increasing the buoyancy of the nasal tip. For this purpose, a special "buoyancy tank" was installed on the "S" type submarine, which, like the entire superstructure, is filled through scuppers (openings with grilles), but equipped with valves for the ventilation of the bow tank of the main ballast. However, this only led to a reduction in the pitching period and an increase in its amplitude: after a sharp rise on the wave, the submarine's nose also fell sharply down and buried in its sole. Therefore, later on the submarine type "Sh" nasal "buoyancy tanks" were eliminated.
Tanks of the main ballast were filled with seawater by gravity through the kingston, located in special enclosures in the lower part of the light hull. They had only manual drives. The ventilation valves of these tanks were controlled both by pneumatic remote actuators and manual actuators.

Excessive simplification and the desire to reduce the cost led to the decision to abandon the Series III submarines from blowing tanks of the main ballast with turbo-compressors, replacing blowing with centrifugal pumps. But this replacement was unsuccessful: the duration of the main ballast removal process increased to 20 minutes. This was absolutely unacceptable, and the turbochargers were again placed on submarines of the type "U". Later on all submarines of this type, for the first time in the domestic submarine shipbuilding, the blowers were replaced by blowing the main ballast with exhaust gases of diesel engines (low pressure air system). In this case, the diesel engines were driven by the main rowing motor and acted as a compressor.

So 3 PL series III - "Pike", "Okun" and "Ersh" were laid 5 February 1930, in the presence of a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, the head of the Navy R.A. Muklevich. He said about the submarine of type "U": "We have the ability of this submarine to begin a new era in our shipbuilding. This will provide an opportunity to acquire skills and prepare the necessary personnel for the deployment of production."
The builder of the submarine "Pike" and "Okun" was M.L. Kovalsky, the submarine "Ersh" - K.I. Grinevsky. The responsible deliverer of these three submarines under construction in Leningrad was G. M. Trusov, the transfer mechanic, KF Ignatiev. The State Admissions Committee was headed by Y. K. Zubarev.

The first 2 submarines were commissioned by the Naval Forces of the Baltic Sea 14 in October 1933. They were commanded by A.P. Shergin and D. M. Kosmin, mechanical engineer - I. G. Milashkin and I. N. Peterson.
The third subunit "Yorsh" was commissioned by BF 25 on November 1933. A.Vitkovsky took command of it, and V.Vemin Semen became a mechanical engineer.
The fourth submarine of series III was supposed to be called “Ide. But at the beginning of 1930, the country's Komsomol members made an effort to build one submarine for the 13-1 anniversary of the October Revolution and call it Komsomolets.” They collected RUR 2,5 million rubles for construction. At the ceremonial laying 23 February 1930 was attended by Deputy Commissariat of Defense and Chairman of the USSR RVS S.Kamenev and secretary of the Komsomol S.A.Saltanov .PI.Makarkin, who oversees the construction from the Navy - G.P. Pakhomov, was the builder of this submarine. 2 May 1931. The submarine was launched and then delivered on at Mariinsky water system to Leningrad for completion.
On August 15, 1934, the Komsomolets submarine was accepted from industry, and on August 24 it was transferred to the Baltic fleet. Its first commander was K.M. Bubnov, a mechanical engineer - G.N. Kokilev.


Displacement above-water / underwater 572 t / 672 t
Length 57 m
Maximum width 6,2 m
Draft on the surface 3,76 m
The number and power of the main diesel engines 2 x 600 hp
The number and power of the main electric motors 2 x 400 hp
Full surface speed 11,5 knots
Full submarine speed 8,5 knots
Navigation range above the full speed 1350 miles (9 knots)
Navigation range above the economic speed of 3130 miles (8,5 knots)
Navigation distance underwater at an economic speed of 112 miles (2,8 knots)
Autonomy 20 day
Operating depth immersion 75 m
Extreme depth of immersion 90 m
Armament: 4 bow and 2 stern TA, total 10 torpedoes
One 45-mm cannon (500 shells)

In accordance with the decision of the CPSU and the Government of the USSR, in 1932, the construction of an X-type 12 submarine for the Pacific Ocean began. The first 4 PL (Carp, Bream, Karp and Burbot) were laid on March 20. Initially, the series “Crucian” of the series III was called, then the submarine of the “Pike” type - bis, and finally, the submarine of the “Pike” type of the V series (in November 1933 of the submarine “Karas” was called the Salmon).

On a series III submarine, the bulkhead between the first and second compartments was designed, like other bulkheads, for an underwater accident. But the method of approximate calculation, which was used in this case, did not take into account the possible submergence of the submarine when moving with trim. Therefore, another transverse bulkhead (on the 31 frame) was added to the V-type submarine of the V-series, dividing the second compartment into two. The battery groups were isolated as a result of one another, which increased the survivability of the battery. At the same time, the aft bulkhead of the nose compartment was moved into the nose to the 2 (from the 24-th to the 22-th frame).

It should be noted that in the manufacture of inter-compartment bulkheads, electric welding was used. It was also used in the manufacture of certain tanks and foundations of individual mechanisms inside a solid hull. Electric welding persistently took root in submarine shipbuilding.
The total number of V series submarine bays increased to 7. However, we had to go into storage in the second compartment of spare torpedoes without charging compartments, to assemble them before firing from the left-side torpedo tubes (No. 2 and No. 4) to use the oval bulkhead door, and along the axis of the right-side torpedo tubes (No. 1 and No. 3) make in the new bulkhead corresponding hatches.
The medium tank was moved into the double-breasted space, which made it possible to ease its design by increasing the test pressure threefold.
These design changes were also dictated by the need to transport U-type submarines to the Far East. Therefore, at the same time, the cutting of the plating and a set of durable hull, which was made of eight sections corresponding to the railway dimensions, were changed.

The length of the V-Series submarine was increased by 1,5 m, resulting in a slightly increased displacement (592 t / 716 t). This was also facilitated by the installation of a second 45-mm caliber cannon and a doubling of ammunition (up to 1000 shells).
The main builder of the submarines of the type “” of the V series was G. M. Trusov. The idea of ​​delivering to the Pacific in sections, followed by assembly on site, belonged to the engineer PG Goynkis. The production and shipment of sections were provided by KF Terletsky, who left for the Far East and headed the assembly of the submarines together with PG Goynkis.
The first train echelon with submarine sections of the V-series was sent to the Far East 1 June 1932. By the end of the year, the 7 PL-V submarines were in service. Their appearance in the Pacific Ocean caused serious concern among the Japanese government. Japanese newspapers launched the following information: "The Bolsheviks brought several worthless old submarines to Vladivostok."

In total, until the end of 1933, the POF received an 8 U-type V-type submarine (the eighth submarine Forel acceptance certificate, later U-108, was approved by 5 on April 1934). The shipbuilding industry has fulfilled an intense plan for putting them into operation by 112%.
The commander of the head submarine "Salmon" of the V series (later "W-101"), which became part of the November 11 26 URA 1933 was G. N. Kholostyakov, the mechanical engineer VV Filippov. The standing commission for its testing and acceptance was headed by AK Wekman. December 22 signed an act of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Far Eastern Maritime Forces on completion with overfulfilment of the launch program of the submarines in 1933.

A further modification of the type S-type submarine was the V-bis series submarine (originally VII series), the V bis 2, X and X bis. Separate design changes were made to them, which improved survivability, the interior of mechanisms and devices, and somewhat increased tactical and technical elements. Installed more advanced electronic devices, communications and hydro-acoustics.
From the 13 PL series V - bis, the 8 PL were built for the Pacific Fleet, the 2 PL - for the Red Banner Baltic Fleet, and the 3 PL - for the Black Sea Fleet. From 14 PL series V -bis 2 by 5 PL received CBF and TOF, 4 PL-BSF.
By the time the V-bis submarine was designed, it became possible to increase the power of the main diesel engines by 35% with little or no change in their mass and dimensions. Together with the improved shape of the boules, this gave an increase in the surface speed of the submarines by more than 1,5 knots. The head subunit of the V series bis “Militant Atheist”, built on the funds of voluntary contributions from members of this society was laid in November 1932 (the builder and responsible deliverer - IG Milashkin). With the entry of 19 on July 1935, the Red Banner Baltic Fleet submarine was given a new name "Lin" ("Shch-305"). The second submarine of the series V-bis became the submarine "Salmon" ("Shch-308").

On the U type submarine of the V-bis 2 series, the nasal contours were slightly improved by lengthening the boules. For the storage of spare torpedoes in the assembly, the aft bulkhead of the second compartment (on the 31 frame) was made unusual — not vertical but stepped along the profile, its upper part (above the battery well) was shifted by one slat into the stern.
The strength of the bulkheads of the central post, now located in the fourth compartment, was calculated for 6 atm.
5 PL series V-bis 2 - "Cod" (head, "U-307"), "Haddock" ("U-306"), "Dolphin" ("U-309"), "Belukha" ("U- 310 ") and" Kumzha "(" Shch-311 ") were laid on the eve of the 16 anniversary of the October Revolution - November 6 1933. The first two of them entered into service 17 August XB, 1935 November 20. The commander of one of the V series bis submarines, the 1935, described his submarine in this way: "Submarine U-2" ("Dolphin"), equipped with the latest electronic navigation devices, could swim in any weather far from its bases, both at sea and and in the ocean.
Possessing powerful torpedo armaments, as well as systems, devices and devices that provide a hidden access to a torpedo attack, the submarine had the opportunity to act against large enemy warships, to detect them in a timely manner - this allowed its means of observation. Submarine radio station guaranteed stable communication with the command at a great distance from their bases.
Finally, the expedient arrangement of instruments and mechanisms in a submarine ensured not only the successful use of weapons and maintaining its vitality, but also the rest of the personnel in their spare time from keeping the watch.
The strength and reliability of the submarines were tested in the harsh battles of the 1941 - 1945 war. The commander of the same submarine Shch-309 wrote about it from the fierce persecution of its submarine by anti-submarine ships of the enemy in 1942: "The submarine passed all the tests: close breaks of depth charges, great depths, the vagaries of the sea elements, and in full combat readiness, not having passed a single drop of water inside, continued to carry on military service. And this is a great merit of the submarine builders. "

Prior to the creation of the X-series submarines (first V-bis 3), the industry began to produce improved diesel engines of the 35-K-8 brand with a capacity of 800 hp. at 600 rpm As a result, the surface speed of new submarines of the type “Щ” increased in comparison with the submarines of the V-bis series on 0,5 knots. Some increase in underwater speed contributed to the installation of cuttings of the so-called limousine form, characterized by the inclination of its walls in the bow and stern. However, when sailing on the surface, especially in fresh weather, this form of cutting made it possible for the oncoming wave to roll easily along the inclined wall and fill the navigating bridge. To eliminate this, some reflectors of the X-Series submarines were fitted with reflectors to divert the oncoming wave to the side.
The measures taken to increase the surface and submarine speed of the U-type submarine, however, did not produce the desired results: the submarine of the X-series - 14,12 knots / 8,62 knots - had the highest speed. “Everyone is good at Pikes, only the move is too small. Sometimes it leads to distressing situations when the detected convoy has to be accompanied only by strong expressions - the lack of speed did not allow reaching the point of the volley,” was the opinion of Hero of the Soviet Union I.A. Kolyshkina, a veteran of the Northern Fleet, which included the submarines of the "Sh" type X series during the war.

One of the most serious problems in submarine shipbuilding has always been the provision of submarines with fresh water, because this directly affected its autonomy. Even during the construction of the D-type submarines, the question was raised of creating an electric desalter capable of satisfying the crew’s need for fresh water for drinking and cooking, as well as distilled water for topping up batteries. For a long time, the solution to this problem was made difficult due to the lack of reliability of the heating elements and high power consumption. But in the end, both issues were resolved: first, by improving the technology and quality of thermal insulation, and secondly, by introducing more complete heat recovery from waste water and steam. At the same time, methods were found to make desalinated water its desired taste and supply it with those microelements, without which the normal functioning of the human body is impossible. The first sample of an electropresser that met the requirements was installed on a submarine of type "Sh" series X.
The head submarine of the X series "Shch-127" was laid on 23 July 1934. It was built for the Pacific Fleet. On the same day, construction began on another PL of the X series ("Shch-126"). The first 4 submarines of this series were commissioned by the PF 3 in October 1936.

Total industry gave the Navy of the USSR 32 submarine type "Sh" series X, which were distributed among the fleets as follows:
CBF - 15 PL, BSF - 8 PL, TOF - 9 PL.
Before the outbreak of the war, 75 submarines of the type "U" of series II, V, V - bis, V - bis-2 and x were commissioned. In the building were 13 PL series X - bis, of which 9 PL were enrolled in the Navy until the end of the war.
In total, the 88 PL, which the industry was building, included in the USSR Navy 86 PL, two submarines were dismantled after the war for ship repair.

Despite some shortcomings, submarines of the type "S" had high tactical and technical elements than foreign submarines of similar types, were distinguished by simplicity of design, reliability of mechanisms, systems and devices, and had a large margin of safety. They could dive and emerge with a wave up to 6 points, did not lose their nautical qualities during a storm in 9 - 10 points. They have installed Mars-type direction-finders and Vega-type audio communication devices with a range from 6 to 12 miles.
"Having 10 torpedoes, a submarine of type" U "with a length of 60 m could sink a battleship or an aircraft carrier in the ocean. Thanks to their relatively small size, submarines of type" U "were very agile and almost imperceptible for submarine hunters for their submarines.
For the submarines of this type of different series was characterized by an extremely eventful fate, in which the definition common to many of them is often - the "first".

The first submarines of the Far Eastern Naval Forces (from 11 in January 1935 g, - PF) were the submarines "Salmon" ("Shch-11", from 1934 g. - "Shch-101") and "Leshch" ("Shch-12", from 1934, Shch-102) of the V series, which raised the naval flag of 23 on September 1933. Subsequently, the head submarine of the Pacific Fleet under the command of DG Chernova won the first place in the results of military and political training and was awarded an honorary to the VLKSM Central Committee Komsomol badge. An enlarged bronze cast of his image was reinforced on the submarine felling. This distinction was not honored by any warship.
At the beginning of 1934, the submarine Leshch (commander A.T. Zaostrovtsev), leaving the bay for combat training, was the first to sail under the ice, having traveled about 5 miles. In the same year, the submarines Karp (U-13, later U-103) and Nalim (U-14, later U-104), commanded by N.I. Ivanovsky and S S. Kudryashov, the first to make a long training trip along the coast of Primorye. During the long voyage technique worked flawlessly.
In March - April, the 1935 was in the autonomous voyage of the submarine Shch-117 ("Mackrel") - the head submarine of the V-bis series, commanded by N.P.Egipko.
In August - November, she completed a long campaign of the submarine Shch-118 (Mullet), commanded by A.V. Bouk.
In the second half of the same year, the submarine Shch-103 (Karp) of the V series under the command of E.E. Poltava made a continuous 58-hour diving, having passed more than 150 miles under the electric motors of an economical course, which significantly exceeded the design standard.

In 1936, the People's Commissar of Defense, KE Voroshilov, set a task for submariners - to work out the submarine voyage for their complete autonomy. Among submariners, a movement of innovators has developed for the improvement of the standards of autonomy established in the design. For this, it was necessary to find possibilities for increasing the reserves of fuel, fresh water, food, combined with training in the habitability of personnel.

Practice has shown that the submarines of the "Sh" type had large hidden reserves. Submariners Pacific Fleet, for example, managed to increase autonomy compared to the norm in 2 - 3,5 times. The submarine Shch-117 (commander N.P. Egipko) was at sea 40 days (at the rate of 20 days), setting also the record of being under water on the move - 340 hours 35 minutes. During this time, "U-117" has passed 3022, 3 miles, 315,6 miles of them. All personnel of this submarine was awarded orders. This submarine was the first in stories Soviet Navy ship with a fully order-bearing crew.

In March-May of the same year, the submarine Shch-50 (Sayda) of the V-bis-122 series under the command of AV Buk was in the 2-day autonomous campaign, in April-June - the Submarine Shch-123 ("Eel") of the same series under the command of I.M. Zaynullin. Her trip lasted 2,5 months - one and a half times longer than the submarine "U-122" and almost 2 times longer than the submarine "U-117".
In July and September, the V-bis and the Shch-119 (Catfish) series V-bis-121 submarines made a long trip with the "Shch-2" ("Beluga") submarine.
In August - September, the 5 submarine of the type "Y", accompanied by the floating base "Saratov", was carried out under the command of the captain 2 of the rank of GN N. Kholostyakov a long joint voyage. They were the first in the history of submarines to visit Okhotsk, Magadan and other settlements of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk.

In the period from September 14 to December 25, 1936 carried out the X-NUMX-daily voyage of the Submarine Shch-103 (Sterlet) submarine of the V-bis series, commanded by Mikhail S. Klevensky. This submarine was the first for an hour to go under diesel engines at a periscope depth. Air for diesel engines to work came through a corrugated hose (its upper end was fixed at the head of the zenith periscope, and the lower one was supplied to the external equalization tank ventilation valve) through the internal vent valve of the tank. This curious experiment was conducted to find out the possibility of scuba diving diesel submarines without spending electricity reserves.

Until 40 days (on average), the autonomy of the submarines of the type "" "series X on the Baltic fleet was brought.

In 1936, the subdivision of such submarines, commanded by Captain 2, rank E.E. Eichbaum, spent an entire day in the campaign of 46. New terms of autonomy of the most numerous in number in the Soviet Navy submarine of the type "Sh", twice as long as the previous ones, were officially approved by the People's Commissar of Defense.

In 1937, the submarine U-105 (Keta) submarine of the V series under the command of the captain 3 of the rank of A.T. Chebanenko was first used in the Far East for scientific navigation. During the voyage in the Sea of ​​Japan and the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, she performed gravimetric surveys - determining the acceleration of gravity on the earth's surface.
Among the first submarines of the SF were "U-313" ("U-401"), "U-314" ("U-402"), "U-315" ("U-403"), "U-316" ("U-404") series X, arrived in 1937 from the Baltic to the North. The following year, the submarines "Shch-402" and "Shch-404" took part in an operation to rescue the first-ever Arctic North Pole research station in the history.
Submarines "Shch-402" (commander captain-lieutenant B.K. Bakunin), "Shch-403" (commander captain-lieutenant F.M. Eltishchev) and "Shch-404" (commander captain-lieutenant V.A. Ivanov ) were among the first four Soviet submarines, which were the first to go to 1939 from the Arctic to the North Sea. In the Barents Sea, they withstood the most severe storm (wind power reached 11 points). On the submarine "Shch-404" waves broke several metal sheets of the superstructure of the light hull and an underwater anchor, but none of the submarine mechanisms failed.

Submarines of the "Sh" type successfully withstood a severe battle test during the Soviet-Finnish war in the winter of 1939 - 1940. They were the first Soviet ships to use their weapons. The battle account was opened by the submarine "Shch-323" series X under the command of Art. Lieutenant F.Ivantsova, sinking December 10 in storm conditions with artillery shells Kassari transport (379 brt). At the end of the same day, the crew of the submarine Shch-322, commanded by Lieutenant-Captain V. Poleshchuk, won. Torpedo was sunk transport "Reinbek" (2804 brt), not stopped for inspection in the Gulf of Bothnia. Successfully acted in the Gulf of Bothnia submarine "Shch-311" ("Kumzha") series V - bis-2 under the command of Lieutenant Commander FG Vershinin. December 28 on the approaches to the port of Vasa she damaged the transport "Siegfried" in cohesive ice, and a few hours later shells "Villepas" (775 brt) destroyed shells and torpedoes.
Submarine "Shch-324" of series X, commanded by captain 3 of the rank of A.M. Konyaev, when leaving 19 in January from the Gulf of Bothnia for the first time in a combat situation forced the Sirda-Kvarken (South Quarken) under ice, breaking 20 miles.
7 February 1940 The Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet awarded the Substation Shch-311 with the Order of the Red Banner. She was (along with the submarine "C-1") one of the first Red Banner submarines in the Navy of the USSR.
The third Red Banner submarine was 21 on April 1940, Shch-324. During the period from 5 August to 9 September 1940, this series X submarine X made the first in the history of diving the Northern Sea route from Polar to Gulf Bay (Bering Sea). She was commanded by captain 3 of rank I.M. Zaynullin, mechanical engineer was military engineer 1 of rank G.N.Solovyev. October 17 Submarine U-423 entered Vladivostok. It passed through the 8 of the seas and became the first submarine, which passed along the northern and eastern maritime borders of the USSR along their entire length.

It should be noted that the PL "Shch-212" and "Shch-213" Black Sea Fleet were the first Soviet PL, equipped in 1940 with devices of a buzzer free torpedo firing (BIS). At the same time, after the release of torpedoes from the TA, no air bubble appeared on the sea surface, as it was before, which unmasked the torpedo attack and the location of the submarine.
The first of the Soviet submarines in the Great Patriotic War was the combat success of the submarine Shch-402 of series X (commander, senior lieutenant N.G.Stolbov) of the SF. 14 July 1941 g. She sank, penetrating the raid port of Honningsvåg, the transport of the enemy. The first result in the anti-submarine warfare was achieved by the crew of the submarine Shch-307 of the V-bis-2 series (commander lieutenant commander N.I. Petrov) of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet. 10 August 1941 in the vicinity of the Soelasund strait, it sunk the German U-144 submarine.
Of the Black Sea Fleet submarines, the Submarine Shch-211 of series X (commander-lieutenant A.Devyatko) succeeded by sinking 15 on August 1941 Peles transport (5708 brt).

Picture of Oleg Yudin: Submarine "Pike" X-series

The first ships of the Soviet Navy to be awarded a state award — the Order of the Red Banner — were two. One of them is the submarine "Shch-323" (commander, captain-lieutenant F.I.Ivantsov) of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet.
In 1942, the submarine Red Banner Baltic Fleet for the first time had to break through the enemy’s powerful anti-submarine line in the Gulf of Finland. First this task was successfully fulfilled by the submarine Shch-304 (Komsomolets) under command of the captain of the rank 3 Ya.P. Afanasyev. This last series III submarine showed high combat stability under the blows of various types of anti-submarine weapons. She broke through a minefield, she was attacked several times and mercilessly pursued the enemy ships. "U-322" 22 crossed the lines of enemy mines once, 7 was attacked by airplanes and fired at coastal artillery three times, had 7 encounters with enemy patrol ships, two - with German submarines. Its 14 was once pursued by enemy anti-submarine ships, dropping depth bombs over 150. Submarine "Shch-304" returned from a hike with a victory, sinking 15 on June 1942 at the Porkallan-Calboda lighthouse floating base of trawlers MRS-12 (former Nuremberg transport vessel with a displacement 5635 brt. In the same year, the submarine "Shch- The 101 "(" Salmon ") of the V series of the Pacific Fleet was equipped with an on-board mine device that made it possible to receive 40 PMT mines. At the same time, it retained its torpedo armament.

Of the three CBF submarines awarded the 1 of March 1943 of the Guards rank, 2 of the Subgroup of the type “Sh” - “Shch-303” (“Ruff”) of series III and “Shch-309” (“Dolphin”) of the V-bis-2 series . On the same day, the first guards submarine of the Black Sea Fleet became the submarine Shch-205 (Nerpa) series - bis-2.
In 1943, she was the first to overcome the adversary-reinforced anti-submarine defense of the enemy in the Gulf of Finland Guards Submarine Shch-303. She reached the Nargen-Porkallaudda position, where the enemy additionally installed 2 lines of steel anti-submarine networks, along which ship patrols were deployed, and underwater sonar stations operated on the flanks. Submarine "Shch-303" stubbornly tried to break through the anti-submarine network barrier, which the German command gave the name "Valros". She was repeatedly entangled in networks, subjected to fierce attacks of enemy ships and aircraft. Berlin Radio was quick to report the sinking of the Soviet submarine, but it returned safely to base. During the campaign, more than two thousand depth charges were dropped on it. Many times the submarine hull touched mine mines. The average stay under water - 23 hours per day.

It was possible to withstand the test of structural strength in extreme situations and the submarine Shch-318 of series X of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet commanded by the captain of rank 3 L.А.Loshkarev.
At about the time of 4 in the morning of February 10 in the morning on the coast of Courland, she was rammed by a German ship suddenly emerging from a snowy haze. The blow fell on the stern of the left side of the submarine. The stern horizontal rudders were jammed, a trim was formed on the stern, and the Shch-1945 began to plummet. It was possible to stop its fall after emergency blowing of the main ballast at a depth of 318 m. The submarine practically could not move under water - it turned out to be a disabled vertical wheel. It was possible to hold the given depth only with the help of the bow horizontal rudders, and the course - by changing the operating mode of the rowing motors. An hour later, when hydroacoustics reported that the “horizon” was clear, “U-65” surfaced. The water around the submarine, the upper deck and the bridge covered a layer of solarium. Damage received as a result of a collision strike was significant: the drives of the aft horizontal rudders and the vertical rudder were killed, the latter being stuck in the left to aboard position, the aft ballast tank was broken, the left aft TA was damaged. There was no talk of troubleshooting at sea. Returning to the base, the submarine could only in the surface position, continuously at risk of meeting with the antisubmarine forces of the enemy. Subordinates of the commander of the BC-318 engineer-lieutenant-commander N. M. Gorbunov kept the submarine on a given course by changing the rotational speed of each of the two diesel engines. February 5 “U-14” independently arrived in Turku, where Soviet Red Banner Baltic Fleet submarines were based after Finland left the war. "U-318" withstood the test of strength, while the German transport "August Schulze" ("Ammerland - 318") rammed it with a 2 gross vehicle, which caused a ram attack, sank from the injuries received the same day.

During the Great Patriotic War, submarines of type “Sh” sank 99 enemy ships with a total displacement of 233488 brt, 13 warships and auxiliary ships, damaged 7 ships with a total displacement of 30884 brt and one minesweeper. On their combat score, 30% of the enemy’s drowned and damaged tonnage. Such a result did not have the Soviet submarines of other types.
The greatest success achieved:
Submarine "Shch-421" series X (commander captain 3 rank N.А.Lunin and captain-lieutenant F.A. Vidyaev) of the Northern fleet sunk 7 transports with a total displacement 22175 brt;
Submarine "Shch-307" ("Cod") -head Submarine of the V series - bis-2 (commanders of lieutenant commander N.O. Momot and M.S. Kalinin) of the Baltic Fleet sunk 7 brt vessels with a total displacement of 17225 brt;
Submarine "Shch-404" series X (commander captain 2 rank V.A. Ivanov) of the Northern Fleet sunk 5 vessels with a total displacement of 16000 brt;
Submarine "Shch-407" series X-bis (commander captain-lieutenant P.I.Bocharov) of the Baltic Fleet sank the ship 2 with a total displacement of 13775 brt;
Submarine "Shch-402" series X (commanders of the captain 3 rank NG Stolbov and AM Kautsky) of the Northern Fleet sunk 5 ships with a total displacement of 13482 brt;
Submarine "Shch-309" sank 13775 brt;
Submarine "Shch-402" series X (commanders of captains 3 of the rank of I.S. Kabo and PPVetchinkin) of the Baltic Fleet sunk the 4 of the ship with a total displacement of 12457 brt;
Submarine "Shch-211" Series X (Commander-Lieutenant A.Devyatko) of the Black Sea Fleet sank the 2 of the vessel with a total displacement of 11862 brt;
Submarine "Shch-303" ("Ёрш" _) series III (commanders captain-lieutenant I.V. Travkin and captain 3 rank EA Ignatiev) of the Baltic Fleet sank the 2 vessel with a total displacement 11844 brt;
Submarine "Shch-406" - head submarine of the X-series (commander captain 3 of the rank E.Ya. Osipov) of the Baltic Fleet sunk 5 vessels with a total displacement of 11660 brt;
Submarine "Shch-310" series V-bis-2 (commanders of captains 3 rank DK Yaroshevich and S.N. Bogorad) of the Baltic Fleet sank 7 vessels with a total displacement of 10995 brt;
Submarine "Shch-317" Series X (Commander-in-Lieutenant N.K. Mokhov) of the Baltic Fleet sunk 5 ships with a total displacement of 10931 brt;
Submarine "Shch-320" series X (commander captain 3 rank I.M. Vishnevsky) of the Baltic Fleet sank the 3 vessel with a total displacement of 10095 brt.

Were awarded the Order of the Red Banner Submarine "U-307", "U-310", "U-320", "U-323", "U-406" CBF, "U-201", "U-209" Black Sea Fleet , "U-403", "U-404", "U-421" of the Northern Fleet.
They were awarded the Guards title of the PL “Shch-303”, “Shch-309”, Baltic Fleet, “Shch-205”, “Shch-215” of the Black Sea Fleet, “Shch-422” of the Northern Fleet, and the PL “Shch-402” of the SF became Red Banner Guardship.
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  1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 6 September 2013 09: 31
    A heavy sigh ...
    During the Great Patriotic War, the "Sh" type submarines sank 99 enemy ships with a total displacement of 233488 brt, 13 warships and auxiliary vessels, damaged 7 ships with a total displacement of 30884 brt and one minesweeper.

    Рњ-РґСЏ ...
    On the account of “pikes” during the Second World War, there are 29 of sunk enemy transports (82 211 gross; this also includes the Finnish steamboat Villepas and the German Rhine-beck, destroyed during the Soviet-Finnish war), the Japanese motobot, as well two German BDB, a submarine and a guard. Four more enemy ships (18 168 gross) were damaged. It should be noted right away that this list is clearly not final; it is necessary to clarify the results of at least a dozen more attacks, after which the submariners had reason to report as victories. 19 transports and schooners of neutral states (10 Turkish, 5 Bulgarian, 3 Swedish, 1 Estonian; total tonnage near 6500 gross), destroyed during the "unlimited underwater war" near the territorial waters of these states stand apart.
    At the same time, we lost 31 Pike. In other words, almost one to one.
    Despite some shortcomings, submarines of the "Shch" type had higher tactical and technical elements than foreign submarines of similar types

    Fantasy. The pike has never been a successful submarine. Type "L" - yes, type "S" - just wonderful, type "K" - very good, but "Sh" ...
  2. Su-9
    Su-9 6 September 2013 09: 42
    Thank you very much for the article, and interesting, and informative, and with the details. It is unlikely that you can add anything.
    I have always been interested in the question - we had a Pike developed, but the Type C submarine was developed by the Germans, at about the same time, we bought it, and it cost a lot too. Esca was bigger but about the same armed. The boats also fought about the same.
    Which was better? I read that it seems to be S-ka, but it could be a purely subjective opinion, as it was larger and invented by the Fritz themselves and was somewhat similar to Type7 ...
    What are your opinions? Was Pike better for the Baltic and the Black Sea?
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 6 September 2013 10: 33
      Quote: Su-9
      I was always interested in the question - we had a pike designed by Bula, but the type C submarine was developed by the Germans

      Not certainly in that way. When designing pikes, much attention was paid to the English L-55, which our drowned in civilian, and then raised. At the same time, developing a pike, they wanted to get a submarine for the Gulf of Finland - a kind of addition to minefields.
      According to the idea of ​​the Sh-type submarine, it should not (and could not really) be used on enemy communications. The scanty cruising range, low surface speed - all this greatly limited the ship's combat effectiveness. This was superimposed on both constructional errors and the "quality" of performance ... In general, the submarine was frankly bad.
      But the eska, having an excellent German prototype, almost completely met the then requirements for an average submarine, so it makes no sense to compare them
  3. Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 6 September 2013 10: 32
    And there were still underwater cruisers, will you write anything about them? How did they prove themselves?
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 6 September 2013 10: 35
      Are you talking about submarine type "K"? They have proven themselves excellent ...
      1. Per se.
        Per se. 6 September 2013 12: 31
        Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
        Excellent they have proven themselves ...

        Unfortunately, dear Andrey, they could not prove themselves very well for one reason, that these ocean boats were used not in areas suitable for them, in the shallow Baltic, blocked by the Germans, and along the coastline of Norway. The advantages of the boat, undoubtedly, include its increased autonomy (with improved habitability), speed and strong armament. At the same time, with a boat length of 97,7 meters, the immersion depth was 100 meters, poor maneuverability, noise, problems with a mine device were also attributed to the disadvantages. Of the 6 K-type boats in the Northern Fleet, four went missing in 1942-1943, one, K-23, was sunk by depth charges. Only K-21 survived. Baltic Katyushas were more fortunate, all five boats remained intact by the end of the war. It should also be noted here that despite the strong torpedo armament of the "K" boats, only 5,9% of the sunk targets were destroyed directly by torpedoes, 33,7% by exposed mines, and 52,4% of the boats were sunk by artillery fire, that is, acting in surfaced, like an artillery ship. This is also an indicator of "underwater" and the effectiveness of torpedo attacks. In general, type "C" is considered to be our best boat, WWII, which was designed by the German-Dutch design bureau IvS by order of the Soviet side. The Fritz knew how to make boats ... We made the right conclusions by creating after the war one of the best Soviet submarine fleet in the world. Only this potential would not be lost, given the current Russian capitalism.
        1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 6 September 2013 14: 15
          Quote: Per se.
          Unfortunately, dear Andrei, they could not prove themselves perfectly for the sole reason that these ocean boats were not used in areas suitable for them, shallow, blocked by the Germans Baltic, and along the coastline of Norway.

          And nevertheless, the efficiency of their use was much higher (in terms of one lost boat) than "U", isn't it?
          Quote: Per se.
          At the same time, with a boat length of 97,7 meters, the immersion depth was 100 meters, the disadvantages also included poor maneuverability, noise, problems with the mine device.

          Nuuu, as far as I remember, everything was even worse on the pike - the first episodes didn’t dive below 50
          Quote: Per se.
          It should also be noted here that despite the strong torpedo armament of the "K" boats, only 5,9% of the sunk targets were destroyed directly by torpedoes, 33,7% by exposed mines, and 52,4% of the boats were sunk by artillery fire, that is, acting in surfaced, like an artillery ship. This is also an indicator of "underwater" and the effectiveness of torpedo attacks.

          That drowned with artillery is normal, the Germans had fun in about the same way. Sense of spending expensive torpedoes on transports in 3-4 thousand tons in weight? Or motorbots. So everything is correct and as intended.
          Quote: Per se.
          In general, type "C" is considered to be our best boat, WWII, which was designed by the German-Dutch design bureau IvS by order of the Soviet side. The Fritz knew how to make boats

          But who argues ...
          1. Andrey77
            Andrey77 6 September 2013 18: 49
            And nevertheless, the efficiency of their use was much higher (in terms of one lost boat) than "U", isn't it?
            No. Do you have any data?

            That drowned with artillery is normal, the Germans had fun in about the same way. Sense of spending expensive torpedoes on transports in 3-4 thousand tons in weight? Or motorbots. So everything is correct and as intended.
            Do you have information about who was drowned by artillery fire from the "K" boat?
            1. ICT
              ICT 6 September 2013 19: 41
              as an example:
              there was an episode in the Northern Fleet: a cap of the 3rd rank K.I. Malofeev attacked a convoy of 1 transport and 3 escort ships with torpedoes, after the sinking of the transport, the escort ships began pursuing the boat, throwing depth charges at it, the commander made a decision to surface. after surfacing "K-3" (100-mm gun) entered an artillery battle and within five minutes destroyed the hundred-torch ship and a boat, and the second boat put to flight
              (there’s a couple more episodes to find)

              , but artillery was used only in exceptional cases.
              1. Andrey77
                Andrey77 7 September 2013 02: 18
                Here we take at least this episode. Kaptri Malofeev, what boat did he command and did he command? This time. Are vehicle drowning confirmed? By whom? These are two. What kind of transport, approximate displacement and port of registry, coordinates at last? I am silent about the cargo on board. These are three. Enough?
                1. ICT
                  ICT 7 September 2013 06: 15
                  K-3 boat, in this campaign the boat was commander of the division captain 2 rank M.I. Gadzhiev, in more detail on this episode somewhere there IO Navy d.1497ll.281-287

                  Quote: TIT
                  Are vehicle drowning confirmed? By whom?

                  There is a summary table such that the submarines of the Northern Fleet sank 87 transports, of which 59 confirmed losses by foreign sources.
                  1. ICT
                    ICT 7 September 2013 06: 57
                    yes a mistake (but not mine), on December 3, she unsuccessfully attacked the German transport "Altkirch" with four torpedoes from a long distance, but the rest is true
        2. Andrey77
          Andrey77 6 September 2013 18: 42
          Of the 6 K-type boats in the Northern Fleet, four went missing in 1942-1943, one, K-23, was sunk by depth charges
          Are you talking about submarine type "K"? They have proven themselves excellent .. = Oha, we see - to Andrey from Chelyabinsk.
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 6 September 2013 20: 16
            Quote: Andrey77
            Og, we see - Andrei from Chelyabinsk.

            The namesake, but yourself to calculate weakly, or what?
            In U-type submarines of confirmed victories - 29 transports and other enemy ships and 19 neutral ships with a total displacement of 88 710 tons. 44 Pike participated in the war. Total for one participating in the war - 2016 tons of trade tonnage and 1,1 enemy ship.
            Type K submarines (which participated in the 10 submarine war) confirmed 25 vessels with a displacement of over 27 thousand tons. Total - 2,7 thousand tons of sunken tonnage per boat, 2,5 sunken ships per boat.
            During the war, 44 boat or more than 31% of those participating in the war were lost from 70 Pike. Type K - 5 pieces, or 50%. 2,8 thousand sunken tonnage or one and a half ship sunk by boats of this type are accounted for one sunken boat of type Щ. One K type submarine accounts for 5,4 thousand tons of sunken tonnage or 5 of enemy ships sunk by boats of this type.
            1. Andrey77
              Andrey77 7 September 2013 01: 58
              What are you talking about. And the links? At least to the native archive of the Navy. Weak? 29 transports speak? Give 29 names (ships). I know one - Wilhelm Gustloff. No, it's boat "C". So, the list of victories in the studio.
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  5. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 6 September 2013 20: 59
    Great stat, big from me + :)

    For a long time I intend to write more about the Sch-211 and the Bulgarian underground soldiers who landed on it on August 11, 1941, but still there is no time. By the way, on this trip a few days later, Shch-211 opened a "combat account" of the Black Sea Fleet in the Second World War, sinking the Peles.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 7 September 2013 02: 30
      So write! Unless of course you have facts. On August 11, underground saboteurs landed. Then, when they were taken aboard, let’s say the boat was on the surface?
      1. ivanovbg
        ivanovbg 15 September 2013 20: 35
        We took it on August 5, walked for 3 days and waited for "weather" until 11:XNUMX. Having escorted the saboteurs, "Pike" went hunting. For me, Russian is not my native language, and now I noticed an annoying mistake - the underground workers parachuted FROM it, and not ON.
  6. KGDU10
    KGDU10 7 September 2013 11: 53
    Painting by Oleg Yudin from Severodvinsk - "Submarine" Pike "X-series, 2005
  7. Silver70
    Silver70 7 September 2013 23: 52
    As far as I remember, all the pre-war "Pikes" had two 45-mm semiautomatic guns and a "Maxim" machine gun yes