Military Review

"All-Union elder" MI Kalinin. Protector of the common people

80
"All-Union elder" MI Kalinin. Protector of the common people 70 years ago, 3 June 1946, the “All-Union Elder” died and the person who was the head of the Russian state more than anyone else in the 20th century, Mikhail Kalinin. He was 27 years, almost until his death, was chairman of the CEC of the USSR, and then the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, that is, the formal head of the Soviet state. Kalinin managed to talk to 25 by millions of people in 8 years in the building of the CEC on Mokhovaya! As a result, Kalinin became a kind of intercessor for ordinary people. The Soviet people had a tradition to write letters to Kalinin to protect against the unjust actions of local authorities or the NKVD. And very often he provided real help.


The future head of the Soviet state was born on November 20 of 1875 in the village of Verkhnyaya Troitsa of the Korchevsky district of the Tver province, in the very poor peasant family. Father Ivan Kalinovich, a retired soldier, returned from the royal service to the sick, and taking care of the family fell on his wife Marya Vasilyevna. The eldest son Michael from six years old helped his parents around the house and in the field. True, the neighbor, brother soldier of the father, taught the boy literacy.

Mikhail, one might say, was lucky. He was noticed in the family of the landowner Mordukhai-Boltovsky and was taken into service. In 1889, the Mordukhai-Boltovskys left for Petersburg and took Mikhail with them. He was a "home service boy." The duties were ordinary: to wake the children of the owners to school, feed them breakfast, run away to the shop, etc. At the same time, Michael got access to the library, where he read voraciously everything that turns up at hand. True, I never fell in love with fiction, but for the rest of my life I was addicted to cognitive literature, especially historical. And later, more than once, he surprised his comrades in the party with knowledge of the history of Russia.

When Michael turned 18 years, he had to choose a profession. In 1893, he enrolled at the St. Petersburg Cartridge Factory. A diligent and well-educated young man quickly became a professional in his field and in 1895, he turned to the Putilov factory as a turner. They paid more there. Mikhail became a “labor aristocrat,” but most of the money was diligently sent to the family. An educated young worker quickly attracted the attention of revolutionary agitators and was "turned" into Marxism. Kalinin became an active Marxist. He spent the first May day at the factory, created a Marxist circle, and established the issue of leaflets.

A typical professional revolutionary life began: illegal activities, arrests, jail and exile. Kalinin was the standard of the Bolshevik biography: “in the afternoon a mechanic, in the evening an underground worker”. This further helped him enter the "Leninist Guard". For two decades, revolutionary activity was the main pivot of his life. In July, 1899 was arrested along with other members of the Marxist circle organized by him and, after a small prison sentence, was sent to Tiflis. It is worth noting that the royal prisons and exile were relatively humane repressive instruments. Revolutionaries in them could replenish knowledge in good libraries, get medical treatment, listen to lectures of more experienced and knowledgeable party comrades, and establish contacts. For two decades, Kalinin 14 was arrested once, but most often they were immediately released.

In Tiflis, Kalinin continued his revolutionary activities as part of the Tiflis Social Democratic organization, for which he was again arrested and expelled in March 1901 to Revel. There he worked as a mechanic at the Volta plant and organized an underground printing press. At the beginning of 1903, Mr. Kalinin was arrested and sent to the St. Petersburg prison “Kresty”. In July, 1903 of the year was sent back to Revel. From 1904 to 1905 years was serving a link in Olonets province. Participated in the revolution 1905, enrolling in St. Petersburg in the working fighting squad.

In 1906, he married an Estonian Ekaterina Ivanovna (Johannovna) Lorberg, a weaver from Revel. Spouses were not close, the marriage was considered a party. Catherine had a son, Valerian, caught up with someone, then the couple had a daughter, Yulia, and then two more children, Alexander and Lydia. All of Kalinin’s children grew up as intelligent and hardworking as he: sons became engineers, daughters became doctors.

In 1916, he was arrested again and sentenced to exile in Eastern Siberia. But he fled and moved to an illegal position, continued revolutionary activities in Petrograd. In the February Revolution was one of the leaders of the disarmament of the protection and seizure of the Finland Station. In August, 1917 was elected a member of the Petrograd City Council.

Kalinin actively participated in the preparation and conduct of the October Revolution. After the revolution, he instantly became popular, fell in love with the simple and understandable speeches of Kalinich. In November, 1917 was re-elected as a member of the Petrograd City Council and, by decision of the Duma, became the head of the city. After the dissolution of the Petrograd City Council in August 1918, he headed the Commissariat of Urban Farms of the Union of Communes of the Northern Region and the Petrograd Labor Commune. It was a difficult time: the old police were dispersed, the new police only gained experience, crime multiplied; urban economy and industry collapsed during the Civil War; the workers, in order not to die of starvation, went to the villages, the wastelands in Petrograd were plowed under gardens.

In 1919, Kalinin was elected a member of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party, after the death of Y. Sverdlov he was elected chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. V. I. Lenin, recommending Kalinin for this post, said: “This is a comrade, for whom there are about twenty years of party work; he himself is a peasant in the Tver province, who has a close relationship with the peasant economy ... Petrograd workers managed to make sure that he possesses the ability to approach a wide section of the working masses ... ” Almost immediately after the election, Kalinin was put on the campaign train "October Revolution" and sent to the Eastern Front to campaign for Soviet power. In such trips Kalinin spent almost five years. All this time, Soviet Russia did without a formal head, but on the other hand, many people were brought to the side of the Reds by a simple, understandable and friendly Kalinich.

So, during the Kronstadt uprising, Kalinin went to the sea fortress to persuade the sailors to surrender. At first they wanted to shoot him, but then they let him go, Kalinin was very harmless. He looked like a simple rural teacher or librarian. His image - a beard, tarpaulin boots, a crumpled jacket, a stick, which he absolutely did not need, and glasses. The image of a walker from the village who got to the Kremlin made Kalinin popular with the people and ensured him security during the struggle for power of various inner-party groups.

Kalinin took an active part in overcoming the effects of famine in the Volga region 1921-1922. At the 1 Congress of Soviets of the USSR 30 in December 1922, M. I. Kalinin was elected Chairmen of the USSR Central Executive Committee from the RSFSR. He remained in this position until January 1938. From 1926 year to 1946 year - a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). 17 January 1938 at the 1st session of the USSR Supreme Council of the first convocation Mikhail Kalinin was elected Chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council.

The main thing in the life of Kalinin was to make happy for the unjustly humiliated and insulted. Soviet citizens in 1920 — 1940. it was decided to write letters to Mikhail Kalinin with a variety of requests for help - with dispossession, unjust arrest, enrollment in a military school or difficulties in finding employment. Often Kalinin, personally or through his secretariat, provided such assistance to those who wrote to him. In March and early May, 1932, when deciding on the Politburo about the expulsion of fists excluded from collective farms, expressed his dissenting opinion. 4 May on a voting sheet polling the order for the expulsion of 38 000 peasant families wrote: "I consider such an operation unreasonable." Two weeks later, the Politburo reversed its decision, stopping the operation that had already begun.

Kalinin wrote for a variety of reasons. Here is the story about Anatoly Ivanovich Uspensky: “Uspensky Sr. was a unique person. Hereditary nobleman, until 1917, he served in the royal army, then his whole corps went over to the Reds. After the Civil War, Anatoly Ivanovich graduated from the red professorship courses and until 1936, he quietly worked as an accountant. And then the persecution began. For more than two months he was not kept anywhere, and soon they began to completely abandon the services of a former nobleman. Then the wife recommended Anatoly Ivanovich to write a letter to Kalinin, which he did. He set out his entire history and waited for him to be "taken away with things." But instead of the KGB, a messenger came to Ouspensky with an invitation to appear at the "All-Union Warden." What was surprising Anatoly Ivanovich, when Kalinin invited him to take the place of chief bookkeeper of the Moscow Art Theater.

Another example of the repression period of the 1937 of the year: “The family of Pavel Ruzhitsky had a bitter fate. He himself, a simple furrier artisan, was repressed in the 1937 year as a "petty-bourgeois element." Most likely, the denunciation was written by someone from the neighbors, out of envy. Relatives of the “enemies of the people” had a hard time at that time: the grandmother was immediately dismissed from work, there was nothing to live for. They lived from hand to mouth. But the most offensive was the silent contempt and gloating of people who yesterday called themselves "friends." Many of them chose to forget their comrades, so as not to be accused of having links with a disgraced family. In order to survive somehow, the grandmother was advised to write a letter to Kalinin - after all, three children, now not to die to everyone! Only after the personal intervention of Mikhail Ivanovich, the grandmother managed to get a job, and life began to somehow improve. ”

And such examples can be found a lot. It is clear that Kalinin did not help everyone who addressed him. Obviously, there were a lot of letters, and it was simply impossible to help everyone, and this was not always possible for political reasons. In particular, Kalinin was unable to help his wife, Catherine Lorberg. She was sharp on the tongue, criticized the course of Stalin. In 1938, she was arrested and sentenced to ten years for “terrorism”. Kalinin then did not intercede for his wife and did not save her from arrest. She was convicted on 15 years. He was able to provide some help to her when she was already in the camp. Thanks to his requests, the medical commission assigned her a “weak category”, thanks to which she got a job in the bath. She lived right there in the underwear, the conditions in which, of course, were not the same as in the cell. Soon she was allowed to meet with the children.

Only in 1944, on the eve of a dangerous medical operation, did he write such a letter to Stalin: “T. Stalin, I calmly look to the future of the Soviet people and wish only one thing so that your strength can be preserved for as long as possible - the best guarantee for the success of the Soviet state. Personally, I appeal to you with 2-mi requests: to pardon Ekaterina Ivanovna and assign a pension to my sister, to whom I entrusted the obligation to raise 2-boys, full orphans living with me. My last regards, M. Kalinin. ” However, then Kalinin’s wife was not pardoned. This happened only in May 1945. On Victory Day in World War II, 9 of May 1945, Ekaterina Ivanovna addressed to Stalin in writing for pardon, where she acknowledged the crimes imputed to her and repented (this is a prerequisite for a pardon). Stalin put the resolution on the letter: "It is necessary to pardon and immediately release, by ensuring pardoned passage to Moscow."

Mikhail Kalinin died 3 June 1946 of the year. He was buried in Red Square in Moscow, near the Kremlin wall. The city of Tver was renamed in honor of Kalinin’s name in 1931, and on July 6, the city of Königsberg and the eponymous region were renamed in honor of the “All-Union Headman” in 1946.

The activities of Mikhail Kalinin for the intercession of ordinary people are reflected in a song written by the poet M. Isakovsky in 1940 and set to music by the composer V. Zakharov:

Fly, welcome letter,
Fly to a distant land.
We bow to Kalinin
In the capital, tell -

From all big and small,
From wives and old men
From the current collective farmers,
From the former men.

Say a letter to Kalinin
What we love him -
Mentor, Comrade
And his friend.

To him both day and night
From all over the world
For Lenin's truth
We drove and walked.

And joys and sorrows
The people handed him:
Kalinich supposedly ponders,
Kalinich will make out.

He talked to us
Till the morning dawn -
Simple working St. Petersburg,
A peasant from Tver.

Good for everyone
He found the word
From the straight Lenin road
Nowhere has it twisted.

Fly well, welcome letter,
Fly over the whole country.
Take Kalinin to Moscow
We bow to the earth, -

From all big and small,
From wives and old men
From the current collective farmers,
From the former men.
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  1. dojjdik
    dojjdik 3 June 2016 06: 15
    +24
    Surely, besides the stupid promotion of Ukraine and Savchenko, an article appeared about real people and about our history with a capital letter, well, at least the truth about the revolutionaries of that time is now great.
    1. Mahmut
      Mahmut 3 June 2016 07: 29
      +15
      Spouses were not close, marriage was considered party. Catherine had a son Valerian who had been implanted from someone, then the couple had a daughter, Julia, and then two more children, Alexander and Lydia.

      And so they lived - they slept apart, but the children were.
      My grandmother was a little familiar with him, spoke about him very well.
    2. baudolino
      baudolino 3 June 2016 08: 12
      -14%
      At present, there are more than enough revolutionaries in Dill. And not worse than the Bolsheviks.
      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 3 June 2016 16: 36
        +2
        baudolino

        I don’t know how the Bolsheviks are, but the Communists are a special kind of people.

        Communist ideology is a specially distorted morality, the main principle in which is the rejection of absolutely everything, property, family, health in favor of the public, the state. Moreover, being communists, not everyone had high morality. But ideology allowed this in very insignificant cases.

        Morality is the conscious or unconscious following of accepted or general morality.

        The Communists are the highest grade of people, they are not maydanutye, whose brains are not very.

        The Communists deliberately, fanatically worked to restore the state.

        The communists are not monks from the Athos monastery, who have closed and keep their morality among themselves.

        Communists are always on the cutting edge. Where you need to show leadership, where you need to take responsibility, where to stand first in the attack.

        It was then that ideology was reborn and moral degenerates appeared among the Communists. As a result, the country of the USSR also perished.

        Ideology cannot live long.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Snow
      Snow 3 June 2016 09: 02
      -5
      Here is Lenin - he bridled the country after the Civil War, Stalin carried out industrialization. won the war, laid the foundation for the prosperity of subsequent generations. Khrushchev and Brezhnev are, of course, the "heirs". But what exactly Kalinin did outstanding, except that he "campaigned on the eastern front," I still do not understand. Well, he held high positions .. was popular for his innocuous appearance. How few were there?
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 3 June 2016 09: 11
        +2
        Mikhail Ivanovich, although he had the appearance of a good-looking old man with a wedge-shaped beard, was an extremely lustful man, and such that Stalin called him "an all-Union goat", his attraction to young artists was not a secret.
        In his position, he suited everyone - Mikhail Ivanovich was very flexible and obedient.
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 3 June 2016 10: 28
          +8
          Quote: bober1982
          In his position, he suited everyone - Mikhail Ivanovich was very flexible and obedient.

          Kalinin was neither complaisant nor obedient. They just never became revolutionaries. It is simply not known for certain what influence Stalin, who took the helm of the country, had on Mikhail Ivanovich. This influence can be obtained in various ways. Many revolutionaries understood this well. Hence the "party marriages" - that would not give the opportunity to influence themselves through loved ones. And to a quiet disposition ... Well, think for yourself - almost alone to go to the rebellious Kronstadt! Who of today's politicians is capable of this? One of my great-grandmothers knew Kalinina well. Being leftist, she had many acquaintances among the revolutionaries - Perovskaya, Kamenev, Bukharin ... Not all the methods and views of these people were shared by the great-grandmother. And, nevertheless, it helped. The apartment on Nevsky, where great-grandfather and great-grandmother lived, played the role of a conspirator for some time, and Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin was hiding there from the secret police. For helping the Bolsheviks, the great-grandmother subsequently received a personal pension from the hands of the All-Union Starosta. On the whole, she spoke well of Kalinin, noting his calm character and inquisitive mind.
          1. bober1982
            bober1982 3 June 2016 10: 35
            +1
            I don’t want to answer in detail, it will take a lot of space and time.
            And the fact that the rebel sailors did not shoot him - Kalinin looked very harmless, his hand did not rise.
            1. Verdun
              Verdun 3 June 2016 11: 56
              +6
              Quote: bober1982
              And the fact that the rebel sailors did not shoot him - Kalinin looked very harmless, his hand did not rise

              Yeah, and Dzerzhinsky also looked harmless when he pacified the pogroms of wine warehouses. And V. I. Lenin was the cast character of the program "Good night, kids". Do you really think that nobody in Kronstadt knew who Kalinin was?
              1. bober1982
                bober1982 3 June 2016 12: 06
                +2
                It is unlikely that the sailors knew himself, and what the All-Russian Central Executive Committee is, and who he is.
                Budyonny recalled that Kalinin was nearly shot by his own Red Army men, caught him — when he was engaged in agitation, he shows them paper signed by Lenin, and they want to shoot him as a counter.
                Saved only by what he asked to take to Budenny, well, and his innocuous appearance helped.
                1. Verdun
                  Verdun 3 June 2016 14: 11
                  +3
                  Quote: bober1982
                  It is unlikely that the sailors knew himself, and what the All-Russian Central Executive Committee is.

                  In Kronstadt, during the rebellion, many Mensheviks were present. Probably, they constantly turned away and could not see their former member of the same party.
                  1. bober1982
                    bober1982 3 June 2016 15: 45
                    +3
                    In addition to the Mensheviks, among the rebels, there were an overwhelming number of sailors, moreover, drunk and slack, they were poorly versed in party affairs.
                    1. gladcu2
                      gladcu2 3 June 2016 18: 45
                      0
                      bober

                      And at that time, the CP was not in the vast majority. People of any kind had no consciousness. It was difficult to bring them to a common understanding. Civil war, this is not the world of tanks.
          2. Aleksander
            Aleksander 3 June 2016 11: 59
            +1
            Quote: Verdun
            Perovskaya
            belay
            Perovskaya, it’s unlikely that a terrorist was executed in 1881This is a different generation.
            1. Verdun
              Verdun 3 June 2016 12: 06
              +1
              Perovskaya is unlikely, the terrorist was executed in 1881, this is another generation.
              Sorry, I missed one "great". Not a great-grandmother, but a great-great-grandmother. When Kalinin handed her a pension, she was already many years old. And she died of starvation in besieged Leningrad. She was then 89 years old.
          3. The comment was deleted.
        2. vezunchik
          vezunchik 3 June 2016 13: 21
          0
          but what kind of rights of Russians do you fight if you are so fighting ???
          1. Verdun
            Verdun 3 June 2016 13: 55
            +1
            Quote: vezunchik
            but what kind of rights of Russians do you fight if you are so fighting ???

            And what, is it necessary as Udaltsov? To Bolotnaya, and then to prison? Or how bulk? Each has its own struggle.
          2. gladcu2
            gladcu2 3 June 2016 18: 48
            0
            vezunchik

            Do you even understand how to fight for these rights, Russians, Moldavians, Canadians or Hindus ....

            After all, the survival system is the same for everyone, but the conditions are changed by changing the perception of the environment.

            In other words, you yourself understand "what is good and what is bad?"
        3. vezunchik
          vezunchik 3 June 2016 13: 21
          +1
          but what kind of rights of Russians do you fight if you are so fighting ???
          1. gladcu2
            gladcu2 3 June 2016 18: 52
            +1
            vezunchik

            No need to fight. Change the human behavioral system.

            What do you mean by the word fight? Go blow some governor?
            1. Verdun
              Verdun 3 June 2016 20: 49
              +2
              Quote: gladcu2
              No need to fight. Change the human behavioral system.

              Those who constantly say that it is impossible to change a person, in fact, are not even going to change him. They are quite satisfied with the world in which "man is a wolf". No wonder they argue that everything repeats itself and history goes in a circle. This makes it easier to convince people to be submissive and keep returning to the stall. Meanwhile, the story goes in a spiral and each new round brings changes. And, for example, the idea of ​​communism primarily involves the upbringing of a new person. It is clear that this is a complicated matter and will probably take not even a century, but maybe more. However, this is not at all a reason to abandon the upbringing of new, positive qualities in a person. However, it will hardly be possible to convince those who are satisfied with the vicious circle.
              1. gladcu2
                gladcu2 3 June 2016 23: 53
                -1
                Verdun

                You are a historian. Do you need to follow an example?

                The same Lenin took and raised a man. And he quickly did it. About 5 years old.
                1. Verdun
                  Verdun 4 June 2016 18: 55
                  0
                  Quote: gladcu2
                  The same Lenin took and raised a man. And he quickly did it. About 5 years old.

                  Just Lenin perfectly understood the whole difficulty of such a task. Unlike Khrushchev, he did not promise anyone that everything would be tomorrow. Solving urgent tasks, he never forgot the essence of the people with whom at that time had to deal. Another thing is that Vladimir Ilyich never considered this essence to be a constant value.
                  1. gladcu2
                    gladcu2 6 June 2016 20: 13
                    0
                    Verdun

                    Rephrase.

                    You can educate a person by state laws that correspond to the basic morality. Overall survival system. Those. do not carry duality in themselves.

                    I recently gave an example when D.A. Medvedev proudly announced that he had passed a law on aggressive behavior on the road, which formally protected moron citizens. If you see inappropriate behavior on the road, give in, do not be stubborn. So no, the state also aggravated the situation.

                    I mean, when there is an inscription on the packaging "open before use" this is the case when the state makes its citizens stupid, replacing the elementary survival skills.

                    Lenin adopted the law "On Land". And the matter went with universal understanding.
        4. cast iron
          cast iron 5 June 2016 20: 02
          0
          You apparently stood with a candle and Kalinin’s lust with your own eyes? Slanderer.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Nikolay K
        Nikolay K 3 June 2016 14: 37
        +1
        Mikhail, one might say, was lucky. He was noticed in the family of the landowner Mordukhai-Boltovsky and was taken into service. . . He was a "home service boy."

        He’s been such a boy all his life. Ordinary zits-chairman, quiet, comfortable and useless. As the author rightly writes:
        So, during the Kronstadt uprising, Kalinin went to the sea fortress to persuade the sailors to surrender. At first they wanted to shoot him, but then they released him, Kalinin was very harmless.

        If people like Kalinin decided to sculpt heroes, I don’t even know who will be next. . . Not otherwise Medvedev.
        1. gladcu2
          gladcu2 3 June 2016 18: 55
          -1
          Nikolay K.

          Medvedev ... oh pancakes ...

          I do not want to criticize. Like that bear who sees a woman, climbs out of the bushes and screams a famous word. And then he waves his hand, to no avail ...
      4. Igor V
        Igor V 3 June 2016 14: 40
        +6
        Quote: Snow
        Here is Lenin - he bridled the country after the Civil War, Stalin carried out industrialization. won the war, laid the foundation for the prosperity of subsequent generations. Khrushchev and Brezhnev are, of course, the "heirs". But what exactly Kalinin did outstanding, except that he "campaigned on the eastern front," I still do not understand. Well, he held high positions .. was popular for his innocuous appearance. How few were there?

        And what do you think the head of state should organize a political struggle with associates? Stalin does not like because of the repression, Kalinin does not like because of the lack of repression, you will not understand. And the fact that with him the country rose steeply and won, it somehow is not taken into account.
      5. gladcu2
        gladcu2 3 June 2016 18: 03
        +4
        Snow

        I want to correct you on the account of Lenin.

        First of all, Lenin was a very well-read, educated and seasoned person. Not a coward, able to take responsibility and be a leader.

        But the decisive merit of Lenin was that he brought the knowledge of philosophy into practical application. Understanding philosophy is not possible without a good life experience.

        Now I will give you schumah how the world works. Any change in the pattern leads to a change in human behavior in society. For example, Ukraine. Download? They jumped on their heads. And why? Because at school they didn’t talk nonsense and changed the behavioral model of society.

        Scheme from the philosophy of Aristotle. This suggests that this knowledge is more than 2000 years old.
        And if it turns out that someone will understand to the end, he will be horrified with the conclusions that the Bible and all these Talmuds with valves are the fruit of the work of philosophers, so that a person can progress.

        Driving.

        The primary egoistic morality of a young person. May remain unchanged until the end of life. For example, if he is a bad student at school. This is the moral of survival. This morality is based on the economics of capitalism.

        Morality. General morality. Changes the pattern of human behavior. Teaches a person to do things in anticipation of the actions of others.

        Moral.

        Awareness or non-awareness of common morality but strict execution of moral actions. Morality, this is not only the rejection of looking at women under the skirts. This is a rejection of the proposed bribe. Strict behavioral system.

        The state is a legislative body designed to protect society from external and internal enemies. It is clear that officials in the state should be moral people. No way without it. Kalinin to you as an example. Corruption is a derivative of primary morality, selfishness. Capitalism and egoism are a single system of moral values.

        A country is a people, a state and the land itself.

        The people is a society united by a single morality. A single survival system.

        Lenin, knew this scheme. Explained it to people. Created a party of communists. Changed the morality of the Communists. It was ordered to abandon all unnecessary in favor of society.

        In the twenties it came to insanity. It was assumed that even women should be common.

        The Lenin Church was destroyed. The reason is that the church exercises power through moral control. Remember all these commandments? If you do not follow them then anathema, excommunication.
        Lenin needed absolute power.

        Stalin later restored the church in rights. Morality must be monitored.

        In modern times, GDP takes on the role of the church. Morality is needed otherwise the country will collapse. True, these churchmen are dumb, do not know how to exercise their power through moral control, since this morality is formed by the media. They would give a false anathema to the media. They lied to the furnace ... They do not catch mice ...

        That's it.

        At the heart of the scheme is morality.
    4. goncharov.62
      goncharov.62 3 June 2016 22: 14
      -2
      Coward and turd! Greetings from the Tver province. Yes, the "great leader" did not intercede before the Father for his woman ... But the sense from him was like a bull's milk. Once again - a coward and "All-Russian emasculated goat", according to Comrade. Stalin!
      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 4 June 2016 00: 02
        +3
        goncharov

        I don’t know what was there with whose woman. But I can say the following. It’s just logical.

        At that time, it was difficult to download rights. The right to download it is to defend your own. And its against ideology. Not only can you get a hat, but the goal of a lifetime will die. They lived not for themselves, but for the future.

        This is morality. Everything for future generations. But capitalism says live alone in the afternoon. Primitive but nothing can be done.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 4 June 2016 00: 28
          +1
          "At that time, it was difficult to download rights. The rights to download it to defend your own. And yours is against ideology. Not only can you get a hat, the goal of your whole life will die. We lived not for ourselves, but for the future" /// /

          And the future is like the horizon. Always deleted. Therefore, when people finally realized that
          communism (horizon) will never be, then the Communists and flooded.
          1. PHANTOM-AS
            PHANTOM-AS 4 June 2016 00: 38
            +3
            Quote: voyaka uh
            And the future is like the horizon. Always deleted. Therefore, when people finally realized that
            communism (horizon) will never be, then the Communists and flooded.

            I've never climbed into your demagogic discussions for reasons of "tolerance", well, heh got it already!
            Explain pozh.Vy what year did you leave and who is it who flooded the USSR?
          2. gladcu2
            gladcu2 4 June 2016 15: 30
            +1
            voyaka

            You need to know what communism is. The fact that communism is real is beyond doubt. But when and how they come to him is difficult to predict.

            2 conditions are necessary for communism.

            1. Systemically highly educated society, which is the key to high morality.

            2. A high level of technology, which allows to solve the shortage of material resources.

            And communism is a society and an economic system in which there is no money, and accordingly there is no surplus value.

            Life in a hotel, all inclusive, of course you have to go to work. Or life according to N. Nosov's book "Dunno".
            1. cast iron
              cast iron 5 June 2016 20: 22
              0
              1. Education and morality are not synonyms and there is no direct relationship between them.

              2. In principle, by the years of the 1980s, the level of technology would solve many deficits. But greed in ghouls and parasites is more developed than technology.

              3. And we already live according to the book "Dunno on the Moon". It's about capitalism. Read it.
              1. gladcu2
                gladcu2 6 June 2016 20: 25
                0
                cast iron

                1. Education is the basis for the formation of morality.

                2. A. Nosov had two books. One of them is "Dunno in the Flower City", or simply "Dunno", I don't remember exactly. In one communism, and in the second "Dunno on the Moon" - capitalism.

                3. An example of the elements of communism is the Israeli kibbutzim. At least 40 years ago.

                4. Some corporations use social systems within themselves. For example, the salary is average, but inside the corporations free meals, a gift system.
  2. bandabas
    bandabas 3 June 2016 06: 39
    +6
    He lived his idea and did it right! In contrast to the current leaders conducting stupid primaries
    1. Pitot
      Pitot 3 June 2016 06: 56
      +2
      They did everything right there. Not without flaws, of course, but there was a hurt. We have profiled true people's Power.
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 3 June 2016 12: 11
      0
      Quote: bandabas
      He lived his idea and did it right!


      His idea was to survive at all costs, even at the cost of his wife’s betrayal. When she was jailed for terrorism belay , this flawed man did not say WORDS! He also looked meekly at the orgy of the massacres of other innocent Soviet citizens.
      Type calling only disgust.
      1. cast iron
        cast iron 5 June 2016 20: 25
        0
        Yes, yes, but Stalin was also a coward - he sent all his sons to the war and did not even save one of them from captivity. Most of the country's major leaders did the same - cowardly sent their sons to die in the war, but they could have smeared what you would have done.

        In those days, sons turned their backs on children if they had committed a criminal offense, and now greedy ghouls will smear the major ghoul from any offense and will not take their eyes.

        You probably like ghouls more than people.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. gladcu2
      gladcu2 3 June 2016 18: 11
      +1
      bandanas

      Kalinin and all communists had knowledge that shaped their worldview.

      And this worldview with the help of the state, laws was given to the people.

      And as a result, society went towards progress. The country recovered and stood in the second world war.
  3. Max repp
    Max repp 3 June 2016 06: 47
    +2
    Quiet work in the right place to the best of my strength and capabilities, this is the impression I got of Kalinin. At the same time, very often in the literature there is an image of Kalinin as a "talking doll" of a "screen" which meant nothing.
    1. cast iron
      cast iron 5 June 2016 20: 26
      0
      Well, the "great writers" wrote either by order or at the call of a crazy head.
  4. semirek
    semirek 3 June 2016 07: 19
    +3
    It’s not entirely clear: M.I. Kalinin was the defender of the common people, but was he the chairman of the Supreme Council under the tsar? Because, as you know, in October 17 the common people came to power, and from whom to protect the common people? It’s incomprehensible, the all-union The elder had disagreements with the ruling party of the Bolsheviks, its course, since he overturned some decisions of the leadership with his power, or was the power of the Bolsheviks still not popular? And the second point: as far as I know, IV Stalin led the USSR until his death in 53 -all orders and directives they subscribed, and the leader-Stalin-the head of state was standing in parades at the mausoleum, well, Kalinin was somewhere on the side, now I’ll know: Stalin was second after Kalinin, thanks to the author.
    1. inkass_98
      inkass_98 3 June 2016 07: 37
      +7
      Father, do not confuse the branches of government. Kalinin was the head of the executive branch of government - the CEC. In cities and regions, this is the level of mayors and governors. That is, in modern terms, Kalinin was the President of the USSR. Stalin formally headed only party power until May 1941, when he became the Presnarkomkom, heading the government.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 3 June 2016 07: 59
        +3
        The head of the CEC Kalinin was until 1938, and only then the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, i.e. "president", albeit formal.
      2. Beaver
        Beaver 3 June 2016 09: 50
        +1
        An interesting topic was touched upon by colleagues. I tried to figure out who nevertheless owned power in the USSR, but nothing came of it. Whatever position you take: the Chairman of the CEC, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, does not converge.
        Lenin was the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, the Prime Minister as of today. They say that after him, Stalin ruled, but here's a problem - Stalin took this post only in 1941. recourse Before that, he was just one of the members of the Central Committee (although until 1934 he was also the first secretary), and the party charter made all members of the Central Committee equal. belay
        And you won’t understand without a bottle, and with a bottle too. laughing
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 3 June 2016 10: 07
          +4
          The one who led the party - he stood at the head of the state. The rest - purely formal, decoration. Moreover, it happened under Stalin, he did it correctly, he had to smash Trotsky with his comrades.
          At one time, Brezhnev was told (someone from foreign comrades) - who are you? (Simplified to say), Leonid Ilyich was Secretary General, and after that he was immediately approved as Chairman of the Supreme Council, i.e. the head of state.
          To comply with the formalities.
          1. Beaver
            Beaver 3 June 2016 11: 59
            +2
            Quote: bober1982
            who led the party - he stood at the head of state

            That’s why Zagogulin, before Khrushchev, no one led the party, the principle of party democracy adopted by Lenin acted.
            And Leiba Davidovich did not obey this principle, was arbitrary, did not fulfill the party's decisions, relying on the support of the Red Army and in some places the Cheka. Therefore, I had to "smash" him. angry Would Stalin alone deal with such a monster? recourse
        2. Rash
          Rash 3 June 2016 13: 43
          +1
          Better with a bottle (also because of Friday) drinks
      3. semirek
        semirek 3 June 2016 11: 07
        +1

        Dear, under Stalin, and indeed in the USSR there were branches of power? Do you believe that?
        1. Beaver
          Beaver 3 June 2016 12: 02
          +3
          Quote: semirek
          were there branches of power in the USSR? Do you believe that?

          In the CPSU were there various movements and factions waging a constant struggle among themselves? Do you believe that? crying
        2. Igor V
          Igor V 3 June 2016 14: 49
          +2
          Quote: semirek
          Dear, under Stalin, and indeed in the USSR there were branches of power? Do you believe that?

          No, then there was complete anarchy! Is that what you mean? Or that the "legislators" were also "executors"? Complete nonsense, do you even understand what you wrote about?
          1. gladcu2
            gladcu2 4 June 2016 00: 17
            0
            Igor V

            Those to whom the Central Bank obeyed and could exercise power.

            First, V.I. Lenin sent the sailor to the bank and received a bank seal.

            Then he knew what to do.

            Leiba Sax.
    2. gladcu2
      gladcu2 4 June 2016 00: 12
      0
      semirek

      The people cannot be power. The people delegate power. But a leader can conduct subjective politics to the best of his morality.
  5. Million
    Million 3 June 2016 08: 14
    +1
    Yeah, Russian politicians are not like Soviet
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 4 June 2016 00: 19
      +3
      million

      GDP, norm. Well done man, with this, and you can fight.
      1. PHANTOM-AS
        PHANTOM-AS 4 June 2016 00: 30
        0
        Quote: gladcu2
        GDP, norm. Well done man, with this, and you can fight.

        well yes, fl. exactly, and especially if Kravchuk, Rottenbergs, Deripaska, Vekselbergs, Sechins, Yakunins, Medvedevs, Niebulins, Grefs, Dvorkovichs, Surkovs, Kostins, Alikhperovs, Abramovichs, Skrynniks, Serdyukoffs, a dozen more pop musicians go into battle with him. everything, kapets everyone! urrryaya! for our money stolen, for our oil, for gas, for real estate in nice! for mnoooooyyy, forward !!!!
        1. gladcu2
          gladcu2 4 June 2016 04: 47
          +1
          FANTOMAS

          do you respect yourself?

          Do you feel confident, professional? Then answer yourself and others. Maybe a professional, even if he is a simple mason, janitor, worker, programmer, and now attention - the director of the plant, respect the professional?

          Of course he can.

          Why? Because he leads a person, a society to development.

          Putin is leading? Is there any success in international relations? Syria? And before Siri, too, was a lot. Remember how the largest battleship entered the Mediterranean Sea and brought order there?

          GDP, business knows.

          Respect not for money and status, but for professionalism.

          We are all standing here each other. Each in his own business, but do the common.

          This is moral.
          1. cast iron
            cast iron 5 June 2016 20: 30
            0
            GDP is capitalist and supports the robbery of the people of 1991. That says it all.

            Individual capitalist successes are spamibo for them. Though he didn’t let Russia fall apart completely in 1999. Uma chamber. What really is there.
            1. gladcu2
              gladcu2 6 June 2016 20: 31
              0
              cast iron

              GDP is more a communist than a capitalist. Sounds calling loudly.

              Well, remember that the Communists were at the forefront of the goal. State development. And GDP never stops in that direction. Capitalism unfortunately, this system is not stable. It gives only a mediocre result for the time being, as long as there is a free material resource. As soon as Lafa ends, capitalism begins to destroy the state.
              1. cast iron
                cast iron 7 June 2016 20: 28
                0
                "Rather a communist" is akin to "a little pregnant"))) He is a 100% capitalist.
  6. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 3 June 2016 09: 34
    +3
    Interesting facts from the biography. Thank.
  7. 3agr9d0tryad
    3agr9d0tryad 3 June 2016 10: 24
    0
    in the poor peasant family itself.

    And in this "poor" family he studied at the zemstvo school.
    True, a neighbor, father’s brother-soldier, taught the boy literacy.

    No. He learned to read and write in that very zemstvo school.
    “A boy for home services”

    Look what you have come up with! Kalinin was a major, but a butler.
    At the same time, Michael got access to the library, where he read voraciously everything that turns up at hand.

    Well arranged!
    Turner turned to Putilovsky plant. They paid more.

    I’m saying, I’ve gotten well!
    attracted the attention of revolutionary agitators and he was "turned" into Marxism.

    It happens. Now Russians are hooked on drugs, then on Marxism, every time young people have their own fashion "to protest."
    life typical of a professional revolutionary: illegal activities, arrests, prison and exile.

    Yeah. Political killings, robberies, extortions, prison and accessible revolutionaries. Romance, damn it!
    For two decades, Kalinin was arrested 14 times, but most often immediately released.

    So KNOCKED! I handed over the "small fish" to the secret police, it was normal for them, Dzhugashvili KNOCKED too.
    They didn't want to die in hard labor, but to hang out beautifully in a "revolutionary" get-together!
    He participated in the revolution of 1905, enrolling in St. Petersburg in a working fighting squad.

    He signed up for illegal gang formation, if correct.
    The main thing in Kalinin’s life was to make happy for the unjustly humiliated and offended.

    Not true! Most of all he loved young ballerinas and expensive wine!
    crime has bred; urban economy and industry collapsed during the Civil War; workers, in order not to die of hunger, went to the villages

    Yes Yes! The fruits of the "red terror" on the face, as they say, seized the power of Marxist terrorists, redeemed Russia in blood.
    PS And in general, the article, as from a history textbook for the 7th grade of the Soviet school, even in ZhZL I read much more truthful information. There are still adults here!
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 3 June 2016 12: 37
      +3
      Quote: 3agr9d0string
      They all didn’t want to die in hard labor


      Remarkable comment, only one inaccuracy, did not send these ghouls to hard labor, alas.
      Although they deserved to be executed for terrorism and treason.
      "Link" in Shushenskoye:
      Krupskaya: Vladimir Ilyich for his "salary" - an eight-ruble allowance - had a clean room, feeding, washing and a chunk of linen - and it was believed that he pays dearly. True, lunch and dinner were rustic. A ram was killed for Vladimir Ilyich for one week, which they fed him day after day until he ate everything; how to eat - they bought meat for a week. A worker in the courtyard - in the trough where the cattle was fodder, chopped purchased meat into cutlets for Vladimir Ilyich - also for a whole week.
      .
      Ulyanov mother: "Here, too, everyone found that i got fat over the summer, tanned "
      Subscribed, magazines, skates, pianos, hunted, got married - that's "hard labor".
      Also hired little girl angry black work-to heat, clean, cook-bar, you see..
      The punishment in the country was stupidly lenient compared to the crime committed.
      the Bolsheviks did not make such a mistake by drowning the country in blood ...
    3. gladcu2
      gladcu2 4 June 2016 00: 22
      +1
      Zagrad

      Get out.
      Hwa people hang noodles.

      You have this land in Britain, well, go there.
    4. gladcu2
      gladcu2 4 June 2016 00: 59
      0
      Zagrad

      It's good that you are here and especially on Friday.

      You can talk heart to heart.

      Well, who is this Bill Gates? Your friend. You have a lot of land too? :)

      Listen, Troll.

      I am a person who does what 10 out of seven billion can do. Enough to pat Beale on the shoulder?

      To come to my professionalism, I did not make an opportunity on myself. Through these difficulties, I became a philosopher.

      Who is my decree? You?

      Listen, as I think, everyone thinks. This is our moral of survival.

      Who are you? One of those who violated this morality?

      You know, I usually beat an unexpected person, and then a knockout. You are not from my tribe.
    5. cast iron
      cast iron 5 June 2016 20: 32
      -1
      You, a lover of greedy ghouls-exploiters and speculators-parasites, Marxists and Communists do not understand. Wrong intellect.
  8. Nikita Gromov
    Nikita Gromov 3 June 2016 10: 46
    +6
    This so-called "All-Union Headman" was specially placed in plain sight as a "Russian man" by the Jewish Bolshevik elite, and neatly performed the entourage role of a representative of the common people. And most importantly, he masked the total Jewish dominance in the leadership of the country and the Bolshevik Party, not disdaining, at the same time, to sign the death lists. And this myth, about the kind Michal Ivanovich, was fanned with might and main by Soviet and today post-Soviet liberal propaganda. Shame and disgrace.
    1. atalef
      atalef 3 June 2016 10: 47
      -8
      Quote: Nikita Gromov
      This so-called "All-Union Headman" was specially placed in plain sight as a "Russian man" by the Jewish Bolshevik elite
      1. alicante11
        alicante11 3 June 2016 13: 13
        +2
        atalef

        So why explain and find out where the weapons in Syria go, Hezbollah or not Hezbollah - to bomb, and even around everything at the same time. By themselves, others are not judged.
      2. gladcu2
        gladcu2 4 June 2016 00: 49
        0
        atalef

        My friend.

        We are not anti-Semites, but not very Zionists.

        Live by common morality with everyone. No one will offend you.
    2. Kim Klimov
      Kim Klimov 3 June 2016 10: 55
      +3
      I agree. To idealize and embellish, for many Russian people, the tragic time and the figures responsible for many, many negatives, it means simply turning a blind eye to the true memory of our history and the fate of our ancestors.
      1. gladcu2
        gladcu2 4 June 2016 02: 32
        0
        Klim Klimov

        Understand, you do not need to make excuses.

        Change your morale.

        Who is Bill Gates?

        The man is the same as you. You should not look into his eyes. What do you owe him? Being your master is your moral. Take it easy. Spit on excuses.

        You may or may not, or as you wish, respect a person with money. If he offends you, give him in the face. Business then.

        Respect yourself.
  9. Army soldier2
    Army soldier2 3 June 2016 14: 46
    +3
    Quote: semirek
    It’s not entirely clear: M.I. Kalinin was the defender of the common people, but was he the chairman of the Supreme Council under the tsar? Because, as you know, in October 17 the common people came to power, and from whom to protect the common people? It’s incomprehensible, the all-union The elder had disagreements with the ruling party of the Bolsheviks, its course, since he overturned some decisions of the leadership with his power, or was the power of the Bolsheviks still not popular? And the second point: as far as I know, IV Stalin led the USSR until his death in 53 -all orders and directives they subscribed, and the leader-Stalin-the head of state was standing in parades at the mausoleum, well, Kalinin was somewhere on the side, now I’ll know: Stalin was second after Kalinin, thanks to the author.


    Great, semirek! There was such a kind grandfather Kalinin - an all-Union headman. Under Nikolai, the bloody 20 was arrested once; And then he helped my grandmother get a job. I didn’t ask for my wife, apparently, so that they would not blame corruption.
    Conclusion: there were many tyrants, but Kalinin was a darling; he fought with them to the best of his ability.
    1. creak
      creak 3 June 2016 19: 12
      +3
      Quote: Army 2
      He didn’t ask for his wife, apparently, so that they would not blame corruption.


      So he was not the only one darling - Molotov, too, did not ask for his wife, and she (Polina Zhemchuzhina) was released only after the death of Stalin ....
      Their soul hurt for others ...
      And his granddaughter, Nikonov, is also fighting now, sparing no effort for the happiness of ordinary people, being a State Duma deputy ...
      In the morning I smear a sandwich
      Immediately thought - but as a people ...
  10. XODOP
    XODOP 3 June 2016 15: 25
    +2
    yes, it's a pity ... It's a pity that Nicholas II turned out to be such a weak-willed rag and could not strangle all this revolutionary louse back in 2. You look and would not have had to "good grandfather" Kalinin to fight the consequences of hunger and "take care" for the dispossessed

    article minus
  11. Sascha
    Sascha 3 June 2016 15: 35
    +3
    I remember when I was studying at the Leningrad Polytechnic, in one of the auditoriums there was a painting (I can't dare say: "The painting was hanging") of gigantic dimensions, about 5x8 meters, in a gilded frame. It depicted Comrade Kalinin, in a suit with a needle, polished boots, a hat and ... next to a locksmith's bench with a file in his hands. Oh how. Everyone was so accustomed to the picture that no one was surprised by the comical nature of what was depicted. I heard from someone the opinion that Michal Mikhalych was young, even before the revolution he worked as a mechanic at a factory - therefore, he is depicted with a file. But why in the suit of the CEC chairman is not clear.
  12. cedar
    cedar 3 June 2016 15: 52
    -1
    "... He was 27 years old, almost until his death, was the chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, and then the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, that is, the formal head of the Soviet state ... "
    That is, Kalinin, in modern language, was the President of the USSR. He was the head of state, but ... formal.
    And in Russia this post of a formal head of state was supposed to work formally, to the delight of the oligarchs and the Anglo-Saxons, but they got a bummer ... Putin will not accept eight million citizens, but he will conduct a live broadcast more than once with a hundred and forty millionth country, although Anglo-Americans are sleeping and see impeachment to Putin.
    Kalinin did what he could for the people, but he could not do much, having in fact the position of "wedding general" and I hope he still did not sign the execution lists.
  13. n.dybnev
    n.dybnev 3 June 2016 21: 19
    0
    And where is Kalinin with us? Maybe in Vladivostok?
  14. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 3 June 2016 22: 48
    +2
    The article, of course, is useful in the current vacuum of information about statesmen of the Lenin-Stalin era, but the idea that the tsarist prisons were sanatoriums with libraries for prisoners seems to me deeply mistaken. See at least "Notes of a Revolutionary" Kropotkin.