Military Review

Soviet crusaders

47
The dynamic protection of armored vehicles was created difficult and dramatic.


Soviet developers of dynamic protection at the end of 70-x - the beginning of 80-s conducted research in research institutes of steel, relying on developments made long before that by domestic scientists B.V. Voitsekhovsky, A.I. Platov and others.

Since 1978, A. I. Platov worked in our department, and all of us young employees treated Alexander Ivanovich, a veteran, one of those who were at the forefront of knowing this most complex phenomenon — an ultrahigh-speed interaction process of a cumulative jet of anti-tank ammunition, with great respect. attacking a tank with a dynamic defense device.

Should not armor gallop


The cumulative jet moves at a speed exceeding the first cosmic one, the whole process takes several tens of microseconds in time and proceeds at pressures at which even the strongest armor steel flows like water. The first in the USSR author's certificate for the invention of the element of dynamic protection (EDS) "Cross" was received by the head of our department, DA Rototaev.

Enough and problems - both objective and, as they say, needlework. On a remote site near the landfill near Moscow there was an episode that was remembered for a lifetime. The shelling of 125-mm cumulative shells we tested the armored model "nose", simulating a multilayer frontal part of the body tankequipped with volumetric cross-type EDZ built into it. The price of one artillery shot was several hundred rubles and was comparable to the cost of a live cow. Therefore, our director M. I. Maresev, a veteran front-line soldier and a Siberian, shook his head in dismay at each shot of a 125-mm artillery gun and grumbled in a Siberian manner: “Again the Cow flew” ...

While we, engineers of the scientific research institute, got from Moscow to the test site and the service bus “dropple” to the 18 site, the test team, which arrived four hours before us, did not lose time and already finished the equipment of the “nose” »Inside specially mounted pipes. Externally, the layout of the armored center with built-in dynamic protection looked like it should be. In any case, we were satisfied with the external inspection of the experimental assembly and gave us a go-ahead for testing. The field team went to prepare a gun for a shot, and our engineering staff took refuge in caponiers welded from 16-mm steel armor plates (not a single fragment would break through!) Installed at a distance of about 50 meters from the test layout. A landfill caponier is a steel box placed on the butt, open from one, back, side and closed from the front, from the sides and from above, equipped with a periscope and viewing slots covered with glass fragments. In one caponier, from three to five people could hide from fragments scattering in the explosion of a cumulative projectile, depending on their complexion and (during the cold season) on the thickness of the coats, fur jackets and coats.

We were attached to triplexes of the viewing slits, through which only cracks from fragments that had fallen into them during previous tests were clearly visible. All wide open mouths - so it is easier to transfer the action of the shock wave. Gripping team: "Or-r-rudie!". A close, habitually sharp clap of a cannon shot, and an unusually strong, deafening thunder of eardrums of the mixed explosion of a cumulative projectile and a dynamic protection, whistling fragments flying over the heads ... A moment of silence ... Then two or three unaccustomed, quiet, but sensations, silence ... Then there was a moment of silence ... Then two or three unaccustomed, soft, but sensations flew by ... slapping the ground ... We all stand half-dead, with wide mouths and do not understand anything. Nothing, except that something extraordinary happened - the explosion was too strong.

Soviet crusaders


Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu thanked Vladimir Putin for agreeing to return the Magah tank (version of the American M48), which was captured by Syrian troops as a trophy in the 1982 year. He served well to strengthen the defensive might of the USSR. Photo: google.com

We leave from the caponier and admire the 100-mm armor plate, miraculously grown from the ground in a half dozen meters from our shelter. The slab sticks out, sticking a corner into the ground. And on the way from the tested layout, or rather, from what remained, there are several holes on the ground, which the multi-ton steel colossus left behind, hitting the ground and jumping. So leaves traces on the water- "pancakes" successfully thrown flat stone, ricocheting from the water surface.

Frustrated Moscow engineers, along with the "hiding eyes" testers of the local test team, begin to inspect the scene of the incident, trying to understand what happened. The moment of truth comes pretty quickly. On the sidelines, in a carefully arranged polygon team of closed wooden green boxes in which EDS “Cross” was brought from a basic warehouse of explosive materials, are found in a large number of carefully milled round steel plates. These are special partitions, which, before the experiment, were to be installed inside the pipes of the armored center, separating EDS "Cross" from each other and preventing the transfer of detonation from one element to another. In order to detonate an explosive (BB) in only one, a maximum of two EDS, through which a cumulative jet of exploded artillery shell passes. In total, about two hundred grams of explosives should have exploded.

However, the test team from the test site showed "Russian ingenuity" and, taking advantage of the lack of control by the Muscovite engineers, they simplified their lives by installing EHL without anti-knock partitions. The cumulative jet passed through the ELD, located in two tubes. In each pipe - 12 EDS. As a result, all 24 EDS exploded in both pipes, which is almost three kilograms of explosives. Such an explosion easily tore off the multi-ton steel armor plate from the test mock-up and threw it at the side of the artillery gunner and the caponier in which we were hiding. If this fly went a little more, the caponier itself and all those who were in it like flies would have swatted it.

Trophy as an argument


For three years, from 1979 to 1982, several alternative types of EHL have been investigated and tested in our department, both volumetric and flat-parallel. A method of calculation was created, which allowed us to estimate the space-time and energy characteristics of the process of interaction of a cumulative jet with EHD. Comprehensive laboratory and field studies of various types of EDS, including using the methods of mathematical planning of experiments and regression analysis, have been carried out. On the basis of the models obtained, engineering optimization was carried out and rational parameters were selected. The design of two types of EDS and the technology of their manufacture and equipment with explosives began. The works went according to plan, when suddenly the situation instantly changed.

In June, 1982 in the Middle East began the first Lebanese war between Israel and its Middle Eastern neighbors. At the end of June, a group of engineers from our steel research institute, which I was a part of, was urgently sent to Kubinka. At one of the sites of the local scientific research institute of armored vehicles stood the entire Israeli tank M48 with the “explosive reactive armor” complex - ERA BLAZER. During the fighting in the Sultan Jaakub area on the night of 10 on 11, the Syrians managed to capture several Israeli tanks completely unharmed. Within a few days, one of these trophies was delivered to the USSR, and we began to explore it.

Only after this, the top military leadership of the USSR, it became clear that without dynamic protection it was impossible to ensure the survival of tanks on the battlefield with the massive use of a huge arsenal of various anti-tank cumulative and armor-piercing sabots. And our department actually moved to work on a wartime schedule - with virtually no days off and vacations, according to 10 – 12 hours a day.

As a result, in just six months, we have finally designed the design of a unified EHR 4-20, including original anti-knock partitions, in order to prevent the unmanaged detonation described above from one EHD to another. At 4С20 and the container for installing EDZ on the main armored units of all tanks, the author of these lines, together with other employees of the department and related defense research institutes and design bureaus, filed applications for the invention and obtained international patents.

Unlike the Israeli ELS X-NUMX of the BLAZER complex, the domestic EHR 20-4, created by us, is unified for all the main tanks that existed at that time, it has a lower specific gravity and a significantly smaller area of ​​weakened zones. Already 20 January 14 was signed by the state commission on the adoption of the ROC "Contact-1983". We began the technological preparation for the mass production of the EHL 1C4, and in the 20 the mounted complex of the dynamic protection of the Kontakt-1985 tanks adopted the Soviet army.

Easier, cheaper, more reliable


As a result of the R & D performed by our department - “Contact-2”, “Contact-3”, “Contact-4”, “Contact-5”, “Relict” - the designs of the EDS 4C22, 4C23 line were designed to protect not only tanks with powerful armor protection, but also lightly armored and even unarmored objects of military equipment from various high-speed weapons. Dynamic protection has become integrated. Now it is an integral part of not only modern Russian tanks, but also infantry fighting vehicles. The dynamic protection we developed has been adopted by many foreign countries.

Tanks and other objects of military equipment equipped with such complexes saved the lives of hundreds of our soldiers and officers who participated in various military conflicts. Yet it was not for nothing that we risked then!
Author:
Originator:
http://vpk-news.ru/articles/30867
47 comments
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  1. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 5 June 2016 05: 47
    +23
    Nevertheless, it was not in vain that we risked then!

    Of course not in vain. I think many of those who survived thanks to DZ would personally thank you if there was such an opportunity.
    1. cap
      cap 5 June 2016 05: 57
      +15
      Quote: Razvedka_Boem
      Nevertheless, it was not in vain that we risked then!

      Of course not in vain. I think many of those who survived thanks to DZ would personally thank you if there was such an opportunity.


      They gave a second life. You will not forget such a thing.
      God give you (the designers) long life and success in your work, in such a noble cause.
      1. Alekseev
        Alekseev 5 June 2016 13: 13
        +4
        Quote: cap
        God give you (the designers) long life and success in your work, in such a noble cause.

        Yes.
        And Contact-1 is actually not a very complicated device: a steel box in which there are two explosive plates separated by a partition on a tin base ...
        But, really, it’s a very effective thing, and it took quite a bit of effort to become one.
        Good luck to the engineers of the research institute and everyone else whose efforts allow us to increase the security of our BTT.
    2. Cresta999
      Cresta999 5 June 2016 10: 26
      +12
      Now unknown Jews will come running and tell us that it was possible not to take risks, since we didn’t do anything ourselves anyway, and everything that exists in the army is the result of cloning Israeli technologies!
      1. RedBaron
        RedBaron 6 June 2016 09: 12
        +3
        Quote: Cresta999
        Now unknown Jews will come running and tell us that it was possible not to take risks, since we didn’t do anything ourselves anyway, and everything that exists in the army is the result of cloning Israeli technologies!

        It’s ridiculous with what speed the article came out so that the unsettled mind of Uryaya Pedroit wouldn’t let Gd not doubt in the unchallenged worlds ... wassat
        ps I remember how they boasted that the Tuyupy of these Westerners did not have and never had, and nuuuu tyupye and so on on the list.
    3. bocsman
      bocsman 5 June 2016 14: 46
      +4
      Quote: Razvedka_Boem
      Nevertheless, it was not in vain that we risked then!

      Of course not in vain. I think many of those who survived thanks to DZ would personally thank you if there was such an opportunity.


      I think special thanks from those mothers whose children returned home!
  2. Bayonet
    Bayonet 5 June 2016 06: 16
    +3
    I read it with great interest! Thank. hi
  3. Revolver
    Revolver 5 June 2016 06: 23
    +17
    And what is the crank on the letter M for a minus article? And most importantly, even if I wrote for what.
    1. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 5 June 2016 06: 55
      +14
      Quote: Nagan
      And what is the crank on the letter M for a minus article? And most importantly, even if I wrote for what.

      There are an abundance of such "weirdos with the letter M" on the site negative , often put "minus" out of personal dislike for the author.
      1. svp67
        svp67 5 June 2016 07: 02
        +13
        Quote: zyablik.olga
        often put a "minus" out of personal dislike for the author.

        Take it higher, to the country and to everything Russian.
        1. The comment was deleted.
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Monarchist
          Monarchist 5 June 2016 11: 04
          +1
          A common occurrence for those who are disgusted with the greatness of the Motherland. If the author wrote that "the mustachioed despot was engaged in terrorism or prohibited such works in order to undermine the security of the Motherland" there would be + and crocodile tears about the unfortunate, etc.
        4. vlad_vlad
          vlad_vlad 5 June 2016 14: 18
          +3
          Quote: svp67
          Quote: zyablik.olga
          often put & yawot; minus & yawot; out of personal hostility to the author.

          Take it higher, to the country and to everything Russian.


          put you a minus. To see Russophobia around every corner is paranoia.
          1. svp67
            svp67 5 June 2016 16: 49
            +3
            Quote: vlad_vlad
            left you a minus. To see Russophobia around every corner is paranoia.

            How can I tell you. When the "minuses" "arrive" from Ukraine, I can not regard it differently and cannot.
            So is Panov "kord1215"?
      2. bandabas
        bandabas 5 June 2016 07: 12
        +10
        Yes, spit. The main thing is a normal article.
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. svp67
        svp67 5 June 2016 16: 58
        +12
        Quote: kenig1
        plusanul, but the cumulative jet pierces the armor, but not "steel flows like water."

        Where did you see the contradiction? At the point of contact between the armor and the cumulative pressure, a huge pressure is created, as a result of which the armor heats up to the melting point, the hole from the COP has pronounced melted edges, which at one time suggested that this projectile burns through the armor. They were even at one time called "armor-burning", but a more detailed study of this process put all the dots on the "Y", the cumulative pestle still penetrates the armor, due to the huge local pressure

    3. Ivan Ivanych
      Ivan Ivanych 5 June 2016 10: 06
      +4
      There is such a party. Stable people 5 - 6, minus without looking. Looks like "partners"
  4. svp67
    svp67 5 June 2016 06: 50
    +16
    Thank you so much for the article.
    By the way, "volumetric EDZ of the" Cross "type" is what the "Ukrainian" DZ "Knife" and "Duplet" have now appeared from

    However, the testers from the proving team showed a “Russian ingenuity” and, taking advantage of the lack of control by Muscovite engineers, simplified their lives,
    extra proof of the aphorism: "there is nothing worse than a fool with initiative"
  5. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 5 June 2016 08: 09
    +3
    Thanks to the Developers from the Tankers of all and from me personally! and the author for the article !!!! Many lives saved thanks to you!
  6. volodya
    volodya 5 June 2016 08: 20
    +4
    Personally, I liked the article, many of our engineers and technicians saved their lives. They must be remembered. B.V. Voytsekhovsky, A.I. Platov and the author S. Korolev. And, accordingly, all the others who are involved in this!
  7. Tsoy
    Tsoy 5 June 2016 08: 42
    +3
    The question is why the US on the Abrams and raved such thick packages? Is there any gain in efficiency?
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 5 June 2016 11: 23
      +17
      In Israel, they believe that DZ is rather capricious and poorly predicted
      performance thing. "Blazer" sometimes worked well, and sometimes
      did not save from breaking through. A little different angle, a little to the edge of the box, and the result
      changing ... On the old armored vehicles put DZ.
      And they decided not to put DZ on Merkava, but to develop a multilayer passive
      armor, including ceramics, various organic fillers and metal.
      Among the fillers, explosives were also used, so it turns out
      as if passive-active armor. When it is mounted and modular, damaged blocks can be replaced quickly.
      But the protection of the tank must begin at a distance - with KAZ. And what KAZ did not take, then passive armor should take it.
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 5 June 2016 11: 54
        +1
        Why hurt yourself? Why not kaz> kdz> armor?
        1. RedBaron
          RedBaron 5 June 2016 14: 14
          -1
          Well, at least the weight of the tank ...
          1. ishty
            ishty 5 June 2016 15: 21
            +2
            Management and prevention will become unbearably complex. IMHO.
            1. cth; fyn
              cth; fyn 5 June 2016 15: 52
              0
              Well, ours somehow manage? Although it’s probably a chore ... With one tank, go and go, half an hour is done, and if there are several hundred of them, I don’t envy the guys.
          2. cth; fyn
            cth; fyn 5 June 2016 15: 48
            0
            How much is there ... Well, a couple of tons (a relict for t-90 2400kg on the website of the Steel Research Institute), and the protection of the tank doubles, the budget is less than the burnt out tanks. And what about a couple tons of tanks? Adhering dirt?
      2. cast iron
        cast iron 5 June 2016 15: 28
        +3
        VLD Merkava is small. No fillers can fix this. Apparently all the protection is concentrated in the tower.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 5 June 2016 16: 27
          +3
          "VLD Merkava is too small" ////

          You are right.
          In terms of frontal protection of the hull, Abrams is stronger.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  8. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 5 June 2016 09: 05
    +6
    I always wondered where DZ kits are stored in tank parks in peacetime. Or are they equipped constantly hung during maintenance, storage, relocation of tanks, training sessions and maneuvers?
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 5 June 2016 11: 29
      +14
      ABOUT! This is one of the main problems of remote sensing. Bags of explosives
      store, update, check.
      Where to store? Who is responsible (explosives, after all)? ...
      Therefore, often the tank go into battle with empty boxes or with worthless explosives.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  9. Yak28
    Yak28 5 June 2016 09: 10
    +2
    Quote: Nagan
    And what kind of eccentric letter M minus the article?

    It would be nice if the ratings had to be argued, but there is a chance that the touchy character will always put you cons.
    1. AUL
      AUL 5 June 2016 22: 57
      0
      There are such characters on the site who will be ignored simply because they can do it with impunity. Like those ridiculous people who write a three-letter word on the wall when no one sees it.
  10. Yak28
    Yak28 5 June 2016 09: 31
    +1
    Modern foreign tanks weigh 15-20 tons more than the t-90, does this mean that their armor is correspondingly more powerful? Not a few of our tanks were taken out of the Warsaw Pact countries, as well as Iraq, and obviously they there they were fired upon and studied from all sides. Unfortunately, probably our military did not have the opportunity to study the armor of the Abrams tank
    How effective is dynamic defense against the latest ATGMs of NATO countries?
    1. Monarchist
      Monarchist 5 June 2016 11: 24
      +2
      An urgent question: to what extent is our DZ capable of withstanding modern ATGMs? Dill and "librasts" claim that the new DZ is rubbish, and the dill: "Doublet" or, what they are putting there now, super-super!
      1. Razvedka_Boem
        Razvedka_Boem 5 June 2016 13: 14
        +4
        Russian remote sensing is quite effective in fulfilling its mission. In addition, it acts in conjunction with other measures, for example, jamming. Also plays a role which ATGM is used, for example, a helicopter ATGM has a heavier warhead than RPGs. Of great importance is the preparedness of the calculation, especially in battle conditions, when the stress is very high.
  11. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 5 June 2016 09: 41
    +9
    By the way, in my opinion, the capture of the M-111 projectile also had a significant impact on the T-72 booking.
  12. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 5 June 2016 10: 53
    +2
    Ah yes scientists. Ah yes well done. Contrary to all those who did not understand, they were working. And as soon as they received confirmation, so immediately the development went into action.
    Another confirmation of the biblical wisdom "There is no prophet in his own country"! But this does not mean that one should not be!
  13. Grigory Z.
    Grigory Z. 5 June 2016 12: 04
    +1
    Who knows, a tank is returned to Israel just like that or for an equivalent replacement?
    1. Razvedka_Boem
      Razvedka_Boem 5 June 2016 13: 03
      +1
      Big politics. It seems like a gesture of goodwill.
  14. ISSIDOR
    ISSIDOR 5 June 2016 13: 20
    -1
    I was always interested in what kind of explosives in "contact 1", from some tankers I heard that they were plastids, from others what they spent, or maybe special centuries?
  15. Vladimir57
    Vladimir57 5 June 2016 14: 03
    +9
    Rototaev Dmitry Alexandrovich died in August last year. I personally knew him. Bright memory!
  16. aba
    aba 5 June 2016 15: 17
    +15
    With this DZ, my Baumanka graduate had an incident in defending my diploma. Arriving in the pre-diploma practice in the fall, on the advice of the head, he took up the topic of strengthening the protection of the T-72 tank using DZ. Then comrade Grigoryan introduced one of the boards to which I turned on the advice of my supervisor. But Grigoryan, citing secrecy, sent me to hell. It remains only to turn to other sources, in particular to the materials of foreign military magazines, where the dynamic protection of Israeli tanks was disassembled. In February, the teachers of our department came to the defense with the Moscow Higher Technical School, professors and candidates of sciences. And when I hung out my blueprints for the tank of the hung EDZ, it caused some revival among them. And I was already inspired by such a meeting, was ready to proceed to the defense.
    But then Comrade went to me. Grigoryan shouting: "Who is the data on DZ for you? My employees and I did not give you? Do you understand what this is? I will put you in jail! Call the employees of the first department!"
    In the ranks of the teachers of Baumanka, confusion arose from surprise. But I stood there and continued to smile. When Grigorian finished, I calmly answered him that I remember how you refused to help me, but if you looked at the diploma note, and even more specifically the list of references and other sources, then all your questions would have disappeared, he also answered that all the necessary I found materials in a foreign journal and based on published data I took domestic analogues. The defense went off with a bang! But the assessment of my diploma caused controversy between representatives of Baumanka and VNIIStali, among whom was Grigoryan. Through his efforts, I only got "good".
    It was like that. laughing
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 5 June 2016 16: 45
      +4
      Quote: aba
      Through his efforts, I only got "good".

      It's familiar. Current density meter in electrolyte. 100% PIC. Differential bias sensor with LF and HF components. The operating point is at the inflection point of the characteristic. The characteristics of permalloy have been taken many times. Reinforcing elements based on K140UD2B type op-amp. The errors of the electrical circuit are selected, minimized, and due to the differential circuit of the sensor, the temperature errors are also minimized. The cost of the device (in-house) is about 73 rubles. On defense, I was "lowered" in the economic part from 5 to 4 points.
    2. Des10
      Des10 5 June 2016 16: 57
      +4
      The incident was also not graduate, but when I asked the teacher on a special subject about a nozzle with a variable thrust vector (1981), such eyes! laughing
      And my father wrote out the ZVO - there was an article about "rectangular" nozzles.
    3. Lekov L
      Lekov L 5 June 2016 20: 37
      +2
      With this DZ I have a graduate Baumanki was an incident in the protection of the diploma


      And from our department who was?
      Ovchinnikov, Hazov, Solovyov or Orlenko? smile

      And Grigorian remember!

      Good luck to you colleague!

      The incident was also on the defense - someone from the "industry" dropped it to "good".
      But that was a long time ago. "I do not regret, I always believe in all the best ..." (c) V.S. Vysotsky

      He graduated from Moscow Higher Technical School in 1984. M4

      Hello to colleagues from the Research Institute of Steel. hi

      Sincerely ...
  17. aba
    aba 5 June 2016 22: 01
    +2
    He graduated from Moscow Higher Technical School in 1984. M4

    I'm in 86 and K2. So completely different people. wink
    Thank! And all the best to you!
    1. Lekov L
      Lekov L 6 June 2016 19: 44
      0
      Track constructors from "machines"
      Good luck!
  18. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 6 June 2016 09: 21
    +2
    Trophy samples, of course, affect the development of domestic armored vehicles. But we repaid this debt during the collapse of the USSR with the unification of the GDR and the FRG. But it was export options and shells and armor on the T-72. And Ukrainians added, having sold equipment that was used in the Soviet army. All recent modernizations of Western BT were made taking into account these trophies. And with this modernization, the mass of tanks increased to 65 tons
  19. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 6 June 2016 09: 21
    0
    Trophy samples, of course, affect the development of domestic armored vehicles. But we repaid this debt during the collapse of the USSR with the unification of the GDR and the FRG. But it was export options and shells and armor on the T-72. And Ukrainians added, having sold equipment that was used in the Soviet army. All recent modernizations of Western BT were made taking into account these trophies. And with this modernization, the mass of tanks increased to 65 tons
  20. Damir
    Damir 22 October 2016 18: 55
    0
    I bow to you for your work !!!!!!!
  21. couch but smart general
    couch but smart general 15 December 2016 05: 38
    0
    I was disappointed, I thought it was entirely our know-how and no .... a copy .. like the stinger from which everything else went .... but right now, too, Israel has an active defense better than our arenas ...... but right now it’s not those days ... they’ll no longer be uradian, the KGB titans are no longer doing ...