And, nevertheless, even in this case, newspapers, including Pravda, remain the most valuable sources of information about “the affairs of bygone days.” It is clear that the published materials should be treated critically, but a careful analysis of printed newspaper materials can bring many benefits.
This is how the filing of all the Pravda newspaper issues for 1942 a year looks like. Heavy "album" has to be brought by a researcher on a trolley!
Very good photo. We are not alone in the fight against Hitler, help will come.
And ... help came! Also a very good and timely photo in the newspaper # 327 dated November 25, 1941, although the Matilda tank itself is not very visible on it. By the way, oh tanks "Matilda" Penza newspaper "Stalin's banner" in 1941 wrote: "... In the column, the tanks of Captain Morozov's unit stood out with their impressive appearance ... These are British tanks with powerful diesel engines, working clearly and silently ... From the very first days of studying British tanks, our the fighters were convinced of their high qualities. The multi-ton tank is very mobile. It has steel armor, simple controls and powerful firepower to fight enemy tanks and infantry ... The armored British transporters following in the column were of great interest. They are well armed, their weapon with equal success can hit on air and ground targets. "
Who in this photo to the left, like this, without looking at the signature, not everyone will say. It was at this time that this person was going to write a book, was awarded for the defense of Moscow, and they placed a photo on the pages of Pravda surrounded by people who are well known to all of us today. Who is this? This is ... the future traitor General Vlasov. So far, still among the heroes ...
Surprisingly, even then Pravda met materials written on the principle of "they wanted the best, but it turned out ... not very bad." This could be the author's desire to please the authorities, and an order from her. In any case (although we will not find out now), we are dealing with a distortion of reality, and quite stupid and inept! For example, look at the article “Lenin and Stalin - the founders and leaders of Pravda” in the 5 issue of May 1942 of the year dedicated to its anniversary. It says that the newspaper was founded on the orders of Lenin, on the initiative of Stalin. And here we read that at this time Stalin was in exile. True, then he fled from it, and, arriving in St. Petersburg, began to organize the work of the newspaper. But it all took time, that is, when the “Truth” started, it was quite far from it, and mobile phones did not exist then. And on the day of the 1 issue, he was again arrested and sent to Narym Territory for three years. And when did he run the newspaper with Lenin? And if it strikes me, then did people who still remember how it all really did not notice at that time? And after all, they noticed it and, probably, said something about this, although not all and not always loudly.
And here is the question: why did you need to write such an ambiguous article, after which every little bit thinking person had more questions than she gave answers. For example, as an editor standing guard over the foundations of the Soviet state, I would not have missed such an article. But ... she came out and, as you think, she strengthened the people in a certain opinion, or on the contrary - it undermined this opinion in a certain way?
We read an article by M. Sergeev, published in the same 1942 year, about the growing economic power of the United States. It seems to be all right. Such a mighty ally and his successes delight. But ... and where are the starving workers, about whom the very same “Truth” wrote just a year ago, negroes who were hanged by the court of Lynch, destitute farmers? How was it done? Or just not ordered to write? Meanwhile, it was necessary to write about it, because our ideological and economic differences did not go anywhere, and people had to be periodically reminded that “it’s bad”, that “we are enemies”, and allies are only temporary. Then I wouldn’t have to break the rainbow picture of US success, and, therefore, cause readers to distrust - yesterday, they say, this is how it is today ...
21 June 1942 of the Year “Pravda” on the first page placed the text of the agreement between England and the USSR on cooperation for a period of 20 years, that is, up to 1962 of the year. Great news for 1942, right? What was missing? But what the article is about whether the “British bourgeoisie” has enough goodwill to keep it to the very end! Because immediately after the war, both this and all other treaties with England and the United States de facto, and even de jure, ceased to act and ... it was necessary to refer to the article that was published in the same 42 - “We already knew then that they cannot be trusted! ”and“ Here they are bad! ”By the way, the notorious George Orwell, who brought an article about Stalinism in the USSR to one of the British newspapers, was also refused, motivated by the fact that“ now is not the time ”. “But how do you explain to the workers after the war, why did you start writing about it now, but didn’t write then?” He asked a reasonable question to the editor. “But then we will think how to explain!” The editor answered. And if he had printed it? Would it have affected the combat capability of the Red Army and the supply of lend-lease? No, of course, just people would not be deceived - “friendship is friendship, and a snuff apart!”
The newspaper is “so bad” that you have to think about every word in it, because black letters printed on white paper cannot be cut down with an ax - this is a document! However, no less need to think about the pictures placed in it. Others - well, just a godsend for spies. Here is a photo in the newspaper from 7 May 1942 year, page 1: our tanks with troops on the armor attack the enemy. But look at the wheels. They do not have rubber! And this, as we know, greatly worsened their performance characteristics. And on the photo of the T-34 in the newspaper for the 41 year, the wheels were rubber-coated, and here, as you see, it is not. It is clear that the Germans at the front already knew that we were sorely lacking rubber, and that the roar from our tanks could be heard for many kilometers, which was what the “silent” Germanic “sturmgeshütz” based on T-III used. But ... why is it also a photo in the newspaper of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B) to confirm? Well, they would have removed these tanks at close range, so that apart from the tower and the people, there is nothing to be seen! And if I were a German propagandist-agitator, I would have immediately reprinted this photo in all German newspapers and wrote that the Russians had all the tires over, that their tanks were worse day by day, and our victory was close! And now - see "direct evidence of this!"
In the source analysis of newspaper material, the frequency of images of the same weapon in the photo plays a very important role. For example, in the Pravda newspaper for 1941, we see soldiers of the Red Army armed with PPD machine guns, SVT and ABC rifles, and only by the end of the year do they force out the PPSh and the three-tine line. In the newspaper for 42, the first year of the CBT is only in one photo, but since the second half of the year, the PPSh have already completely replaced the FPD, and there are a lot of them in the photos.
This photo (No. 10 for 10 in January 1942) is simply not the place in the newspaper! After all, on it you see PPD-34 / 38 - the rarest sample and ... as if, for example, I used this photo, if I were a German propagandist? And here is how: “You see that the Russians have raked the last weapon from their warehouses, the 1934 automatons of release are coming into the picture. The Soviet industry is falling apart! Our victory is near! ”
But the supply of Lend-Lease gradually began to affect, and on the front wheel of the T-34 tires appeared again, about which Pravda immediately “reports” 2 of October of the year 1942!
Amazing isn't it? And despite the fact that the entire 41 year, our tank crews fought on anonymous tanks, and the pilots on anonymous combat aircraft. The aircraft had the name "bomber", "hawk", as if in their very name was a terrible military secret. We should be proud of our technology, educate the people on the example of wonderful samples of our weapons, and what we had instead was complete anonymity, but how proud of the fact that it has no name?
And only in the number 309 for November 5 in Pravda there appeared the marks of the Soviet T-34 and KV tanks, and the article was written by J. Ya. Kotin! They wrote about tanks before that, even for some reason, the numbers of factories producing them were given in the newspaper, but ... without designations! True, the HF itself was named before the T-34. Another 8 of July of the same year in the article “Struggle for HF”, authored by the director of the Kirov plant S. Makhonin.
Here it is, the famous photograph of the assembly of tanks KV. But under it is not written that it is HF! Secret!
And this is the first photo, under which it is written that it shows the assembly of the Yak aircraft! (Pravda, 8 June 1942, No. 159. C.3)
However, all this mystery of the 40s (war after all!) Is not as funny as the "mystery of the 80s." Then, namely from 1980 to 1991 year, I conducted TV shows for children on Penza television on children's technical creativity ("Let's make toys", "Studio of young technicians", "Stars name," "Guys-inventors"), and after each I was summoned to the Committee for the Protection of State Secrets in the press! “Here it is written here,” a woman in glasses asked me, shocking me with the deadly thickness that we had a T-34 / 85 tank. Where did you get this? This is secret data! ”
An article about polar explorers who bought KV tanks for the front. Such articles appeared quite often in Pravda at that time, but here photos of them were published by no means always, but in vain!
Knowing who I was dealing with, I took the most in advance, that the children's magazine “Young Technician” did not and showed the vigilant lady: “That's where!” She literally sniffed at this magazine, watched all his data and was wildly surprised: it’s necessary, but it’s written in my book that this is a military secret! ”“ And what year is it for you, let me see? ” , not a single one, when I could not confirm my information with the data of the open press, the magazines "Young Technician", "Technique of Youth" and "M delist Design ", but I still called back whenever encountered any military acronym. Once I could not stand it and asked how you can keep such an illiterate fool in such a responsible position? Oh, that was! They invited me to my boss, and he very politely explained to me that the spies were not asleep! “Then you need to put all the editors of these magazines!” “But we are in Penza! - the chief shrugged his shoulders, - it is necessary to work according to the old instructions! So you can imagine on what basis and how this “committee” worked in that distant wartime!
Well, finally, observing the interests of the country, I would not give in the newspaper and photos of these German self-propelled guns. Very much they are some disreputable! They still seem undignified, but in 42-oh they did not seem solid. But the Germans fought on them and reached the Caucasus! On such a shit, God forgive me! It would be necessary to place on the photos of trophies a larger caliber cannon, and a barrel to the viewer. And visible, and scary, and joyful, and pride embraces! On modern young people tested!
This photo with a trophy gun everyone likes much more!
So it is obvious that the publication of the newspaper, especially if it is published in wartime, requires considerable art and the highest professionalism. And with that, and with others in Pravda it was not bad, yes, but one could have done the same thing much better, could it not? With greater efficiency, at the same cost!
Very impressive photo, and those would need more?