Military Review

Bellver Castle - “my home is my round fortress”

47
“Articles are just a class. I was in Mallorca, I saw Bellver Castle, which stands on a hill in Palma. They say this is a one-of-a-kind castle round in plan. If you can, tell me about it. Loved it. ”
(Head)


Europe, as we know, in the Middle Ages was a real “country of castles”, where more than 15 thousands were built. But the castles in Europe were different. The earliest (of those that we know) - the castle of Doue-la-Fontaine in the French city of Angers, was built in the middle of the 10th century - that’s how long ago. But these locks were very simple, and their main part was the donjon tower.

Bellver Castle - “my home is my round fortress”

This is how the Bellver Castle is seen from afar for those who come to the island of Mallorca.

Some of these towers were very large, for example, this is the famous Tower of London, translated from the English simply “tower”. But there were other donjons, such as the Tower of the Counts of Flanders in Ghent, which they began to build in 1180. Downstairs was a dungeon, a kitchen and guest rooms, above — a chapel and halls, and what is interesting and even amusing: its upper gallery with watchtowers and battlements was built only in the 19th century to the needs of tourists. Before that, apparently, there was no need!


To inspect the castle, you need to climb it up the mountain!

A huge round donjon in Villeneuve-sur-Yonne was built by King of France Philip II August in the twelfth century. However, such castles still needed a courtyard, one tower could not do! So there were so-called "concentric locks", one of which was Beaumaris Castle in England.


Beaumaris Castle in England is a typical “concentric castle”.

But the castles of noble feudal lords and sovereigns were required not only for war. For example, the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick II used the octagonal castle Del Monte in Italy as a kind of hunting lodge, and the case when the locks were built with a similar purpose is far from the only one!

For example, a castle could be either a winter or summer residence. Here is a summer residence in 1300 - 1311 years. ordered to build the Spanish king Jaime II. He stands on a mountain height 112 m at a distance 2,5 km from the center of Palma. It all started with the fact that his father, King of Aragon, Jaime I, joined Palm in his possessions in 1229, and then in 1235, he was also crowned with the crown of the island of Mallorca. When, after his death in 1276, his sons shared his possessions, his younger son Jaime II received the title of King of Majorca.


A model of Bellver Castle, on which its unusual architecture is clearly visible.

The construction of the castle of Jaime II was entrusted to the architect Pere Salve, who completed the construction of its main buildings as early as 1311. The interior was designed by the artist Francisco Cabalti, who already tried to please his crowned customer. For the construction of the castle used local sandstone, which was mined right at the foot of the hill on which it was built. It is believed that its prototype was the ancient fortress of Irodion, standing on the West Bank, which also had a round shape and one main big tower and three small towers. In less than 30 years, as in 1343, the castle came under attack: King Pedro IV of Aragon, conquering Mallorca, decided to start with him. Then in 1344, Mallorca was annexed to Aragon, and supporters of the last King Jaime III, including his widow, and sons, were kept in the castle. In 1391, a peasant uprising happened on the island, and the castle was again besieged, but this time its defenders succeeded in fighting back. And in 1394, King Aragon Juan I escaped here from the plague, the epidemic of which spread to Europe and reached Spain. Well, now, when we at least got acquainted with history of this unusual castle, let's take a little walk through it, as if we visited the beautiful city of Palma in Mallorca!


This is the courtyard from which we will begin our excursion. The courtyard is located inside the citadel, which has a diameter of about 50 m. There is a two-tier gallery along its entire perimeter. The arches of the first floor are round. They are supported by the 21 column, and the Gothic arches of the second support 42 octagonal columns. This is a typical Italian style - a combination of antiquity and Gothic, which is beautiful and rational.


In the middle of the courtyard there is a well, which supplied the castle with water.


But this is the same courtyard, but only turned into a theater hall. We can say that this is just the perfect place for the production of Shakespeare's tragedies: "There is no sadder story in the world than the story of Romeo and Juliet." No scenery in this place is just needed!


We go around the yard through the gallery and if someone is tired, he can sit down ...


On the second floor, the ceilings are still typically Gothic. The reliability and durability of such a design proved time itself!

In the 17th century, the castle was modernized to install artillery. In the 1713 year, a covered bastion was also built on the north side. And in the XVIII century, the castle turned into a prison for important political criminals. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Spanish politician and writer Gaspar Melchor de Jovelyanos languished here, who compiled his first scientific description. The French physicist Francois Arago, accused of espionage, was also hiding here. So we can say that this is partly the “Spanish castle of If,” even if there are not so many famous names associated with this castle.


Now we climb to the roof and see that it is completely flat, that it offers a wonderful view of the city and the port, and that there is simply no better place to defend the castle.


The width of the roof is such that it is free to ride a bike.


Three towers were added to the massive citadel, in terms of the letter U, and the donjon tower, to which, from the roof (!), Is truly an architectural sophistication, there is an arched bridge seven meters long. The height of this tower is 25 m, it has four floors and is oriented strictly to the north. The diameter of the tower is 12 m, and its ring is crowned with machined 38. The height of the lowest floor where the dungeon was located is five meters. Three large horseshoe-shaped towers are oriented on three other cardinal points, and 4 small towers indicate, respectively, the north-west, north-east, south-west and south-east directions.

In 1931, the castle entered the Mallorca municipality to turn it into a museum. But in 1936, he was again transformed into a prison. Now for the 800 rebel nationalists. And they paved the highway leading today to the castle. In 1976, it opened the Museum of the History of the City, starting with the first settlers of Palma and until the Middle Ages. There is also a collection of sculptures belonging to Cardinal Despuch. The courtyard is skillfully suited for various recreational activities. For example, it hosts a classical music festival with the participation of the Balearic Islands Symphony Orchestra.


And now let's study it a little more, so to speak, defense functions. Look: the castle citadel is surrounded by a dry stone moat, as well as a detached donjon, but the castle also has an external wall with loopholes for artillery, and behind it another moat!


There he is, this moat, lined with stone from all sides!


The bridge to the donjon is very narrow, and right above it is a loophole for shooters.


The door is quite narrow and, standing under the machining machines, it can’t be broken in any way, because they just throw stones at you from above!

On the first floor of the two-story citadel there were utility rooms and servants' rooms. There are only narrow loopholes in the wall that run all the way around. On the second floor there were royal chambers, a kitchen and a chapel. The stairs connecting the floors are spiral, which also prevents attackers from going upstairs, while defenders, on the contrary, are very helpful.


Interestingly, along the perimeter of the roof of the castle there used to be teeth, but for some reason they were removed during the reconstruction held in the 17th century.


The main entrance to the citadel of the castle is located next to the northwestern turret, and the bridge in the shape of the letter D leads to it, so that the one who enters the castle must turn his back on his main tower. There is another entrance, at the southwest turret, and it is arranged in the same way.


As already noted, the castle houses a museum that is decorated with preserved mosaics ...


... And in which you can see these sculptures and much more!

In conclusion, it should be said that due to its location on the hill for primitive artillery of the XV - XVI centuries. This lock was a tough nut, because the guns of that time had to shoot from bottom to top. But, of course, with the progress of artillery, any castle, even the most perfect, became vulnerable to it.


Medieval heavy bombard firing at the castle. Drawing modern artist.
Author:
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  1. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 14 June 2016 07: 17
    +10
    There would be an opportunity, put not one "+", but ten ..) Excellent review!
    Py.Sy. After these locks, a smile guarantees the modern builders for 50 years ..)
    1. Imperialkolorad
      Imperialkolorad 14 June 2016 13: 07
      +4
      Quote: Razvedka_Boem
      There would be an opportunity, put not one "+", but ten ..) Excellent review!
      Py.Sy. After these locks, a smile guarantees the modern builders for 50 years ..)

      I would bet too. It is a pity such articles are very few in number.
      1. kalibr
        14 June 2016 17: 05
        +4
        Little by little! If you haven’t been yourself, then you need to find material in English. Translate. Pick up a photo. To consider. Combine in the written text (that is, it must then be written) with ... text. To mock it all up. Transfer to archive. All this requires a lot of time. In addition, texts in English. there is not always. There are in Catalan. And Google translates it, but ... oh-oh, how does it translate it. So work on articles on castles takes time. But ... soon it will be about Kolossi Castle in Cyprus. Already ready and waiting in line. I love Cyprus, what can you do.
    2. tundra
      tundra 14 June 2016 14: 23
      0
      evokes a smile guarantee of modern builders for 50 years ..) yes yes yes yes
    3. sub307
      sub307 14 June 2016 17: 50
      +1
      I agree. Excellent obeor.
    4. Vend
      Vend 20 June 2016 10: 50
      0
      The huge round dungeon in Villeneuve-sur-Ionne was built by the King of France Philip II August in the 12th century.
      Even before Philip II Augustus, round fortresses stood on the lands of Europe. They were built by the Slavs.
  2. EvgNik
    EvgNik 14 June 2016 07: 21
    +3
    Thank you, beautiful, exciting. Tell Vyacheslav Olegovich, are you not familiar (at least in absentia) with Pavel Aksyonov? I like to visit his site sometimes, it’s also very interesting.
    1. kalibr
      14 June 2016 07: 46
      +1
      Personally, no, but the surname is well known. Something is connected with her, but I don’t remember exactly what. I don’t know about his site.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 14 June 2016 15: 42
      +1
      Quote: EvgNik
      I like to visit his site sometimes, it’s also very interesting.

      Zhenya drop the link. Through the search engine I get to the wrong place.
  3. igordok
    igordok 14 June 2016 07: 30
    +1
    Thank you.
    In theory, the dungeon bridge should be easily destructible. Although, as you say, he shoots himself and there are no dead zones there.
    And what are the inscriptions near the entrance to the dungeon with the date 1878? Year of her one of the restorations? Or year of construction? laughing
  4. Kenneth
    Kenneth 14 June 2016 07: 37
    +4
    Very interesting article. It is a pity that no time was devoted to describing how he was taken for the first time.
    1. kalibr
      14 June 2016 07: 48
      +2
      There was no information in English. I don’t know Spanish. Therefore, I could not write. We should have contacted the castle, but something failed. Why I don’t remember. But failed.
  5. Head
    Head 14 June 2016 07: 55
    +4
    Thank you for the article. A few more photos from the personal collection.
  6. Head
    Head 14 June 2016 07: 59
    0
    And further. I can’t add a few at once. I will be one at a time. am
    1. AllXVahhaB
      AllXVahhaB 14 June 2016 15: 50
      +1
      Quote: Head
      I can’t add a few at once.

      I'm also interested in: how can I upload several photos?
      1. igordok
        igordok 14 June 2016 17: 17
        +2
        Quote: AllXVahhaB
        I'm also interested in: how can I upload several photos?

        After creating a comment, click edit and click the "picture" button. In the window, insert the http of the picture (like http://s019.radikal.ru/i603/1505/09/886cc7369c19.jpg). It can be done several times. And that's all.
        1. AllXVahhaB
          AllXVahhaB 15 June 2016 07: 35
          +2
          Quote: igordok
          After creating a comment, click edit and click the "picture" button. In the window, insert the http of the picture (like http://s019.radikal.ru/i603/1505/09/886cc7369c19.jpg). It can be done several times. And that's all.

          That is, first you need to put it on hosting, you can’t download from the computer right away?
          1. igordok
            igordok 15 June 2016 08: 18
            +1
            Quote: AllXVahhaB
            That is, first you need to put it on hosting, you can’t download from the computer right away?

            Yes. I often use Yandex photos, only there you need to manually add .jpg.
  7. Head
    Head 14 June 2016 08: 00
    +2
    View of the bridge to the dungeon
  8. Head
    Head 14 June 2016 08: 02
    +1
    Beauty is unreal. wink
    1. Riv
      Riv 14 June 2016 12: 10
      0
      Where is the beauty? Bare stones. Fintulyushki on columns (obviously new) and chairs in the yard - that's all the decorations. The parade ground in front of the barracks is even more beautiful.
      1. kalibr
        14 June 2016 16: 54
        +2
        No, the Gothic architecture is beautiful in itself. This has to be hewn out and adjusted so that it lasts for centuries. And as if "flies" over your head!
  9. Head
    Head 14 June 2016 08: 03
    +5
    And this is me in the "frontal" place. hi
  10. Riv
    Riv 14 June 2016 08: 05
    +3
    In a square mosaic in one of the illustrations is the Roman god Janus. Was she in the castle from the very beginning, or was she dragged?
  11. Head
    Head 14 June 2016 08: 06
    +2
    View from the top platform of the tower to the bridge.
  12. Head
    Head 14 June 2016 08: 08
    +1
    In general, everything was gone somewhere. I can not understand. If anyone is interested in more pictures - write. I'll try again.
    1. kalibr
      14 June 2016 08: 31
      +4
      It’s very interesting, it’s a pity that I myself couldn’t go there, although there was an opportunity. But everything always comes down to money.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 14 June 2016 16: 57
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        It’s very interesting, it’s a pity that I myself couldn’t go there, although there was an opportunity. But everything always comes down to money.

        And you do not think to continue this series? Very interesting and informative. Thank you.
        1. kalibr
          15 June 2016 22: 28
          0
          I'm sure I will. Literally this week, or certainly the next, there is an article about Kolossi Castle in Cyprus. Then ... then I don’t know, I want to ask my friends in England to help with the materials. He wrote in a French castle - very unusual and beautiful, the 21 generation lives in it (!), But ... they didn’t answer, they are probably afraid of the Russian mafia. About Spanish castles will be another material for sure. I was not in this castle, but passed by. So for now, rely on 2 material at least, and there you will see.
  13. parusnik
    parusnik 14 June 2016 08: 50
    +5
    Not even 30 years had passed since the castle was attacked in 1343: King Pedro IV of Aragon, conquering Mallorca, decided to start with it. Then in 1344 Mallorca was annexed to Aragon...... Jaime III got the kingdom of Mallorca with debts and devastated by epidemics, had to import bread, obligations forced him to enter the war with Genoa, which led to the loss of part of the sales markets, further worsening the financial situation and the need to resort to new persecution against the Jews ... In 1343–1345, Pedro IV of Aragon captured the kingdom immersed in chaos with virtually no resistance. Jaime III was offered a substantial pension as compensation, but he did not reconcile himself to the loss of the throne. Soon, Jaime III sold Montpellier to France and gathered the army with the proceeds, then landed in Mallorca in 1349, but was killed at the Battle of Llucmajor.
  14. Cherkashin Ivan
    Cherkashin Ivan 14 June 2016 09: 22
    +2
    Thank you, an interesting article, and the castle is beautiful. I just wanted to clarify if you have information about the size of the castle’s garrison in the 14th century?
    1. kalibr
      14 June 2016 11: 34
      0
      No, I don’t have such data.
  15. tlauicol
    tlauicol 14 June 2016 09: 40
    +2
    Beautiful castle and in excellent condition! Croatia and Montenegro are full of similarities, but most are badly shaken by earthquakes or WWII.
  16. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 14 June 2016 11: 29
    0
    Thank you very much for the story! Again I’m happy with the beautiful photo! I like that the castle was so well preserved. Probably because it was on the island and avoided wars and belonged to the royal family. It turns out that you were there, Vyacheslav Olegovich? always write about what you saw!
    I read that the Masons had round temples, as, according to legend, the Temple of King Solomon.
    Although, what the Temple of Solomon looked like is still not known.
    It is known that the CIRCLE is a Masonic symbol, as well as a BALL. It is interesting, is there any connection between the architecture of the castle and the symbolism of Masons ???
    1. kalibr
      14 June 2016 11: 37
      +2
      No, dear Dmitry, I was not there. I looked at the ship leaving for Mallorca, but that's all. But writing was not difficult. There was good material in English. although not very detailed, as well as materials from the castle museum site. This is Head (Sergey) was there. Ask for more pictures from him! I don’t know anything about the symbolism of Masons in the castle architecture.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 14 June 2016 12: 59
        +2
        I looked at the pictures of the castle on the network. In principle, they replicate the images 2,3,4,5,7 --- to the article. Only --- Different angles of photographing. If the top view of the castle is a beautiful symmetrical figure. Probably, on the network , there are pictures taken from a helicopter. They are, of course, the most winning ones --- they show the whole, not fragmentary. Maybe you will visit there sometime, the situation will turn out !!
        1. AllXVahhaB
          AllXVahhaB 15 June 2016 07: 51
          +1
          Quote: Reptiloid

          The top view of the castle is a beautiful symmetrical figure. There are probably pictures taken from a helicopter on the net.

    2. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 14 June 2016 21: 37
      +2
      Quote: Reptiloid
      I read that the Masons had round temples, as, according to legend, the Temple of King Solomon.
      What the Temple of Solomon looked like is known, for the exact description has been preserved in the Bible, and the remains of its foundation under the ruins of the Second Temple.

      Most of all, the connection indicated by the Author is seen precisely with Hierodion, the fortress of Herod the Great.

      Quote: Reptiloid
      CIRCLE --- Masonic symbol, as well as the BALL

      It’s ridiculous. First of all, these are geometric figures. Believe in conspiracy theories less.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 15 June 2016 09: 22
        +1
        When I wrote last year that the five-pointed star is a symbol of the USSR, they wrote to me that it was a Masonic symbol, a pentagram. Others, "especially advanced" ones, wrote that it was a magic symbol!
        Great Russian wisdom: there are no comrades to taste and color !!!!!!!!!
  17. PKK
    PKK 14 June 2016 16: 21
    +2
    And the Siberian Star Fortresses will not be shown to us, because they are destroyed to the ground. And there were many such Fortresses in the Irtysh.
    1. kalibr
      14 June 2016 16: 52
      +1
      I was in the Taman fortress, which Suvorov seemed to be building. And what's there? A slab at the entrance with an inscription and grassy ramparts. If it were not for the Chateau Tamagne winery opposite, there would be nothing to see there. I tried to shoot, but nothing interesting is visible in the pictures.
  18. AllXVahhaB
    AllXVahhaB 15 June 2016 07: 38
    +2
    When I see such structures in such places, I always have a question about sewage))) In historical terms, of course ...
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 15 June 2016 09: 05
      0
      You posted very interesting pictures! Class! I haven’t met such people, but only at an angle.
      Your pictures are from a higher height than picture 3 of the article.

      Well, what about the sewerage, what to think about it. Previously, people were more likely to relate to this. In general, in the Middle Ages they didn’t bother, they took it for granted. Although there were difficulties with food in the Middle Ages.

      By the way, the ancient Romans, Cretans-Minoans, Harapps, Aztecs, Incas --- had water pipes, baths, and, accordingly, sewers, sewers.
  19. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 15 June 2016 13: 34
    0
    Quote: Reptiloid
    Well, what about the sewerage, what to think about it. Previously, people were more likely to relate to this. In general, in the Middle Ages they didn’t bother, they took it for granted. Although there were difficulties with food in the Middle Ages.

    Do you seriously think that people lived like pigs in the Middle Ages? didn’t wash, didn’t have flowing sewage? Oh well.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 15 June 2016 16: 36
      +2
      In the context of this article, what I think is not important at all. There were earlier disputes among forum users on this topic (I don’t remember the article). And note, I have never compared people who lived with pigs before! [Quote = Mikhail Matyugin]
      [/ quote] people lived like pigs in the Middle Ages [/ quote]

      Vanguete, dear?

      Why am I not interested about sewers? There were memories of those who lived in the Far North and the Far East at the forum. Someone had a chance to live in a beam. I lived like that before school. Parents earned money to leave the communal apartment. Throughout the whole village, real sewage is available only in schools, kindergartens, a hospital, and administration. Water is imported, it is poured into barrels. Everyone bathes as he wants. The bath, of course, was in the village, but not all week. Male and female days.

      "Such long winter months
      Nowhere else in the world can you count.
      In June, the snow still holds ....
      October ---- winter is here again

      So long is winter in the North ...
      South --- a little shorter
      Russia is the most winter,
      Polar dark nights. "

      This is an excerpt from a poem about Russian Winter.

      It’s interesting to me about castles, armor, weapons, about portraits of that time, about paintings where those inhabitants and household items are captured. Something like that.
      Here is an interactive exhibition of models of inventions by Leonardo da Vinci. Gotta get in.
      1. kalibr
        15 June 2016 22: 23
        0
        There is a castle on the Loire in which all these models are made "live". This is where you need to go and see. Who was, who drove, who has a photo?
      2. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 16 June 2016 01: 14
        0
        Quote: Reptiloid
        Why am I not interested about sewers? There were memories of those who lived in the Far North and the Far East at the forum.

        I do not understand, where does the comparison of the peoples of the Far North and the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean castles of the Crusaders? Actually, the "Paleoarctic" still has a tradition of not washing all their lives.
  20. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 15 June 2016 22: 53
    0
    Why so far away? This exhibition seems to be in St. Petersburg too. It seems like another month or 2. Comp. sent an advertisement, but I accidentally lost. It was said that you can come with the children and touch and turn them on. There was a lot of work. I finished everything on Friday, but I still can’t come to my senses. And there are still unfulfilled desires.