Military Review

The first real aircraft carrier

The first real aircraft carrierThe process of creating aircraft-carrying ships in the USSR took place in difficult conditions of the struggle of opinions in the circles of the military and political leadership of the country. Therefore, the first in the class of aircraft-carrying ships - the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser (TAKR) of project 1143 “Kiev” had limited tasks and was created as an anti-submarine ship giving it the functions of a missile cruiser in the development of anti-submarine cruisers of project 1123 with group based aviation type "Moscow".

The lead anti-submarine cruiser with aircraft armament “Kiev” was laid down at the Black Sea Shipbuilding Plant in Nikolaev on July 21, 1970, launched on December 26, 1972 and put into operation the fleet December 28 1975 year.

The event in the fleet was the first arrival in Sevastopol of the heavy aircraft carrier “Kiev” after its construction at the Black Sea plant in Nikolaev and the end of the mooring trials there. Place in the area of ​​coal and fifth barrels prepared in advance. But first, the cruiser settled on the outer roadstead. He was guarded by at least two ships of the 30 Division, including the entire security and defense system of the 68 Brigade of Water District Security Ships (OVR).

In September, the division headquarters was assigned the task: to prepare and conduct a “Special tactical exercise with the TAKR“ Kiev ”to identify the tactical properties of the ship.” Vladimir Samoilov was appointed head, then the first deputy commander of the Black Sea Fleet (BSF), his deputy was the division commander, and the working headquarters for developing the exercise plan itself, its stages and episodes, tasks for the forces, writing reports was the headquarters of the 30 division.

The division headquarters under my leadership moved to the ship, and we were cut off from the division’s affairs for almost a month. In terms of the exercise, it was necessary to properly build relations with the government testing committee, headed by Evgeny Volobuyev, First Deputy Commander of the Northern Fleet (SF).

Having planned individual episodes of the exercise and linked them to a single tactical background, we conducted the entire necessary training cycle and managed to reach the preparatory exercise twice. We took some combat crews from the ships of the constant readiness division (radar operators VO, ZRK, acoustics, gunners, BIPovtsev). Of course, there were certain discrepancies in this doctrine: the factory ship sailed in a single formation with ships of constant readiness and also carried out combat exercises at the level of tasks K-3 and C-1. A serious issue was that along with state trials weapons automated control systems for connection, mutual information exchange, etc. were tested, for which warrant ships with the same systems were needed. "Totally" mobilized everyone who had this technique.

13 – 14 October at the exit to the sea conducted a planned special tactical exercise. The Commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Admiral Nikolai Khovrin also arrived on the ship. He had to listen to four sides: Yevgeny Volobuyev, the division commander Yuri Stadnichenko, the commander of the 70 brigade who led the other ships and, of course, the factory. All the combat crews of the division ships were admitted tactically (who can and when to fire), we were all well prepared. The exercise passed in accordance with the developed documents, all the “contours” of the ship worked. After the exercise, the cruiser departed again to Nikolaev to the factory. And the experience gained in this teaching was useful to the division headquarters later, because subsequently Kiev arrived in Sevastopol more than once and was immediately reassigned to the headquarters of the 30 division.

28 December 1975 was signed an act of state acceptance of the anti-submarine, as it was then called, the cruiser "Kiev" in the Navy. Behind this stood the tremendous work of the entire Black Sea Fleet, and the headquarters of the 30 Division declared its priority in mastering the aircraft carrier of a new generation.


One of the significant events of the first half of 1976 of the year was an exhibition of ships, modern weapons and military equipment under the leadership of the commander-in-chief of the Navy in Sevastopol. The highlight of the show was TAKR "Kiev" with its technical equipment and aircraft complex. The newest ships and auxiliary vessels of the Navy were concentrated at Minna and Kurinnaya, and in the large inflatable rubberized tents housed the newest equipment, instruments, various devices of all departments and divisions of the Navy. After the three-day familiarization of the participants with the coastal unit, it was planned to conduct the marine unit: launching the TAKR “Kiev” at sea with a show of modern ships and aircraft when they perform combat exercises and inherent tasks. Planned with the closure of the area of ​​action of forces to 55 ships and aircraft. The division was ready to sail to sea under the leadership of the commander-in-chief of the Navy aboard the aircraft carrier. On Kiev there were 10 airplanes and 12 helicopters.

The deployment of forces began on the night of 5 on May 6. However, at dawn, when part of the ships were already at sea, the area of ​​the exercise was covered with thick fog. Such a grand event threatened to collapse. All worried about compliance with security measures. The division was responsible for these questions, since it was she who organized the naval unit. Its commander Yuri Stadnichenko was on the bridge next to the commander in chief, and I was downstairs at the Kiev Center of Arts. By all measures and ways we got the situation. But, since the area of ​​study covered almost the entire western part of the Black Sea, obtaining the situation was extremely difficult. Although all shipping companies and other civilian agencies confirmed the ban on sailing around the area on that day, the situation had to be checked and constantly convinced that the area was clean. The main thing is that no one was going to either transfer or cancel the planned teaching.

Looking ahead, I want to say that the teaching was nevertheless successful. All aviation flights from Kiev and missile firing were performed. And not because the fog dissipated in three hours, but because it was planned to show the participants of the collections of the strategic anti-submarine aircraft Tu-142, which was based in the 33-th center of military use of the Navy in Nikolaev. It was raised four hours earlier in relation to time H and, being in the area, began to give us a sea environment, which we immediately applied to the tablets and devices of the Root system. As it turned out later, the plane was piloted by the regimental commander, Lieutenant Colonel Vladimir Deineka.

I remember the last episode of the exercise at sea: a huge Tu-142 plane with rotating propellers of four engines at an altitude of 100 m somewhere in 50 m from the “island” of a cruiser on a countercourse passed next to us, which resulted in indescribable delight of all participants going to sea. The final analysis, which was conducted by Sergey Gorshkov himself, was held in a calm manner, since the main part in all these questions was, of course, the naval part.


A memorable event was the joint sailing of two Soviet aircraft carriers, "Kiev" and "Minsk", in the Mediterranean Sea in 1978 year and the holding of exercises to combat the enemy aircraft carrier groups. As a carrier-based multipurpose group (AMG) of the enemy, the Moscow-carrying helicopter with escort ships appeared. For the first time from the "Kiev" was hit by a group of aircraft consisting of eight Yak-38 on the "AMG of the enemy."

In January, 1980, sailing under the flag of the Chief of the General Staff of the Navy Georgy Egorov in the Black Sea took place. Yegorov, at the direction of Gorshkov in Sevastopol, conducted an operational collection. The key event of this collection was the launch of TAKR “Kiev” into the sea and a demonstration of the organization of the encounter battle of shipboard strike groups using aircraft and cruise missiles. Despite the fact that all fleet commanders were participants in the assembly, the situation was calm. The headquarters of the 30 Division, located on TAKR, organized this battle and "played" against the Naval Academy, whose representatives were stationed on the anti-submarine cruiser Leningrad, led by a talented seaman, Rear Admiral Lev Vasyukov. In the development of this battle, an anti-aircraft battle was shown to unite the ships that are in the guard of the Kiev air defense missile force. All targets were shot down by the division ships, and they had to shoot through warrant ships. It has not yet sounded the readiness of combat readiness number 1, Sergey Gorshkov himself called to “Kiev”. When I was on the bridge, George Yegorov reported to the commander-in-chief by telephone the results of this battle. I reported extremely competently according to the express-analysis scheme, which I handed to him directly in my hands almost immediately after the shooting. The commander was satisfied.


In 1981, the “West-81” doctrine was planned, where the Soviet Union “shoved weapons” and once again showed NATO the power of its army and navy. The Black Sea Fleet also took part in a number of episodes. For the first time, “Kiev” was to come to this teaching on the Baltic. The ship once again arrived in Sevastopol. The headquarters of the brigade of the Northern Fleet, where the ship entered, instantly disappeared (it was, by the way, always), and we were ordered to prepare the aircraft carrier for the upcoming training. It meant unloading, taking to Nikolaev, establishing control over its repair at the Black Sea Plant, bringing it back, loading, measuring the fields, checking and sending to the Baltic.

The commander of the Black Sea Fleet took all matters relating to the preparation of the cruiser to the doctrine, for personal control, because, as always, the deadlines were tight. Personally, he said to me: “You answer for the preparation of“ Kiev ”with your head!” The headquarters of the 30 division did not have such a load for the first time, and most importantly, the Black Sea Fleet by that time had a well-developed rear. Everything that was tied to it was solved quickly and with a sufficiently high quality.

We prepared “Kiev” for training in the Baltic Fleet, and for the first time such a giant went to the Baltic.

Our division was instructed to prepare for these exercises its own detachment with the flagship of the anti-ship missile complex "Leningrad". We also carefully prepared it together with two large anti-submarine ships of the 61 project and two patrol ships of the 1135 project. The load on the division was very high, because one of the brigades was already in combat service. Every week, arriving at the fleet headquarters with all the schedules and supporting documents, I reported to the fleet commander the progress of the preparation of "Kiev" and the detachment of ships of the Black Sea Fleet.

After full discharge, the aircraft carrier under my command went out into Nikolaev at night. Passing by the fourth barrel, where the cruiser Admiral Ushakov was standing (project 68-bis), from the height of the bridge of the aircraft carrier we felt a big difference with the fleet veteran in everything from the size and ending with rocket armament and radar antennas.

Early in the morning, when entering the Bugsko-Dniester Limansky Canal, the weather was good, and in the evening the aircraft carrier was moored to the factory wall, where necessary repairs were carried out.

At the control exit of the ship, under my leadership, before the departure to the Baltic, the cruiser very beautifully approached the ship of complex supply Berezina. This was done in the shortest possible time at a speed of "Berezina" 14 nodes. Quickly, all the “roads” were filed for accepting stocks to the cruiser using the traverse method. From the starboard "Berezina" and on its stern came two more ships. The photographs of this order went around the entire fleet and the whole country.

1 August 1981 of the year TAKR "Kiev" anchored in the outer roads of Baltiysk. After some time, the cruiser "Leningrad" arrived with escort. As for operational necessity, the arrival of such ships to the Baltic did not make sense, although from the point of view of the show the goal was achieved. All the ministers of defense of the Warsaw Pact Organization countries visited Kiev. Cuban Defense Minister Raul Castro was there.

The exercise "West-81" was successful. Its results, the actions of the forces, including during the maritime part, were replicated by the media. The ships of the 30 Division decided their task, then returned safely to Sevastopol. In addition to showing combat exercises, Sergey Gorshkov, using the moment, presented to the Minister regular proposals for promising aircraft carriers, and Dmitry Ustinov allowed an increase in 10 thousand tons of the fifth aircraft carrier compared to the fourth Baku under construction, which allowed him to take on board the horizontal takeoff . It was a real breakthrough.

6 June 1985, the crew of the first Soviet aircraft carrier "Kiev" was awarded the Red Banner Flag and the Order of the Red Banner.

Unfortunately, "Kiev" was written off before the deadline, having served just the full 19 years and held out longer than other aircraft carriers. It happened in the Northern Fleet at 35 28 plant in August 1994, when the command was sounded for the last time on the cruiser: “Flag, guis, stingovy flags and flags of colorization - to lower!”

25 May 2000, the ship began to move to the Chinese coast, ostensibly for scrap metal. Now it is located in the city of Tianjin, where it is used as an entertainment center.
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  1. kind
    kind 29 May 2016 07: 23
    In 1981, the West-81 exercise was planned, where the Soviet Union “rattled with arms” and once again showed NATO the power of its army and navy.

    They still remember this at NATO! Where are these people now who valiantly did their hard work? As their names, who remembers ??? The drunk Yeltsin did not care about the army.
  2. Simpsonian
    Simpsonian 29 May 2016 07: 23
    Cool in the original source the first comments ...
  3. avg-mgn
    avg-mgn 29 May 2016 07: 24
    Thanks to the author for the article. I would not specifically look for a topic, but here with pleasure. History, brothers ...
  4. dojjdik
    dojjdik 29 May 2016 07: 49
    we don’t need any floating airdromes and there are enough of them on the ground — promotion of us into big dibs is useless; our strength is submarines;
    1. altman
      altman 29 May 2016 20: 08
      The strength of the fleet, I believe, is in its balance, without skewing submarines, aircraft or surface ships. Marine doctrine and the construction of ships under it are necessary.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 30 May 2016 10: 00
      Quote: dojjdik
      no floating airfields are needed in our country and there are enough

      And which airfields are located in the throat area of ​​the White Sea?
      What are we going to cover from the air above the surface forces of the fleet, which ensure the defense of the positional area of ​​the SSBN? Fighters from as many as three airfields of Murmansk, with a capacity of 1 regiment each? It’s great - as long as the reserves are raised from them, while they reach the launch range, the forces on duty (approximately 1/4 of the total number of available combat-ready vehicles) will already be connected by air combat and cannot engage in the destruction of ships going to ships.
  5. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 29 May 2016 08: 10
    Thank you for the article. It is always interesting to read the memories of the direct participants. Health to you.
  6. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 29 May 2016 08: 12
    What a Power! It was necessary to protect, and not to give any rats to be plundered. And we are good too, seduced by torn jeans and chewing gum.
    Hunchback, burn in hell for you! I’m silent about EBN. For some eight years ... he has done this (or rather, destroyed), for the 16th year we are trying to get everything back.
    1. Platonich
      Platonich 29 May 2016 08: 59
      This one ... tagged something else out of there is writhing ...
    2. Ruslan
      Ruslan 29 May 2016 10: 59
      16 years trying to return ???? lol, it’s more correct to say 16 years we are improving the Horbo-Yeltsin order! and stop dreaming already that the Yeltsin’s heir will fix something, except for financial flows to his offshore :) are you 10 years old? so naive, horror right ...
  7. cap
    cap 29 May 2016 08: 43
    Unfortunately, "Kiev" was written off before the deadline, having served just the full 19 years and held out longer than other aircraft carriers. It happened in the Northern Fleet at 35 28 plant in August 1994, when the command was sounded for the last time on the cruiser: “Flag, guis, stingovy flags and flags of colorization - to lower!”

    25 May 2000, the ship began to move to the Chinese coast, ostensibly for scrap metal. Now it is located in the city of Tianjin, where it is used as an entertainment center.

    "Would decrease" am Without translation.
    1. Profan
      Profan 29 May 2016 14: 48
      Would come !!! (Also without translation)
  8. kepmor
    kepmor 29 May 2016 09: 45
    Dear author, Igor Vladimirovich!
    Post your memories more often! You have something to share with people, and it will be very interesting and informative for us!
    Health to you, Comrade Commander!
    1. Andrey NM
      Andrey NM 30 May 2016 04: 24
      I know Igor Vladimirovich as a real hereditary naval officer, a man who keeps his word and worries about the cause. Very worthy. "The instruction of the headquarters ...", presented to them, I keep as a relic.
  9. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 29 May 2016 10: 04
    I read it with pleasure. Thank.
    1. Silhouette
      Silhouette 30 May 2016 13: 07
      Not an article, but some kind of eulogy. And to myself, to my beloved and also to a non-aircraft carrier + an incomplete RCC. "Kiev" was never the first real aircraft carrier, if only because it was not designed as such. In general, an anti-submarine cruiser is an extremely unfortunate idea that has found its embodiment in the Soviet Navy. Dead-end branch of the evolution of anti-submarine ships. As an aircraft carrier, he was inferior. As an anti-submarine cruiser, it was extremely vulnerable and could not go unaccompanied by anti-submarine ships of rank 1 and 2. Moreover, it was equipped with attack aircraft. Why does an anti-submarine ship need attack aircraft? Whom to storm? Definitely a minus.
  10. moskowit
    moskowit 29 May 2016 10: 08
    "... On May 25, 2000, the ship began to move to the Chinese shores, allegedly for scrap metal. Now it is located in Tianjin, where it is used as an entertainment center ..."

    And in our country the time has passed when traitors and true enemies of the People were put up against the wall! They are now, "you know," memorial centers are being opened and some other mu. Like, he launched the term "elite" for this villainous and unprincipled shobla ... What all the same disgust these faces evoke ... am
  11. Verdun
    Verdun 29 May 2016 10: 53
    In 1981, the West-81 exercise was planned, where the Soviet Union “rattled with arms” and once again showed NATO the power of its army and navy.
    Major exercises during the Soviet era were held regularly. There were several "West", he himself took part in the "Shield" exercises in 1986. They did not clash with weapons, but were engaged in the preparation of the army. As for the aircraft carrier "Kiev", I would not call it a real aircraft carrier. As far as I understand, its aviation wing was intended mainly to combat submarines. He could only take aircraft with vertical takeoff. The capabilities of the Yak-38 were hardly greater than those of the same Harriers ... The main weapons of Kiev were missiles.
  12. Boa kaa
    Boa kaa 29 May 2016 13: 08
    Igor Vladimirovich Kasatonov (* Kasyak *) respected naval commander. Competent, strong-willed, purposeful. If he became the Commander in Chief, I think the Fleet would only win ...
    But I want to say something else. One-sided article: "I - Kasatonov - did everything!" - and absolutely nothing about the commander - Captain 1st Rank Yuriy Georgievich Sokolov! As a result of the commissioning of "Kiev" (mastering new technology), he was supposed to receive a Hero of the Soviet Union and the title of Rear Admiral. But not destiny ...
    And the NSh of the division only gave instructions (* organized *), but their commander with the crew performed them. I remember the always sleep deprived captain of the 2nd rank Veniamin Pavlovich Samozhenov! He has grown dearer from this * load * of responsibility and load! A * bulls * !!! (warhead commanders). For the efforts that they put in, they should be called Bison! Kononenko alone (commander of the warhead-5, * Horse *) was worth what! It was on their shoulders that 41 thousand tons of ship steel, TAKR machines and mechanisms and 1500 crew were laid down! And these titans of the ship service on their shoulders held everything, carried and brought the ship out to sea! For combat service in 1977, and not for the inter-naval transition in 1976, which the Black Sea residents consider the 1st BS. North gave "Kiev" a start in life! 170 brigade PLC 7 OPESK! And not 30 diPLC Black Sea Fleet!
    So, there are nuances that the initiates know about - participants in those very events.
    PS Without belittling the merits of the NSh 30 diPLC of the Black Sea Fleet, I still want to say that he was just a "conductor" in the life of the decisions of the COMMANDER, starting with the CD and ending with the Civil Code of the Navy.
    Respectfully to the Deputy Navy Civil Code, Admiral I.V. Kasatonov
    Nordseeman Boa KAA soldier .
  13. Andrey Skokovsky
    Andrey Skokovsky 29 May 2016 16: 41
    at least post a photo ........
  14. podgornovea
    podgornovea 29 May 2016 22: 03
    It would be interesting to read an article from the author about the anti-ship missiles "Moscow" and "Leningrad", there is a lot of things on the internet, but not from the inside. As they showed themselves, given the fact that they had VERY great opportunities for modernization.
  15. proud
    proud 29 May 2016 23: 09
    The name of the author says a lot - Igor Vladimirovich Kasatonov for me he is like an icon of the Navy! He is from that galaxy of personalities who, in troubled times for the country, did not betray his oath and military duty, but as a true Russian officer fought to the last to save the Navy from being plundered and completely destroyed! And even if the "Kiev" was commissioned not mediocrely by him, but by others, this does not diminish his services to the Navy, for in the dashing 90s he did good for the Black Sea Fleet like no other! I liked the article as a whole! Good luck, health and long life to you Igor Vladimirovich, I hope I will have the opportunity to read some of your memories on this site!
  16. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 29 May 2016 23: 46
    Wonderful article. Many thanks!
  17. rudolff
    rudolff 29 May 2016 23: 49
    Beautiful ship. Let it not be an aircraft carrier, let it be not anti-submarine, but it could serve as an escort. Replace only planes with turntables, a pair of AWACS, the rest of the PLO and would be a very useful cruiser.
    1. Silhouette
      Silhouette 30 May 2016 13: 16
      Still to replace GEM - and in general the new ship will turn out. Corrected and supplemented. And build a berth for it (which is still not there)
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Andrey NM
      Andrey NM 30 May 2016 19: 59
      And when Kiev, Baku and Nevsky stood on the raid! That was beautiful! It looked very strong, especially when from Polyarny to Severomorsk on a boat trip between them passed.
  18. okroshka79
    okroshka79 30 May 2016 22: 34
    I fully agree with the opinion of the respected Boa Kaa. The formation of the aircraft carrier "Kiev" nevertheless took place in the Northern Fleet. Of the naval officers of the first crew, I would also like to mention the officers of BCH-2: Captain 3rd rank (then) Rybak Yuri Petrovich (K-r BCH-2), Lieutenant Commander Dyadchenko Alexander Gavrilovich (K-r D-1 (DGK)), captain - Lieutenant Evgeny Ivanovich Versotsky (D-2), Lieutenant-Commander Mikhail Pavlovich Moiseev (D-3), Lieutenant-Commander Mikhail Bulavchik (D-4). I have great respect for Admiral Igor Vladimirovich Kasatonov. Of course, our fleet would not have suffered such non-combat losses if it had been the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy in the mean time of the 90s. But history does not recognize the subjunctive mood. And, obviously, knowing his principled character and endless love for our fleet, that is why he was not appointed. And the defeat of the fleet, without any Tsushima, was carried out by the "Admiral-Titanic" nicknamed in the fleet, it is even disgusting to call his surname next to such admirals named in the article as Vice Admiral Evgeny Ivanovich Volobuev, Georgy Mikhailovich Egorov and the commander of 170 bpk counter Admiral Evgeny Aleksandrovich Skvortsov, under whose leadership the formation of the crew of the aircraft carrier "Kiev" took place. And Igor Vladimirovich - a deep bow and a huge naval officer's thanks for saving the Black Sea Fleet and wishing him a good long life.