Military Review

Fighting Soviet landing in the rear of the enemy during the war

Fighting Soviet landing in the rear of the enemy during the war

Our prewar statutes and instructions provided for the wide use of airborne and maritime assault forces. Airborne troops were considered a means of high command and were designed to solve operational-tactical tasks in the rear of the enemy, as well as to achieve continuous impact on the depth of his defense. This provision was in the Provisional Field Regulations of the Red Army 1936 of the Year, the Field Statutes of 1940 of the Year, the Statute on the Airborne Forces of 1941 of the Year, and in a number of works by prominent Soviet military commanders and military scientists.

By the beginning of World War II in the Soviet Union, the formation of five airborne corps (from the 1st to the 5th), with more than 10000 people each, had begun. Each corps had a three-brigade composition, and, in addition, it included a separate armored battalion (out of fifty tanks) and company communications.

By mid-1941, a sufficient number of airborne formations had been created, which could conduct military operations behind enemy lines, however, the military transport available aviation could not ensure the massive use of the landing due to the lack of means of landing.

Landing of strategic, operational and tactical landings from naval directions was provided for in most official documents regulating the military activities of the Navy, as well as theoretical works of those times. However, the Russian fleet did not have marine corps at that time, so it was recommended to use conventional rifle units as naval landings. Were absent in navy and specialized landing craft.

The outbreak of the Patriotic War did not allow for the full implementation of the planned measures for the reorganization of the airborne troops, the creation of the marines, and the provision of them with the necessary combat equipment and landing gear. All these tasks had to be solved already in wartime.

Airborne troops stationed in the Baltic States (5 airborne corps), Belarus (4 VDK) and Ukraine (3 VDK) met the war in the stage of formation, coalescence of controls, and because of the situation on the fronts were forced to fight as usual rifle connections. And only by November 1941, the 4 and 5, the VDK, began to be withdrawn from the active army to the rear of the country for re-staffing. At the direction of the State Defense Committee, as early as August 1941, the tasks solved by the airborne troops, their organizational structure, the order of aviation, as well as logistics, were clarified; The Military Council of the Airborne Forces was created, headed by the Commander of the Airborne Forces, Major General V.A. Glazunov.

Simultaneously with the formation of five new airborne corps (1941-6) at the beginning of autumn 10, 10-ti of separate air transport squadrons and 5-ti separate squadrons were deployed. Later, in the 1942 year, these aircraft units were reduced to four air transport regiments and equipped with the U-2, P-5, TB-3, PS-84 aircraft. These activities enabled the High Command at the end of 1941 - the beginning of 1942, to successfully launch several airborne assault forces into the German rear. Airborne assault forces during the Battle of Moscow, the defense of Odessa and the Crimea found widespread use. Their main task was to assist the troops leading the offensive from the front in destroying the main enemy groups using strikes from the rear on his defense, as well as capturing and holding automobile and railway junctions, destroying military command and control centers and obstructing the supply of enemy troops.

The composition of the air assault forces had a wide range; from several dozen fighters (Chebank, Ak-Monai, Crimea) to several thousand (operation south of Vyazma). The basis of weapons paratroopers was small weapon, as well as mortars and mine explosives. The depth of the landing of assault forces also varied greatly and reached 150 km, and in some cases even more.

An important role in the counteroffensive near Moscow, in particular, in the defeat of the German Klin grouping by the forces of the 30 Army, was played by an airborne assault force ejected in the Teryaev Sloboda area in December 1941. During the ten days of hostilities in the fascist rear, paratroopers blew up 29 bridges, destroyed about 50 tanks and vehicles and more than 400 enemy soldiers.

The airborne troops (2 battalion 201 vdbr) of captain I.A. Surzhik, thrown out at night 18 January 1942, under Znamenka (southeast of Vyazma). Having mastered several platforms suitable for landing, he provided the landing assault, in the role of which was the 250 Infantry Regiment, together with which he captured and held for ten days important road junctions in the rear of the German Yukhnovskaya group, thereby contributing to the successful exit of 1- Guards Cavalry Corps to Vyazma.

Airborne Lieutenant P.L. Belotserkovsky (4 battalion 204 vdbr) at the beginning of 1942 in the Okorokovo area (west of Rzhev) assisted the troops of the 29 army, leaving the encirclement. To support and assist the troops of the Kalinin and Western fronts in the defeat of the German Rzhev-Vyazma group at the beginning of 1942, it was planned to parachute 4 airborne corps (8, 9 and 214 vdbr) in the area of ​​Izdeshkovo, Ozerechnya (to the west of Vyazma), Colonel (27.01.1942, 02.02.1942 and 8). . Kazankina. However, due to errors in dropping the first airborne detachment, the unsatisfactory air cover of the landing area during the week (1-XNUMX), only two XNUMX IDF battalions parachuted, which went into action with the XNUMX-GW cavalrymen. kav corps and partisans.

10 February 1942 of the year 4 VDK received a new task - to parachute near Yukhnov, make a breakthrough of the German defense with a blow from the rear and unite in the Klyuchey area with the 50 army, and participate in the further defeat of the Yukhnovo group.

After dropping into the Zhelanie area, Petrishchevo during February 18-23, the corps struck the enemy with a series of strikes from the rear and went out to the Klyuche area. However, the enemy, repelling the attacks of the 50 Army from the front, forced the paratroopers from March 1 to go on the defensive, and subsequently to reconnaissance and sabotage actions. Combined in May with parts of the cavalry corps, the landing corps made an almost 200-kilometer raid in the rear, and, breaking through the defenses of the Nazis with a rear strike north of Kirov, during the 24-28 of June came with serious losses to the 10-th army.

In general, the airborne assault forces operating in the Kalininsky and Western fronts in the 1942 year caused some losses to the fascists, chained them, not allowing them to transfer individual units to another direction. The airborne assault forces actively used the offensive, the breakthrough of enemy defensive lines, defended both individual objects and fairly vast territories, carried out raids, laid ambushes and sabotage. The most important task of their combat activities were raids on enemy rear areas (8 vdbr in February and 4 vdk in June). However, it is worth noting that the effectiveness of the paratroopers' combat operations was significantly reduced due to the limited means of landing, inadequate equipment of the assault forces with artillery systems and anti-tank weapons, problems in ensuring high-quality interaction with ground forces leading the offensive from the front, not always satisfactory aviation support, providing the necessary material means.

The use of amphibious assault forces in most cases was determined by the tasks of the ground forces that operated on the coastal directions. In October 1941 of the year, the State Defense Committee issued a decree on the establishment of naval infantry brigades in the 25 fleets. For these purposes, the Navy Commissariat allocated almost 38000 people. These brigades later formed the backbone of most amphibious assault forces.

The following facts speak about the expediency of using naval assault forces in the interests of the ground forces. In July 1941 and April 1942 of the year, the Northern Fleet landed four tactical amphibious assault forces from the battalion to the navy brigade on the Nazi-occupied coast, which, having struck a series of sudden strikes on the flank of the 20 German army on the Karelian front to thwart the enemy’s plans for mastering Murmansk.

You can also note the successful actions of naval landings in the period of the defense of Leningrad, Odessa and Crimea, which used offensive, defense, raids, sabotage. At the same time, their most common action was the seizure of a section of the coast by a swift strike, and then the retention of it, which had the goal of stifling significant enemy forces. The disadvantages of amphibious assault operations during this period include, first of all, the lack of amphibious assault ships of special construction, the limited nature of the tasks, insufficient provision of airborne assault landing, weak interaction with ground forces.

In general, the first period of the Patriotic War became a serious school for our Airborne Forces and the Marine Corps. It was a period of testing the basic theoretical positions on the conduct of hostilities in the enemy rear developed on the eve of the war, studying and summarizing the accumulated combat experience, improving weapons, military equipment and landing gear.

In the second period of the war there was a further development and improvement of military operations in the rear of the enemy. In preparation for the offensive operations of the 1943 of the year, the General Headquarters gave instructions to the commanders of the Airborne Forces on the intensive preparation of the formations for the fulfillment of the tasks of seizing bridgeheads on large water barriers (on the sea coast). In this connection, the actions of the 3 and 5 brigades, thrown out in the attack zone of the 40 Army of the Voronezh Front in September, 1943, to capture a bridgehead on the western bank of the Dnieper near Kanev, deserve attention. Despite significant shortcomings in landing (poor reconnaissance, poor navigation support of military transport aircraft, large dispersion of paratroopers, low accuracy of the drop and poor communication within the landing force and with the command of the army and the front), the landing force (especially 5 IDB) contributed to creating favorable conditions for defeat of the Chervassian-Kaniv grouping.

During the fighting in the German rear (from 25.09.1943 to 28.11.1943), units of the landing force west of the Dnieper destroyed more than 4000 Nazis, captured and destroyed a significant number of military equipment, warehouses and vehicles. In addition, they eliminated the concentration camp guards and freed about 500 prisoners of war, and also saved the lives of many hundreds of Soviet citizens hiding from invaders in the forests.

Successful actions were paratroopers on the Black Sea coast during the fighting our troops for Novorossiysk. For example, an airborne detachment of 80 man, thrown out at night 4 February 1943 year near settlements - Vasilyevka and Glebovka, destroyed more than 100 German soldiers and officers for three days of combat, disrupted several lines of communication and contributed to the seizure of marines. bridgehead in the area Stanichki.

Despite the limited use of airborne assault forces in the 1943 year, their actions should be noted such effective methods as raids on control points and warehouses, sabotage on communications, striking defenses from the rear (5 vdbr in the Cherkasy region), long raids on the rear, stubborn defense of the captured areas. However, in this period, the following negative points affecting the effectiveness of airborne assault forces are worth noting: our lack of military transport aircraft capable of transferring heavy weapons and military equipment to the enemy’s rear, insufficient air defense systems in the landing areas, logistical difficulties provision of assault forces.

The amphibious assault forces in the second period of the war landed mainly to assist the ground forces leading the battles on the coastal directions. During 4-9 in February 1943 of the year, a bridgehead near Novorossiysk was captured, later called the “Little Land”. The landing was carried out by the ships of the Black Sea Fleet, united into a detachment of landing craft, an escort detachment, a guard detachment and a detachment of ship support. The 83 and 255 brigade of marines, the 165 brigade and reinforcement units were involved in it. February 15 already occupied 17 thousand people, artillery and tanks from the 18 Army of the Transcaucasian Front on the occupied bridgehead. In addition, five partisan detachments were planted there under the general guidance of the secretary of the Novorossiysk Party City Committee, PI. Vaseva. The bridgehead captured was of paramount operational importance and largely determined the success of the Novorossiysk landing operation in the autumn of 1943.

Of great importance in the implementation of the strategic plan for the capture of the Crimean peninsula was the Kerch-Eltigen landing operation. It began at night 1 on November 1943, landing an assault battalion of marines in the area of ​​the Kamysh-Burun Cape. On November 3, the 318 Infantry Division landed at Enikale. For more than a month, the paratroopers, heroically repelling the attacks of the enemy, kept the bridgehead seized and ensured the deployment of the Separate Maritime Army, which made a significant contribution to the liberation of the Crimea. Thus, during the second period of the war for combat operations in the German rear was typical: an increase in the scope of the armed struggle, its duration and intensity, further improvement of the methods of actions of both airborne and naval assault forces.

In 1944-1945 The role of amphibious assault forces has increased. Thus, the Northern Fleet in 1944 during the Petsamo-Kirkenes operation in order to assist the 14 Army troops leading the offensive along the coast landed several assault forces. The largest was the Pechenga landing party as part of a special detachment (12 and 63 of the sea infantry brigades), landed from 12 to October 15 in the port of Linahamari.

Of great importance were the naval landings in the defeat of the fascists on the Karelian Isthmus, on the islands and the coast of the Baltic Sea. Especially instructive were the amphibious operations to liberate the Bjorksky and Moonsund archipelagoes in the summer and autumn of the year 1944. They involved naval infantry, rifle formations, a significant number of warships, as well as airborne assault vehicles, including amphibians. They were carried out, as usual, in close cooperation with ground troops, who were conducting an offensive along the coast. Amphibious landings successfully coped with their tasks, in April 1945 of the year landed on Frisch Nehrung's braid (two landings). Marine assault forces were also used during the battles for the liberation of the western coast of the Black Sea. The paratroopers were occupied by the cities of Tulcea, Sulin, Constanta, Varna, Burgas.

The experience gained in the use of airborne troops in the Patriotic War was widely used in the Far East during the defeat of the Japanese troops. From 16.08.1945 to 27.08.1945, it was planted in the central Manchurian cities, on the Liaodong Peninsula, in North Korea, on South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands to master the strategic points, military and important industrial facilities located in the deep Japanese rear. about 20 landings numbering from 35-40 to 500-600 people. Airborne assault forces landed in Harbin, Changchun, Mukden, Jilin, Port Arthur, Pyongyang, and Tayokhar.

The wide scale of the use of airborne assault forces during the combat operations of our troops in the Far East is well demonstrated by the fact that the military transport aviation of three fronts performed 20% of 7650 sorties to ensure the transfer of airborne assault forces. In total, 17000 people were transported by air and about 6000 tons of various cargoes were transported. All landing parties successfully completed the task.

In the Far East, amphibious assault forces landed in the North Korean ports of Yuki, Racine, Seisin, Denak and Genzan, on South Sakhalin and the northern islands of the Kuril chain. For the transportation of troops there were used both small warships and transport ships, as well as special landing ships.

In the period under review, torpedo boats were often used for the first throw. After the landing, supported by artillery fire and air strikes, active offensive actions were widely used (the 12-I and 63-I naval brigades during the battles for the Pechenga and the 206-I naval brigade at the capture of the Moonzun archipelago).

Thus, at the last stage of the war, the volume of combat missions that were being solved by airborne and maritime landing forces increased. The strikes were dealt with even more closely with our advancing forces and had a significant role in completing the defeat of Germany and Japan.

Gaevsky A. Parachutists of the Soviet fleet: the experience of creating and using parachute units of the Soviet Navy. 1941 - 1944 years. // Saboteurs of the Second World War. M .: Yauza, 2008. C. 23-32.
Vasilyev A. Maritime amphibious forces. M .: Voenizdat, 1971. C. 14-42.
Sofronov G. Airborne assault forces in the Second World War. M .: Voenizdat, 1962. C. 18-32, 56-72, 112-138.
Tsvetkov A. Fighting air and sea landing. // visage 1973. No.8. C. 20-26
Muzrukov E. Winners: Landing on the Dnieper // Brother. 2013. No.8. C. 36-42.
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  1. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 1 June 2016 07: 02
    Thank you for the article. Questions have accumulated in this area. Does anyone know anything about the 1 Red Banner Guards Airborne Division (in particular the 3 battalion)? 1942-1943 time period I would be grateful for the information.
  2. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 1 June 2016 07: 11
    The Airborne Forces and the Marine Corps as elite units showed themselves very well in the Great Patriotic War. Examples of this mass. Thanks for the article. I especially like the landing operations of the Marine Corps in the Black Sea and the Airborne Forces in Manchuria.
    1. max73
      max73 1 June 2016 17: 37
      this is what you like about the "landing operations of the marines in the Black Sea." Landing in Evpatoria? landing of Gladkov's division? almost all of them died .... without a hint of success .... (((
      and yes, the elite, as you say, units proved to be excellent, like ordinary rifle units during the defense of Kiev, Sevastopol, Stalingrad, Leningrad and the Kursk Bulge. and your examples - in the studio, Pts I ask ....
  3. avia12005
    avia12005 1 June 2016 07: 18
    The 11 Airborne Brigade, in which the father began to fight in the 1944 year, was almost completely killed in Belarus. He and several other people were saved only by the fact that they were wounded and contused in hospitals. Eternal glory ...
  4. qwert
    qwert 1 June 2016 07: 19
    The second photo shows an interesting form for paratroopers. With a white shirt and tie. It’s clear that it’s a front door, but from above it seems to be a jumpsuit.
    1. svp67
      svp67 1 June 2016 15: 03
      Quote: qwert
      The second photo shows an interesting form for paratroopers. With a white shirt and tie. It’s clear that it’s a front door, but from above it seems to be a jumpsuit.

      This is still pre-war ... These are paratroopers of the 1st Airborne Corps at the May Day parade in Kiev. 1941 year.
      But the reconstruction of that form
  5. Aleksandr72
    Aleksandr72 1 June 2016 07: 30
    The 1st Guards Airborne Division was formed in accordance with the order of the Supreme High Command on December 8, 1942 in the town of Teykovo, Moscow Region. Division commander - Major General A.F. Kazankin. The division was formed on the basis of the 1st Airborne Forces of the 1st Airborne Forces and the 4th Airborne Forces Brigades (pre-war airborne corps) consisting of:
    - 3rd, 6th t 13th airborne rifle regiments,
    - 4th Airborne Artillery Regiment,
    - 2nd separate anti-tank artillery division,
    - 5th separate reconnaissance company,
    - 7th separate combat engineer battalion,
    - 170th separate communications battalion,
    - 9th separate chemical defense company,
    - 12th separate health battalion,
    - 10th separate automobile company.
    The airborne training was retained in the division, the duration of which was 4 months. However, in combat, the 1-I, like other airborne divisions, was used as infantry formations.
    By the beginning of February 1943, the 1st Guards Airborne Division (like other divisions of the Airborne Forces) were transferred to the North-Western Front, followed by heavy battles, from which the division was withdrawn in April-May 1943. By the end of the summer of 1943, the 1st Guards The Airborne Forces were transferred to the Kharkov region and subordinated to the 37th Army. Subsequently, the division took part in the liberation of the territory of Ukraine and in the Korsun-Shevchensk operation. By the end of the war, the full name of the division was as follows: 1st Guards Zvenigorod-Bucharest Red Banner Order of Suvorov Airborne Division.
    Source: Alekhine R.V. - Airborne troops: the history of the Russian landing. M. Eksmo. 2009
    There is a very good book about amphibious landing operations: A. Yunovidov - Landing forces of 1941. M. Yauza. Exmo. 2009 - this book tells about the first amphibious assault of the Danube Flotilla in the very first days of the war, about the banner of the Black Sea Fleet in Grigoryevka near Odessa, about the amphibious assault operations of the Northern Fleet at the beginning of the war.
    I have the honor.
    1. Mangel olys
      Mangel olys 1 June 2016 11: 10
      Thank you, Alexander.
      Quote: Aleksandr72

      The airborne training was retained in the division, the duration of which was 4 months. However, in combat, the 1-I, like other airborne divisions, was used as infantry formations.

      Grandfather was seriously injured in 1943 when he was parachuting. The bullet hit from below in the back and exited through the jaw. It means not only as infantry formations. Although it’s a mystery to me how he ended up in the Airborne Forces when he graduated from the Chkalov Tank School in 1942.
  6. creak
    creak 1 June 2016 10: 20
    The author writes that before the war, the USSR Navy did not have marine corps - this is not entirely true.
    NGOs took measures to create it - in particular, by May 1940, a marine brigade had been formed at the Baltic Fleet.
    There is information about the presence of a company of marine corps as part of the Pinsk Flotilla.
    There were plans to create parts of the marine corps in other fleets, but the war did not allow them to be implemented as intended ...
    Well, how the Marines were created during the Second World War is already well known.
    PSMy uncle, the foreman of the 2nd article, was decommissioned from the Black Sea Fleet ship to the Marine Corps and went missing in Sevastopol in 1942. We could not find any information about his fate ...
  7. Stas57
    Stas57 1 June 2016 11: 46
    The airborne troops deployed in the Baltic states (5 airborne corps), Belarus (4 airborne forces) and Ukraine (3 airborne forces) met the war in the process of formation, knocking together of command and control forces, and due to the situation on the fronts, were forced to fight as ordinary small arms. And only by November of the 1941 of the year, the 4 and 5th airborne forces began to be withdrawn from the army in the rear of the country for understaffing.

    come on!?

    On October 3 on 1941 of the year, the brigade, being near Yaroslavl, was alerted and began to transfer airplanes on the route Kolomna, Tula by air, landing in the landing method in the Orel region. The battalion of the brigade in the number of 1359 paratroopers landed in Orel under fire and immediately joined the battle on the outskirts of the city. During the 3 - 4 October 1941 of the year conducts battles near Orel, was completely killed. The rest of the brigade deployed north-east of Orel and then, until 11 October 1941, with heavy fighting retreat to Mtsensk. After the 11 of October 1941 of the year, the situation on the Mtsensk defensive line was relatively stabilized, the brigade in the 19 corps of October 1941 of the year was relocated to the area southwest of Podolsk and by the 20 of October 1941 of the year was transferred to the Nara River.

    however, it pleases that the author dispensed with an addictive treshak about parachute jumping near Mozhaisk.
    1. max73
      max73 1 June 2016 17: 24
      Comrade, reading this opus I was waiting for this very bike ... nothing happened ..
      and so the article is so-so ... almost all the airborne assault forces were unsuccessful or unsuccessful. what is the landing on the Dnieper in the 43rd, when the brigades drove almost to the location of the motorized and tank divisions of the Germans, while the mass of flyers also got lost and returned back with the landing. the author, let’s say, does not tell the whole truth, using streamlined formulations .... as he does not tell the truth about the landing in the Crimea. The naval landing in Yevpatoria died in 42, the landing of Colonel Gladkov’s division at Eltigen also practically died (and the wounded had to be left altogether) and did not even receive support, taking Kerch’s key altitude when leaving the encirclement ... about the landing in 41-42 -m on the Western Front and say nothing, in my opinion, except for the actions of the Starchak detachment ... there was no sense. Marines in the Baltic and especially the Northern Fleets worked well, and naval brigades during the defense of Sevastopol (the latter as rifle units), no doubt. and the author does not mention at all that in the 41st Airborne Corps they defended Kiev as ordinary infantry and suffered terrible losses, that several divisions near Stalingrad (35th Guards SD, 37th Guards SD, I don’t remember the rest , but it’s possible to clarify) they fought like ordinary infantry and suffered terrible losses that Prokhorovka as part of the 5th Guards and the 9th Guards Airborne Division entered the battle the first and got it too, which, finally, the 9th Guards A. was formed from airborne units and it freed Vienna as well as infantry ....
      a weak article, honestly ... pulling facts from everywhere and a little bit .... that's what it's called, which, however, is quite typical for today's "Internet historians"
  8. Resistance
    Resistance 1 June 2016 12: 21
    In the Navy of all operations, the amphibious assault is the most difficult. Management, control transfer, support, provision.
    The article is somehow smooth, not a word about the failed landing when the soldiers drowned (in the Baltic) or froze (in Pikshuev). Crimean - problematic, Kuril Islands ...: o (((
    1. svp67
      svp67 1 June 2016 15: 39
      Quote: Persistence
      The article is somehow smooth, not a word about the failed landings,

      Let's just say, using the "principle of propaganda" the author mixed everything up. What is this moment worth:
      Of great importance in the implementation of the strategic plan for mastering the Crimean peninsula was the Kerch-Eltigen landing operation. It began at night on November 1, 1943, by landing in the area of ​​Cape Kamysh-Burun of the assault battalion of the Marine Corps. On November 3, the 318th Infantry Division landed at Enikale. For more than a month, the paratroopers, heroically repulsing the enemy’s attacks, held the captured bridgehead and ensured the deployment of a Separate Maritime Army on it, which made a significant contribution to the liberation of Crimea
      It is believed that from the bridgehead captured by the HEROIC soldiers, and in another way, 318 rifle divisions (and this is not ironic) did not belong and the Crimea was liberated. But this is not so. Why mislead? A lot of works have already been written about the Eltigen landing, whoever wishes, then read, a very instructive operation, in all respects.
  9. Sergey
    Sergey 1 June 2016 12: 29
    Article "+". More complete information, in particular on amphibious operations, is presented in V. Zhumatiy "Amphibious operations of the USSR Armed Forces" 2011
  10. Sascha
    Sascha 2 June 2016 14: 10
    The start of the war is generally characterized by an extremely low level of planning operations.
    Often it seems that the military leaders considered only the amount of allocated funds as the key to success.
    For example, landing operations in the Baltic, in the Gulf of Finland, during the beginning of the battle for Leningrad. All the numerous landings in the fall of 1941. they ended not just with anything, it is unclear what they were trying to achieve at all, without linking the deployment of amphibious landings on Strelna-Peterhof sections with the actions of the 42nd Army, defending the Uritsk-Pulkovo section, which directly rested its left flank on the coast of the Gulf of Finland.
    In early October 41, one of these landings was to gain a foothold on the shore, in Strelna park near the Konstantinovsky Palace and develop success in the direction of the Peterhof Highway. From the Avtovo region, along the highway, from the city to Strelna, the most powerful blow of the 123rd tank brigade, which included only heavy KV tanks, was planned. Almost four dozens of HF, for the 41st year - an unprecedented strength, in such a narrow section. The Germans (and the armies of other countries) simply did not have the means to combat these giants. Fifty tons of steel each, two million full rubles - it all ended in nothing.
    There was no reconnaissance, the firing points were not suppressed, the Baltic Fleet and Kronstadt weren’t supported by fire, the aircraft had ended by that time ... The Germans blocked the landing party in Strelna and quickly destroyed it. The Germans immediately cut off the infantry in Uritsk, and the tanks .... as usual in 41, went on a breakthrough without infantry.
    The Germans urgently pulled anti-aircraft guns to direct fire and burned at Strelna all bursting HF, which had never met with the sea landing. The whole team died. Two days later, only three people came to ours. Nobody survived from the landing.
    People were simply doomed to heroism.