Military Review

Fortress industrialization

65



314 years ago, 25 in May 1702 of the year (although some historians call other dates) Tula artisan and factory owner Nikita Demidovich Antyufeev, better known as Nikita Demidov, received from the tsar Peter the state-owned Verkhoturye ironworks in the Urals, and at the same time - the right to build new factories and the purchase of serfs to work on them.

Thanks to this "feudal privatization", a unique phenomenon of industrial industrial civilization based on de facto slave labor of serfs appeared in Russia. Workers of Demidov factories and mines were considered private property, and their free labor was a complete analog of peasant serfdom, with the only difference that serfdom was seasonal due to the specifics of agriculture, and year-round work at factories and mines, 12-14 hours per day , six days a week, without holidays.

At the same time, the workers usually received only salt, flour for baking bread and some household products from the owner, and everything else was grown in their gardens where their wives, children and old people worked. However, the houses in which they lived, and vegetable gardens, and livestock (who he had) belonged to the factory owner, as well as the serf proletarians themselves, as well as all their family members. The price of serf workers was not very high, for example, one water hammer in the XVIII century in the Urals was worth as much as the factory souls 35, and the blast furnace 100.

Contrary to allegations of the ineffectiveness of servitude, the Demidovs имп industrial empire ’has successfully expanded and developed over the course of a century, bringing huge profits to its owners. Starting from one factory, by the end of the century, the Demidovs had hundreds of enterprises in the Urals, including 33 iron foundries, ironworks and copper smelters, as well as dozens of mines, stone-cutting, carpentry, metalworking, blacksmithing, jewelry and other workshops, which employed more than 38 thousands serf workers. The Demidov clan, which had its "power structures", was in fact the full owner of the Ural region, in which the tsarist power was purely nominal.

Such a fact may indicate the wealth of this clan: in 1768, due to the beginning of the next Russian-Turkish war, the grandson of the founder of the Demidov "empire" Procopius Demidov donated four million rubles for military needs and was not impoverished at all. For comparison, the house in the center of St. Petersburg then cost 70-100 rubles, the average annual income of a Russian citizen did not exceed one ruble, and the overwhelming majority of the population never held money in their hands.

By 1780, the Demidov factories produced 40% of Russian iron. Thanks in large part to them, Russia, which imported iron and cast iron under Peter the Great, came to number one in the world in their production in a few decades. Russian ferrous metals were shipped to Europe and even to America, bringing a substantial income to the treasury. However, at the beginning of the XIX century, the picture began to change dramatically. The industrial revolution, which began in England and soon spread to other European countries, threw Russian metallurgy first to second, and to fifth place by mid-century. And it did not rise above this place until the revolution, despite attempts at re-industrialization, no longer on a feudal, but on a capitalist basis.

On the screen saver - serfs, bought Demidov, driven to one of his Ural factories. Picture from the Udmurt museum of local lore.



Left: the founder of the dynasty Nikita Antyufeev (Demidov). On the right is his son Akinfy, who was raised from a merchant to the nobility. As they say, feel the difference.



"Molotov factory" - so in the XVIII century, enterprises for the production of iron from cast iron were called, by knocking out slags from hot iron ingots. For this purpose, "combat" hammers, working from water wheels, were used. Something like this in the 18th century looked like most of the Ural Iron Plants of the Demidovs.



Water hammer forges of the 18th century. The picture was taken in Germany, but in Russia they looked exactly the same.



Drawing of a large iron foundry for eight blast furnaces with four water wheels, built in Nizhny Tagil in 1782 year.



Ways of transportation of products of the Ural mining plants.



Extraction of iron ore by the open method. The picture was taken in the Southern Urals at the beginning of the twentieth century, but also at the beginning of the 18th, during the time of the first Demidovs, this process looked exactly the same.



Mine miner with well collar from the same places. And also over the 200 years, nothing has changed.

i


The working village Kasli Ironworks. It is clearly seen that even at the beginning of the last century, the life of the workers remained purely rural, although, they were no longer serfs.



Painting by Boris Ioganson "At the old Ural factory".
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  1. Spartanez300
    Spartanez300 28 May 2016 06: 00
    +6
    Of course, the Demidovs made a huge contribution to the foundation of Russian industry, but for them human life was not worth the work.
    1. sherp2015
      sherp2015 28 May 2016 12: 40
      +9
      Quote: Spartanez300
      Of course, the Demidovs made a huge contribution to the foundation of Russian industry, but for them human life was not worth the work.

      6 days a week, 12 hours a day for meals ...
      the oligarchs-capitalists are dragging us to this with the tacit consent of the authorities
      1. siberalt
        siberalt 28 May 2016 14: 15
        0
        But unlike the Demidov serfs, we have the right to vote for the electlaughing In the Altai mountains, Demidov mines and factories have also been preserved. In Zmeinogorsk and Kolyvan there are museums in kind. The Kolyvan stone-cutting works to this day, and for some reason the Bolsheviks blew up the mines of the Zmeinogorsk mine when they came to power. There is also unique equipment.
        1. 97110
          97110 28 May 2016 19: 38
          +4
          Quote: siberalt
          why did the Bolsheviks explode when they came to power.

          Exactly the Bolsheviks? Rather, the Socialist-Revolutionaries, the spokesmen for the hopes of the peasantry, carried out the restoration in the most primitive way, fought with the heaps. The first Soviets were not Bolshevik, but SR and Menshevik.
      2. PKK
        PKK 28 May 2016 14: 20
        -15%
        Peter the 1st could not command in the Urals. His possessions extended to the borders of Muscovy, where the mouths of the northern and southern rivers did not otherwise do what Suvorov did later, did Tartaria conquer during the Pugachev uprising? Muscovy was tidied up in 1812, and Siberia even later. Siberia had full-flowing navigable river routes, all of Siberia was covered by tens of thousands of Star Fortresses. At some time, several tens of billions of people lived in Siberia.
        1. SkiF_RnD
          SkiF_RnD 28 May 2016 16: 00
          +8
          In fact, Muscovy is the Inca empire, and Peter the Great is the last emperor of the mutaput dynasty. I read it on the Internet.
          1. moskowit
            moskowit 29 May 2016 19: 31
            0
            And his great-great-great-great-grandfather was Montezumma ...
          2. zoknyay82
            zoknyay82 23 September 2016 13: 18
            0
            Yeah, this is on that site, where about Ancient Ukrov dug up the Pacific Ocean?
        2. BSrazvedka
          BSrazvedka 28 May 2016 16: 11
          +1
          Quote: PKK
          At some time, several tens of billions of people lived in Siberia.

          Where does this information come from?
          1. PKK
            PKK 28 May 2016 19: 04
            -7
            Since official history is a Stopudian lie. Only two academic historians were at the Russian Academy of Russia, they were Russians, before the 19th century. Can three dozens of foreign students be trusted? No, of course. There are not so many modern versions. Siberians, Sidorov chief, swear that Star cities were tens of thousands and the population, respectively. For example, to check this version: humus of the soil, it is the burnt ashes of people of the previous civilization, the composition is similar. But the volumes are impressive. You won’t check it. But those who believe of the version are obvious liars. It remains only to believe in scientific research, modern scientists. And they argue that the movement was along the rivers, the pawns did not carry goods. And Peter1 therefore managed to reach the mouth of the Sev. Dvina, not more than that. The author is talented, but a lot of fantasies.
        3. your1970
          your1970 28 May 2016 17: 30
          +6
          Won ...

          Little people were apparently squeezed into Russia from the edges of Siberia by "tens of billions of people" ...
          In China, there is only a billion and a little, and in a territory comparable to Siberia, they are silly, they are talking about overpopulation ... In Siberia, you can see cities / towns / villages / factories smoothly flowing into each other and bordering ..
          And I also don’t understand why they needed water transport ?? They would have built a couple of billions (out of "several tens" of billions) in a straight line, smaller ingots and passed from hand to hand. The speed of metal movement to Europe was like on the railway today ..

          Celebrated holiday or something ???
        4. ALEA IACTA EST
          ALEA IACTA EST 28 May 2016 18: 52
          +3
          Historians hush up that in fact Tartaria (Troy) was located on the territory of modern Belarus and was destroyed in the third millennium BC by the Hebrew tribes. Fomenko with drinking companions associates confirm!
        5. 97110
          97110 28 May 2016 19: 39
          0
          Quote: PKK
          At some time

          Dear, you have a delay. Shutter shutter should help.
          1. PKK
            PKK 28 May 2016 21: 08
            -4
            Is it sarcasm or terry rudeness?
            1. your1970
              your1970 29 May 2016 11: 27
              +3
              this is a reaction to delirium, and either narcotic or hangover ...

              You think for a second, if there are billions of people, then where is the taiga from? In the disastrous Europe in the Middle Ages, with a pitiful few millions of forests, they almost wiped out zero, but here, as you write, billions + the climate, to put it mildly, not French, but the forests are for some reason! ! Where are the cemeteries ??? Where are the WAGONS of coins ??? Where is the written language with a frantic amount of sources ??? or were there no birch bark to write like in Novgorod ??? Where is the epic ??? Where are the architectural monuments, they should be spitting at a distance from each other ??? and they ate something there should have been solid fields ????
              I’m completely silent about the use of resources because of the war (4 of the year) Magnitnaya Mountain was brought to zero or didn’t these billions of iron know ??
              In principle, such an amount could also the topography (Urals for example) to hell trample into the steppe ...
              Think about the magic of very large numbers and you yourself will come to the same conclusion, because Nonsense ...
              repeat repeat repeat repeat
              1. PKK
                PKK 30 May 2016 16: 12
                -2
                There are no desire to answer obviously stupid questions. Trees are almost all younger than 200 years old. Forests are planted in rows. Humus is the remains of people. This is a question of where are the cemeteries. It’s enough to find full Russian armor in appearance. It’s stupid to ask for writing after Cyril Methodius with Petrom 1m. Sibiryak Sidorov, without it, the dispute is completely meaningless. It confirms countless number of star cities, along rivers, in particular, the Irtysh. The architecture is rampart, any megalithic, granite. Which you can’t do right now. What did you eat? Previously, the forests were fruit, can there was turf, edible. It is now very difficult to find either edible. Then and later there were no problems. You apparently suffer from a purely Traditional story. But here it is just fiction.
                1. your1970
                  your1970 2 June 2016 12: 47
                  +1
                  Is there enough coins ??? Well ...
                  Fruit forests ?? do you want to eat apples ??
                  How KIRIL-METHODUS and PETR1 influenced the writing of Novgorod ??? Three meters deep into Siberia dug up to destroy all writing ???

                  Banal counting - 1 000 000 000 (only one!!!) * 0,1 kg of food (blockade soldering) = 1 000 00 tons (BOLD LETTERS- HUNDRED THOUSAND TONS OF FOOD DAY !!!!)...
                  10 billion -1 million tons of food per day ... Yes, they should have eaten with soil - or rather, your humus (the origin of which has long been identified as vegetable in Siberia specifically), but even with such a situation, they would gobble up everything including edible turf in a week

                  To consider further is pointless, to convince you all the more ..
                  ZY I nevertheless hoped that it was the Day of the border guard (you never know .. happens) - but no ... The main thing is that the orderlies do not recognize ...
      3. 97110
        97110 28 May 2016 19: 35
        +1
        Quote: sherp2015
        the oligarchs-capitalists are dragging us to this with the tacit consent of the authorities

        In a real capitalist society, not spoiled by trade unions and other labor movements, everything happens not just with the tacit consent, but with the active assistance of the authorities. Well, there they send a military command, a Cossack hundred - to explain to the staff with whips - who are the owners here and who rub the ass with gratitude that they did not kill. Trade unions are not visible which are for workers and not for highly effective competition. The Cossacks are reborn, in some especially natural ones, and the whip hang in a prominent place. Hope for the flourishing of the 1913 type does not fade.
      4. Prometey
        Prometey 28 May 2016 21: 31
        +2
        Quote: sherp2015
        6 days a week, 12 hours a day for meals ...

        However, there is one point. In the Urals there was not a single large-scale speech of the mining population. The Pugachevsky riot took place much to the south, partially affecting the Southern Urals. But here is the paradox - during the Pugachev region the factory population was stubbornly silent, and the Ural factories regularly supplied the tsarist army with cannons and cannons. But logically, they had to rebel against the enslavers, begin sabotage of production and unite with the rebels. But there is nothing of the kind. Part of the answer lies in the actions of the Pugachevites themselves - these were bandits of pure water - ruined the factories and the people who worked for them.
        And the second - the position of the working people, for all the severity of labor in the Ural manufactories, was much better than the situation of the rural population. Workers, in addition to a constant source of income from work in production, had their own land allotment (homestead farming) and did not work out any corvee. Whatever exploiters would be the factory owners, and in the Urals until 1905 relative social stability remained.
        1. moskowit
          moskowit 29 May 2016 19: 38
          +1
          May be. Apparently people like Ivan Naumovich Beloborodov were an isolated case in Pugachev’s army. Although it is unlikely ...

          "... Ivan Naumovich Beloborodov (1741 - September 5, 1774) - a participant in the Peasant War of 1773-1775, one of Yemelyan Pugachev's associates, promoted to general-field marshal by him.

          By origin - a peasant, assigned to the state-owned smelter in the village of Medyanka, Kungursky district. From 1759 to 1766, he served in the artillery unit in the city of Vyborg for a year, and then - at the Okhten powder factory, received the rank of corporal. Having retired, he settled in Kungursky district, the village of Bogorodsky.

          In January 1774, he joined Pugachev's army at the head of a detachment of his fellow villagers, received the rank of colonel, and in mid-January began the siege of Yekaterinburg, choosing the Shaitansky plant as the main base. After an unsuccessful siege, Beloborodov's detachment was defeated by troops under the command of Major Gagrin, retreating, suffered further defeats at the Utkinsky plant, at the Bagaryak settlement, near the Kamensky and Kaslinsky plants. Taking advantage of the spring thaw, Beloborodov's detachment was able to break away from the pursuit and occupied the Satka plant for rest ... "(from Wikipedia)
          1. sibiryak10
            sibiryak10 30 May 2016 13: 22
            +1
            Beloborodov’s detachment consisted mainly of serfs, and factories defended self-defense detachments, in which there were mainly workers. So what happened in the Urals is such a worker-peasant war.
      5. atalef
        atalef 29 May 2016 15: 03
        0
        Quote: sherp2015
        6 days a week, 12 hours a day for meals ...
        the oligarchs-capitalists are dragging us to this with the tacit consent of the authorities

        straight 6 days?
      6. DimerVladimer
        DimerVladimer 30 May 2016 13: 19
        0
        Quote: sherp2015
        6 days a week, 12 hours a day for meals ...
        the oligarchs-capitalists are dragging us to this with the tacit consent of the authorities


        The authorities also strive to become oligarchs, and many have long become.
    2. Homo
      Homo 28 May 2016 19: 02
      +4
      Quote: Spartanez300
      Of course, the Demidovs made a huge contribution to the foundation of Russian industry, but for them human life was not worth the work.

      But democracy flourished in Western factories, did unions and ombudsmen work? wink
  2. Wanda
    Wanda 28 May 2016 06: 30
    +4
    The first industrialization of a fire. By any means.
    1. atalef
      atalef 29 May 2016 15: 05
      0
      Quote: Wanda
      The first industrialization of a fire. By any means.

      The second by the way - too.
  3. 34 region
    34 region 28 May 2016 06: 37
    +8
    Poverty is terrifying. And someone else talks about the prosperous life of Russians under the tsar.
  4. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 28 May 2016 07: 31
    +12
    Workers at Demidov factories and mines were considered private property, and their free labor was a complete analogue of peasant corvee, the only difference being that corvee due to the specifics of agriculture was seasonal, and work in factories and mines was year-round, according to 12-14 hours a day , six days a week, without holidays.
    Interestingly, what is the difference from slavery in general? Why, take the same commemorative American black slaves - they lived well, at least not worse, and often in the best climate ...

    And they were strangers, bought, - and here are yours! and keep in that position!

    Once again, let's say "thanks" to Peter the Great for his final enslavement of the Russian people.
    1. 97110
      97110 28 May 2016 19: 45
      +2
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
      And they were strangers, bought, - and here are yours! and keep in that position!

      In a different position, they would have owners who acquired them by force of arms. Demidov bought them, that is, he is a bona fide acquirer. And even a scorched democrat cannot say anything against. Well, if only Maxim personally - the British colonialists beat his grandfather with a club with an undemocratic blow.
    2. PKK
      PKK 29 May 2016 06: 58
      +4
      What is slavery on the example of America. During slavery they fed all children and patients. When slavery was abolished, they expelled everyone, and only healthy workers were taken back.
  5. Basil50
    Basil50 28 May 2016 08: 28
    +10
    Today all sorts of * democrats * cannot forgive the fact that their ancestors, so smart and educated during the Civil War, were mercilessly shot and expelled from RUSSIA. They have already forgiven themselves and their ancestors both the slave trade and much more. Today, the demand for justice is brought to the point of absurdity, so you need to demand from the church and descendants of the nobles and other * tiligents * payment of moral compensation, for the ancestors of which * the oppressors oppressed *. Maybe at least it turns out to bring them into the bounds of decency?
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 28 May 2016 09: 14
      +4
      Quote: Vasily50
      so it is necessary to demand from the church and the descendants of the nobles and other * tiligents * payment of moral compensation, for the ancestors of which * the oppressors oppressed *.

      Well, comrade, you yourself are clearly among those "classically correct"! Only you, apparently, are not very aware that it was precisely the national-minded part of the nobility and the intelligentsia that fought against the enslavement of the peasantry. And the most villainous oppressors were just the "oligarchs" who came from the lower classes, from the peasants, the same Demidovs and many others.

      And here are the problems - firstly about the Church - and if the Russian Orthodox Church will demand compensation from Russia as the successor state of the USSR for the horrors of anti-religious terror, how is it?

      And the fact that
      Quote: Vasily50
      such clever and educated during the Civil War were mercilessly shot and expelled from RUSSIA.
      until now Russia has been audible and audible, because the extermination of the leading creative layer, intelligent and educated people, led to the degradation of creativity.

      Quote: Vasily50
      They have already forgiven themselves and their ancestors both the slave trade and much more.
      To begin with, dear, sort out the history - including, it may be, understood that the nobility was very different, and the majority were just small-sized or generally homeless, i.e. owned or several persons, or none at all - and simply served for a salary, i.e. was a direct analogue of the officers.

      You apparently are not at all familiar with Kampuchea and Paul Then (by the way, educated at the Sorbonne and brought up by European communists)? so there, up to half of the population was completely destroyed, only poor peasants were left - and still Cambodia CANNOT overcome the problem of destroying the elite of the nation.
      1. alicante11
        alicante11 28 May 2016 12: 32
        +5
        Only you, apparently, are not very aware that the nationally-thinking part of the nobility and intelligentsia was the first to fight against the enslavement of the peasantry.


        Yeah, along the way this "part" was very small, since her struggle was so unsuccessful. It would be strange to assume that one of the owners massively renounced their property or the means of production. But the serfs were both at the same time.
        In general, talking about Demidov's exceptional bloodthirstiness is rather strange. The 12-hour workday without vacations was typical for industrial enterprises in the 19th century and in the early 20th century. The only difference was that the worker at the Demidov factories was not allowed to quit. Whereas before the "free" workers of capitalist enterprises, the road was always open beyond the factory gates to death by starvation. So I don’t see a serious difference between serfdom and capitalist production.
        1. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 29 May 2016 14: 49
          -1
          Quote: alicante11
          The only difference was that the worker at the Demidov factories was not allowed to quit. Whereas before the "free" workers of capitalist enterprises, the road was always open beyond the factory gates to death by starvation.

          As they say, rzhu-nimagu. Another proponent of slavery?
          1. atalef
            atalef 29 May 2016 15: 16
            -1
            Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
            Quote: alicante11
            The only difference was that the worker at the Demidov factories was not allowed to quit. Whereas before the "free" workers of capitalist enterprises, the road was always open beyond the factory gates to death by starvation.

            As they say, rzhu-nimagu. Another proponent of slavery?

            Well, Alik’s serfdom is not slavery. and the voluntary presence of the peasants in the good priest master.
        2. atalef
          atalef 29 May 2016 15: 14
          0
          Quote: alicante11
          In general, talking about the exceptional bloodthirstiness of Demidov is rather strange. A 12-hour working day without holidays was characteristic of industrial enterprises both in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th

          On June 15, 1883, the Reichstag enacted the Workers' Health Insurance Act (German: Gesetz betreffend die Krankenversicherung der Arbeiter). From now on, all workers with an annual income of 2.000 Reichsmarks (hereinafter RM, abbreviated from it. "Reichsmark"), and at the same time almost all persons dependent on wages, have mandatory membership in health insurance
          On June 22, 1889, the Reichstag adopted the Law on Disability and Age Insurance (German: Gesetz betreffend die Invaliditäts- und Altersversicherung). As the third largest pillar of Bismarck social law, this law regulates the provision of assistance to workers in the event of disability and reaching a certain age. Compulsory insurance applies to all workers over the age of 16 and employees with an annual income of 2.000 RM. In case of disability (at least two-thirds reduction in working capacity), a third of the average wage is paid to the employee.

          Old-age pension is regarded as a “guaranteed gift for a means of living”

          As a result of a stubborn struggle, the workers by the end of the 9th century. achieved some improvement in their situation, expansion of political rights. In a number of countries, factory legislation was adopted that regulated working conditions and wages. They introduced unemployment benefits and injuries in the workplace, illness, old-age pensions. The working day in developed countries was reduced to 1871 hours; weekend was introduced. International congresses on labor legislation began to be convened. Trade unions forced the ruling classes to fully legalize their activities. The second and third electoral reforms in England made it possible for the workers to take part in parliamentary elections. The German Constitution of 1875 granted suffrage to all males over the age of twenty-five. In France, under the constitution of 21, men who have reached the age of XNUMX received the right to vote.
          http://www.zavtrasessiya.com/index.pl?act=PRODUCT&id=2385
          1. ism_ek
            ism_ek 30 May 2016 12: 06
            0
            Workers' insurance was also developed in Russia. "Soviets" - the driving force of the revolution, were nothing more than the workers' insurance funds.
      2. PKK
        PKK 28 May 2016 14: 23
        0
        It’s not too late to ask the Russian Orthodox Church for the degradation of the Russian people. This is not a joke to you.
      3. 97110
        97110 28 May 2016 19: 47
        +2
        Quote: Mikhail Matyugin
        led to the degradation of creativity.

        accompanied by a flight into space, which with full creative potential would not have happened.
        1. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 29 May 2016 14: 54
          -2
          Quote: 97110
          accompanied by a flight into space, which with full creative potential would not have happened.

          Really? You are my friend, obviously from convinced communists and who hate everything traditionally Russian, if you think so.

          Read for example who invented the helicopter in the USA? and who invented color television in the US? the same forced migrants from Russia! And do you really think that even if warped by the Civil War and two world wars and the famine of the USSR went into space, then the Russian Empire, following the path of Stolypin, could not do this?
    2. Basil50
      Basil50 28 May 2016 12: 33
      +7
      Matyugin.
      An interesting conclusion can be made, nobles with aspirations and simply magnanimous by definition already have rights, and only rights. Neither the nobles nor the church bear any responsibility. Joint liability is imposed only on the PEOPLE for daring to refuse to feed the parasites. No rights are provided for PEOPLE.
      Those of the nobles who considered themselves a RUSSIAN MAN built the SOVIET UNION and the RED ARMY.
      And yet, the church must pay all years of slavery.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 29 May 2016 14: 47
        -3
        Quote: Vasily50
        the church is obliged to pay all years of slavery.

        Offer this your idea to our President Vladimir Putin. He is now on Mount Athos, worships holy relics and solves the issue of helping the Russian Holy Panteleimon Monastery.

        He will clearly appreciate your joke. But there will be nothing for you.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. DimerVladimer
      DimerVladimer 30 May 2016 14: 03
      +2
      Quote: Vasily50
      Today all sorts of * democrats * cannot forgive the fact that their ancestors, so smart and educated during the Civil War, were mercilessly shot and expelled from RUSSIA


      ... and the brilliant engineers and designers who made a career in the United States in addition to the well-known Sikorsky II:
      Prokofiev-Seversky A.N. ("Seversky Aircraft Corp."), was a recognized authority on military strategy affairs, and held the position of military affairs consultant to the US government.
      In the future, the company Ripablik, Seversky invited
      Alexandra Kartveli, who designed the P-47 Thunderbolt, F-84 Thunderjet, F-105 Thunderchief, A-10 aircraft.

      Zakharchenko K. L. chief designer of McDonnell Aircraft Corporation Under his supervision, a twin-engine McDonnell XHJD-1946 “Whirlaway” helicopter was built in 1
      Janis Ackerman chief designer at the aviation company "Mohawk"
      Evgeniy Mikhailovich Glukharev (jet engines)
      Zvorykin Vladimir Kozmich (television)

      Due to the revolution, Russia has lost a lot of engineering personnel, military personnel and simply talented people.
      On the other hand, the road opened to many who did not shine to never get an education under the previous system.
      Why do so many talented people leave for the USA now? - The United States provides unlimited opportunities in the implementation of ideas, in creativity, in science.
      Often those who left Russia did not feel necessary.
      Personnel must be protected!
  6. Lebedev Sergey
    Lebedev Sergey 28 May 2016 09: 28
    +6
    By the way. In addition to the workers assigned to the factory, even at that time the labor of hired workers was actively used in the Urals.
  7. Geser
    Geser 28 May 2016 16: 38
    +1
    The work of the Demidov serf workers was heavy and burdensome, just as the labor of the serf man was not considered a man either. And no one thanked the Demidov workers for the contribution they made to the modernization of the Peter's army and navy, thanks to which the army of Peter won the Northern War with Sweden and gained access to the Baltic. Actually, serfdom should have been canceled even by Catherine, because then the tasks that the empire had been fulfilling since the 16th century were fulfilled: Russia gained access to the Baltic and Black Seas, which provided an opportunity for economic growth and trade. The raids of the Crimean Tatars ceased. And the people expected that Mother Queen would abolish serfdom and give free rein. But in fact? Catherine supported the decree of her husband Peter the Third, according to which nobles were allowed not to serve for life and, in general, different liberties and privileges were allowed. All this served as the reason for the Pugachev uprising. After the uprising was crushed, Catherine issued a decree forbidding the burden of workers and bonded people more than they should, and the essence remained the same - hard bonded labor, free of charge.
    1. PKK
      PKK 29 May 2016 06: 53
      0
      Tartaria was on the maps of the General Staff of the Red Army, but you do not have it. So you are smarter than the headquarters of the Red Army?
    2. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 29 May 2016 14: 57
      0
      Quote: Geser
      And no one thanked the Demidov workers for the contribution they made to the modernization of the Peter's army and navy, thanks to which the army of Peter won the Northern War with Sweden and gained access to the Baltic. Actually, serfdom should have been abolished by Catherine,

      The most bitter thing is that the same Sweden did well without "serf industrialization", using a normal capitalist economy, and was able to resist the alliance of Russia, Denmark, Norway, Poland and Saxony for 20 years, relying only on Finland.
      1. Geser
        Geser 29 May 2016 17: 22
        +1
        Well, what do you compare - Sweden had access to the sea and through it trade and communication with the whole of Europe, which made it possible to do without enslavement, despite the fact that the Swedish climate is not much better than ours.
        1. Mikhail Matyugin
          Mikhail Matyugin 29 May 2016 23: 51
          0
          Quote: Geser
          Well, what do you compare - Sweden had access to the sea and through it trade and communication with the whole of Europe, which made it possible to do without enslavement, despite the fact that the Swedish climate is not much better than ours.

          Do you really believe that Russia in the 2 half of the XVII century was without access to the sea? it is strange what then did people in cities such as Arkhangelsk and Astrakhan?

          In addition, if we compare the economic and human resources of one Russia (not counting other countries of the anti-Swedish alliance in the Great Northern War), then with a skillful approach and reasonable foundations, one could completely defeat Sweden without cardinal "reforms".

          But - “quantitative” thinking turned on, this is our eternal misfortune, and the ruling classes (not only the nobility, but also the “oligarchs” who came from the lower classes) decided to enslave the Russian people in the full sense of the word - and they succeeded.

          You may not believe it, but the foreigners invited (mainly by Peter I) (based on the European approach to personal rights, nevertheless) treated Russian workers better than their own Russian managers.

          And the war turned out to be nothing more than a convenient pretext (as well as the Livonian one for Ivan IV, who, having made the pretext of Russia's military failures, laid the foundation for serfdom).
  8. creep: b
    creep: b 28 May 2016 17: 17
    +4
    At 6 o'clock in the morning, with the sound of the bells ringing, the workers went to work. At 11 o'clock a break began, which lasted 2 hours in the summer and 1 hour in the winter, since we did not go home to have dinner in winter. Then the work continued until 8:7 in the summer and up to 2:XNUMX in the winter. In the summer there was a two-week vacation during the mowing season, and they were also freed from factory work on Sundays and church holidays. In industries where it was impossible to stop, work continued for "pay plus". http: //saldinskaya-history.rf/XNUMX.nizhnesaldinskiy-zavod-i-zavodskoy-posyolok-pervy
    e-100-let / 2-7-usloviya-truda-rabochikh-na-zavode
  9. akula
    akula 28 May 2016 23: 25
    +2
    Quote: PKK
    . It remains to believe only scientific research, modern scientists.

    The scientific research of modern scholars will publicize the opinion of those who pay them. This somehow does not inspire confidence. In general, you are utter nonsense, from your words it is not surprising that the ancient Ukrainians dug up the Black Sea. Soviet historians at least with logic and analysis everything was in order, maybe something was embellished, but not much. And the modern ones tell us that we are all descendants of the mutaputu.
  10. datura23
    datura23 29 May 2016 06: 15
    0
    but now the people have been "uncoiled" by dancing with joy, you do not feel the difference between a slave and a serf at all, the citizens are uncooked?
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 31 May 2016 12: 20
      0
      Quote: datura23
      you don’t feel the difference between a slave and a serf, are the citizens unbridled?

      The answer is simple - for the situation of the whole XVIII - beginning of the XIX centuries there is NO DIFFERENCE between the serf and the slave! They sold both wholesale and retail, according to newspaper advertisements, dividing families without problems.

      Do you know how you got married? what kind of love was there - a litter was needed - therefore, single men of both sexes were lined up in two lines - and whoever turned out opposite the other - they were married and they consecrated such marriages in the church. I needed a litter for work, exactly like the slaves in the same Brazil and Florida.

      This is not a lie and nonsense, it is a terrifying reality and the abomination of our history.
  11. Heimdall47
    Heimdall47 29 May 2016 22: 54
    0
    and work in factories and mines - year-round, 12-14 hours a day, six days a week, without holidays.

    Yes, this is crap. You will read the fundamental works of Mamin-Sibiryak, which are devoted to life in the Ural factories. Workers also had vacations - in the summer, during the time of haymaking, for example, they were allowed to go home. And the issuance of cash and bread regular.
    So, of course, life was hard - lawlessness, a decline in morals in the proletarian environment (as usual) and so on. But by no means "not 6 days a week for 14 hours without vacations." This is the author of horror caught up.
  12. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 29 May 2016 23: 57
    0
    Quote: Heimdall47
    Workers also had vacations - in the summer, during the time of haymaking, for example, they were allowed to go home.

    There were "mining workers", i.e. in general, free and at least hired for at least some money (although they were often sent to factories by forced mobilization). They had more rights and work days off.

    And there were "factory serfs" - in fact, slaves who worked simply because they had to and their owners had the instrument of coercion to do so. They worked just for a pittance, often just for food and for the given material content. The only weekend they have a year is 20 great Orthodox holidays, well, and if the owner "from the bounty of his" will allow something. Their position was not much different from that of the exiled convicts.

    As you can see, these are two big differences.
    1. Heimdall47
      Heimdall47 30 May 2016 08: 40
      +2
      There were "mining workers", i.e. in general, free and at least hired for at least some money (although they were often sent to factories by forced mobilization). They had more rights and work days off.

      I meant serfs.
      There is a wonderful book by Mamin-Sibiryak, Three Ends. You read before you paint. It tells about the life of the peasants attached to the Ural plant. One end - driven Ukrainian peasants, the other - Great Russians, the third - Old Believers. All these people are serfs.
      So - they were sent home for haymaking in the summer. As for the remaining planned agricultural work, I suspect that too.
  13. Mikhail Matyugin
    Mikhail Matyugin 30 May 2016 10: 50
    +1
    Quote: Heimdall47
    One end - Imported Ukrainian peasants

    Yes, the article is not about this, but about the fact that, in general, Europe somehow managed to do at the same time without peasants "driven" to mines and factories. And in the overseas colonies - this is how they generally treated bought slaves from other lands. And only in a few countries - and to my bitter regret and in our Russia - their own people were turned into essentially slaves for 150 years.

    The Russian peasant was a free person, had many rights in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries, but thanks to the policy of the ruling clan of the Romanovs and various "oligarchs" in the late XNUMXth-mid-XNUMXth centuries. was turned into slaves.

    The fact that Peter I even managed to make the nobility "the sovereign's slaves" does not change the situation, and this was only for a "short" time - legally until the middle of the XNUMXth century, but in fact it stopped almost immediately with the death of Peter the Great.
    1. Heimdall47
      Heimdall47 30 May 2016 13: 59
      +3
      Quote: Mikhail Matyugin

      And only in a few countries - and to my bitter regret and in our Russia - have their own people been turned into essentially slaves for 150 years.

      I agree with you. But each state had its own characteristics of development, it was good nowhere. To say that it was the worst in Russia is an exaggeration. The life of the proletariat in England, an advanced industrial state, was a living hell without any slavery. It is enough to read the corresponding classics of the 19-20 centuries. A bunch of people who fled from "prosperous" Europe to the colonies did not do it because of the good life.
  14. Faust
    Faust 1 June 2016 23: 03
    +1
    The article is small, much of it is not true. This is even if we take literature, not flattery in history. Debt and corvee is something like a tax, but it worked for a fee. They paid at the state rate established by decree of 1724: in the summer, a peasant with a horse of 10 cents, and without a horse of 5 cents, and in winter with a horse of 6 cents and 4 cents per day without a horse. If you wish in the internet you can dig for other years.

    Taxes are such a thing - there are always a lot of them. And now, taxes haven’t been especially reduced. It's just that they are often indirect.
  15. kalibr
    kalibr 11 November 2016 07: 54
    0
    Interestingly, only the material was written by a person completely unfamiliar with the realities of that life.
    "work in factories and mines - all year round, 12-14 hours a day, six days a week, without vacations."
    No one worked on church holidays. It was not just a sin, but a guilty sin! In 1682 in the courtyard of one of the boyars, courtyards worked on a holiday. It is clear that the boyar was reported and was sent to prison, and then sent to the monastery to repentance. They worked 12-14 hours a day, because otherwise ... there would be no time to work. Of course, where there was a continuous cycle, people worked. But, it was a sin that was specially forgiven, for which the owner sacrificed money to God and repented, confessing in confession. And the priest asked: "Did he compel him to work for himself on the feast of God!", "Sinful." And then the penance was painted - how many days of dryness, forty cursed bows, etc. Of course, modern man would cheat. But then people believed sincerely. In addition, it was possible to question relatives and check with cross confession. The Church has always been very jealous of the observance of its holidays and its power over people, which is why it was so strong!